A, B and C are all part of critical thinking. Critical thinking does involve higher level thinking skills, but thats not what defines critical thinking. Finding faults and weaknesses might be done by someone thinking critically. Logically analyzing arguments in a critical way is begging the question of what exactly is critical thinking. The best answer is that critical thinking is first and foremost disciplined thinking.
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The answers to this question are letters A B & C. Critical thinking is a way of identifying all arguments related to the problem and finding ways to solve it systematically. It is not necessarily that a person who has a good memory is also a good critical thinker as this skill needs to be developed over time and be practiced.
As some do not need to get much information on a certain idea or problem as long as the person how to make use of all those information to come up with a solution. This should also not be confused with being argumentative as this is often related in exposing inconsistencies and fallacies of a person but to improve social interactions.