Chromosomal disorders are medical conditions that occur due to abnormality in a person’s chromosomes. Chromosomes are a linear arrangement of condensed DNA structures that are associated with proteins that contain the genetic material of an organism. Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs, 1 pair from each parent). Some chromosomal disorders are inherited, while others cannot be transferred to offspring. Some occur due to an error during the production of reproductive cells.
Chromosomal disorders can be structural or numerical. Structural disorders occur when there is damage or breakage to a chromosome. It could be chromosomal deletion, addition, duplication, inversion, or translocation. Numerical chromosomal disorders occur when there is more or less than 46 chromosomes. Examples of chromosomal disorders include Down syndrome, Patau syndrome, Edward Syndrome, Turner syndrome, cri-du-chat syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and many more.
Chromosomal discorders are serious abnormalities of development, a change in the genetic material. Such a discorder occurs when there is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA. Sometimes a karyotype seen under a microscope may show an abnormality that is harmless.
Otherwise, a chromosomal disorder is indicated. This may lead to spontaneous abortion, and often does. The problem can be of the chromosome structure, or in one particular chromosome. Down syndrome and Turner syndrome are examples of chromosomal disorders.
Chromosomal disorders are those where something unusual has happened to the chromosomes such as an extra, as in Down Syndrome where and extra chromosome 21 is present and the distinctive features follow in the birth of such a child. By contrast, Turner's Syndrome is where there is a chromosome missing. There is only one X chromosome instead of two. Chromosomal disorders result from a change in genetic material.
There is usually a problem with the cell division. So far, there is little that can be done about this. It is possible that changes occur to the woman's eggs as she ages, which is why older women are considered at greater risk of producing a child with such disorder affecting their development. However, the norm at present is for women to have their children later and most happily produce perfect children.