Why Must the nurse monitor the patientās fluid intake and output closely during oxytocin administration? Because cervical effacement and dilation are not progressing in a patient in labor, Dr. Smith orders I.V. administration of oxytocin (Pitocin). Ā
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Literature Professor, Diploma in Classic Literature, Denver, Colorado
Answered on Nov 01, 2019
The correct answer to the question is that oxytocin causes water intoxication. Oxytocin is a hormone that mainly causes contraction of the uterus muscles during childbirth and causes the flow of milk in the breast during lactation. Oxytocin can cause water retention in the body. This is because it is structurally similar to Anti diuretic hormone (ADH) also called vasopressin.
Both oxytocin and ADH are released from the posterior part pituitary gland into the blood. ADH works to regulate the amount of water in the blood. Prolong infusion of oxytocin present as water retention in the body which causes hyponatremia, headache, nausea and muscle cramps. The treatment to this is to stop infusion as restrict fluid intake.
The nurse should monitor fluid intake and output because prolonged oxytoxin infusion may cause severe water intoxication, leading to seizures, coma, and death. Excessive thirst results form the work of labor and limited oral fluid intakenot oxytoxin. Oxytoxin has no nephrotoxic or diuretic effects. In fact, it produces an antidiuretic effect.