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Renal Questions and Answers (Q&A)

The correct answer to this question is B. This patient seems to be deprived of water. Plasma osmolality determines the hydration status of the blood. A normal range for plasma osmolality in adults is between 285 and 295 mOs/kg.

A plasma osmolality of 300 mOsm/L is on the high side. Urine osmolality determines the number of dissolved particles of water in urine. A normal range for urine molality in adults would be between 300 and 900 mOsm/kg. A urine molality of 1200 mOsm/L is also on the high side. Both of these being high would indicate that the patient has water deprivation.

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If a person is having trouble with his or her kidneys, they may need a renal biopsy. Also, a kidney transplant, having kidney disease or any other symptom or sign that there is a problem with someone’s kidneys, then a renal biopsy may need to be done. It may be scheduled and recommended by the doctor or nurse. If a renal biopsy is done, the nurse will take a small sample of the kidney tissue in order to analyze it in the lab.

They will look for problems or diseases that may be plaguing the kidneys. This will allow the nurse to know what is wrong with the patient’s kidneys. In most cases, the patient will be resting and lying on their back for several hours. They will not be moving.

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Hypoalbuminemia is when the serum concentration of the protein albumin is low. It can be due to multiple reasons. However, the most common reason is due to the fusion of the foot processes in the kidneys. This causes the proteins to fall through the kidney into the urine.

The loss of enormous amounts of proteins in the urine causes the concentration of the protein in the serum to decrease; slowly the effects of hypoalbuminemia come into place. If untreated, the patient may have pleural edema and die due to lack of oxygen. However, if adequate albumin is replenished, such a problem can be avoided.

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I would think proteins in the capillaries would go against filtration as it would pull fluid into the capillaries.

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The correct answer to this question is B. This patient seems to have a decreased ionized [Ca 2+] in their blood. A normal arterial blood pH is between 7.38 and 7.42, so an arterial blood pH of 7.52 is alkaline.

A normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide is between 38 and 42 mmHg, so a partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 20 mm Hg is considered low.

A normal bicarbonate level is between 22 and 28 mEq/L, so a bicarbonate level of 16 mEq/L is also considered low. These measurements are consistent with respiratory alkalosis which is a result of hyperventilating.

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The nurse would want to avoid ambulating the patient in the room and the hallway for short distances. The correct answer is D. This is because, for those of you not in the medical profession, a renal biopsy is a kidney biopsy.

That’s gonna hurt, and it’s in an area near the legs. This is going to make it harder to walk without pain, and the kidney is probably going to send pain signals to the brain every time the patient tries to walk.

The best thing for the nurse to do is give this patient some pain medications as needed, encourage fluids since the kidney is a filtration organ (and then some), as well as testing samples for occult blood (or blood in the feces).

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As far as I know reabsorption of water only occurs in PCT DCT & collecting ducts. Can someone please help me out?

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