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Psychology Questions and Answers (Q&A)

Stimulant drugs are commonly referred to by drug-takers as 'uppers'. They increase alertness and energy. The main drugs in this group are cocaine and amphetamine. The brand names include Ritalin, Concerta, Biphetamine, Dexadrine. If prescribed by a doctor they will be in capsule or tablet form. If distributed illegally by dealers, they will be in liquid form to be injected, or crushed into powder to be snorted.

After the wanted effects have worn off, there is the corollary: the 'down' that follows. This is a feeling of exhaustion, depression and a desire to have something to give enough energy to recontinue life normally. That leads to a feeling that the user 'must' have another dose in order to cope. Thus an addiction is set up. Best never to start that downward journey!

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Ivan Pavlov is famous for his work on conditioning. He showed that we can have automatic, that is unplanned and unwitting responses to a stimulus. He used dogs to show that they would slaver when food was present, and that he could organize this response without bringing food if he paired the original presentation with another, in this case, a bell.

When the bell was subsequently rung, the slavering occurred despite there being no sign of food. This was called the conditioned response whereas the original was the unconditioned response. We refer to this as Classical Conditioning.

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There are advocates for both these widely used personality scales and you would have to quote the actual reasons why this writer prefers the CPI's validity for me to answer this directly. That is, I do not know on what level or in which respect this person found the CPI had greater validity. Bear in mind that the two tests are not conceptually the same, nor were they created for the same purposes.

The MMPI was concerned with pathology, the CPI with normal behaviour. The CPI is simpler in some respects, and its scales correspond to the main 5 personality factors. It has been found to predict fairly well later performance on the basis of test scores relating to potentiality for a given trait. For instance, creative or persistence potentialities corresponding with later creative output or persistence in work tasks.

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This is a personal question and the answer will differ for everyone individual you ask it of, therefore it is not like an examination question but something you would only ask of a friend, family member or close associate, otherwise it would be regarded as highly impolite.

There are general questions you can ask, such as an opinion about a book, building or foodstuff, but the question you are asking is intimate, or suggests that you are being intimate, and therefore could be offensive. So be careful!

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Functional fixedness is when an individual can only see an object one way, the way they are used to using it. It is the opposite of creativeness. The concept originated in Gestalt psychology, which emphasized seeing things wholistically.

If someone can only see an object as in a use they, and others, are traditionally used to (such as a table solely for putting things on and sitting up to) then they ar blocking out consciousness of any alternatives. This makes such individuals very poor problem-solvers. They would be lacking in adaptability and so of limited usefulness in the workplace where they could only carry out their set tasks in their set way.

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There are several kinds of validity: face validity - does an item seem to test what it is testing. Construct validity - does the construct match the specific measurement. Quite simply, content validity when applied to a test is whether an item measures the content domain, such as a behaviour, for which it is intended.

If we are examining driver alertness, the item is not looking at other skills, but specifically at the degree of alertness. If a test item asks the examinees to describe psycho-analysis, it is not testing knowledge of cognitive psychology: its content validity is low or nil.

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Deci and Ryan's theory deals with intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The first is where an individual wishes to carry out an action for whatever reason; the second is where the invidual is offered or believes in some tangible reward, or is brought to fear some punishing outcome if he does not perform. This is an aspect of self-determinism theory, an aspect that many regard as common-sense and therefore not worthy of statistical analysis of any results.

Self-determinism itself is important to the study of how individuals can succeed, whether in study or management or any other defined human activity. It has some relevance to relationship, health and well-being also. However, the bulk of the research has an underlying theme of 'how can people be encouraged to work more effectively.'

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Ivan Pavlov is best known for letter D. He is the one who came up with classical conditioning. If you are not familiar with this, this is the process wherein people who grow up in similar environments may be conditioned to have some similarities. Usually, there is a stimulus that will produce a reaction that will be similar among those who have experienced the same things.

He did experimentation with dogs wherein a bell would be associated with food. This will cause dogs to salivate. This can also be applied to how people may react to certain situations. For example, there are people who may start reacting in fear when they hear a loud sound because they have associated the sound with something bad.

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Psychology is known to be the study of the human mind. This tackles the various things that the mind may think about and what the mind can do to people’s behavior. Cognitive science deals more not only with psychology but also neuroscience. This means that cognitive science is a little bit more widespread. Psychology is focused on only one aspect.

Cognitive science deals more with the scientific study of the human mind, which means that the different parts of the brain and their function is discussed. Psychology deals with people’s overall mental health and the various conditions and mental illnesses that people may have.

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The medical relationship between nurses and client contrasts from both a social and a private relationship in that the nurse augments his or her relational abilities, understanding of human practices, and individual qualities to improve the client's development. The focal point of the relationship is on the client's thoughts, encounters, and emotions. Characteristic in a restorative (helping) relationship is the nurse's emphasis on critical individual issues presented by the client amid the clinical meeting.

The nurse and the client recognize regions that need investigation and occasionally assess the level of progress in the client. Despite the fact that the nurse may expect an assortment of parts. However, Introducing new issues to the client may lead to client confusion during the termination phase of a nurse-client relationship?

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