If a patient has just been told that they have been diagnosed with breast cancer, a plan must be put together for the patient so that she knows what to do. It is important that the breast cancer patient follows these steps in order to recover and be treated. This could include taking medications, eating a certain diet, types of exercises to do and other activities.
Some of the information that should be included in the nurse’s plan to the cancer patient include information about Tamoxifen. This medication should be taken orally and the breast cancer patient is expected to take this drug for the next five years. However, there are some side effects which the patient should be aware of and these could include vision problems and hot flashes.
A trough level in medicine refers to the smallest amount of drug given to a patient and the first level is reached for treatment before another dose of the medication is given. The reason it is called a trough drug level is because it looks like the trough when it is drawn on a graph.
The opposite of this is called the peak level where the most treatment is delivered by the same dose. There are certain things that the nurse needs to be doing because she needs to make sure that the drug is doing what it should be doing.
When a nurse obtains a blood sample to measure the trough drug level, the nurse should monitor the drug therapy immediately before administering the next dose.
When the nurse sees this, it is best that this will be clarified with the physician first. This will help reduce the risk of giving the wrong dosage to the patient. This means that the answer to this question is letter C. Meperidine is a drug that is known as a painkiller. It can help numb moderate to severe pain so that the patient will start feeling comfortable again.
This is a type of drug that changes the way that the brain thinks about pain even for a short period of time. For this reason, some patients, especially those who are in chronic pain, can find this addictive.
Besides being helpful and time consuming that two or more drugs are given at one time, it may also be more beneficial and medically better to give a dose of medication that contains multiple drugs. This is known as synergism in the health care world. However, the nurse should be careful because some drugs that are taken together could be harmful to the patient.
It seems that according to synergism that the total effect of the drugs combined and taken together is more beneficial than taking each drug separately. That is why they have multi-dose vials created. This allows a pharmacist to put these drugs together and place them in the same bottle for the patient. Then the patient can take the drugs at the same time.
The answers to this question are all of the above except for the answer C, hyperactive bowel sounds. A patient may experience hypoactive bowel sounds rather than hyperactive bowel sounds if he/she is experiencing an adverse reaction to a loop diuretic.
There are several signs and symptoms that a nurse might observe in a patient who is having adverse reactions to a loop diuretic which include muscle weakness, irregular pulse, decreased muscle tone, ventricular arrhythmias, and a potassium level of 3.1 mEq/L or lower. Beyond these effects, a loop diuretic also has the potential to cause ototoxicity and hearing loss.
If a child needs a shot, there are different sizes of needles to use. Many children would opt for the smallest needle because they think it would hurt the least. However, the children don’t get to pick the size of the needle. Instead, the nurse must make the decision as to what size the needle should be based on the age of the child and the medicine that the child needs.
The length of the needle depends on the size and age of the child. A shorter needle would be good for a 3-year old child as opposed to a bigger needle for a 9-year old child. So, a 22G,1’ would be appropriate for a child who is almost ten years old.
A suppository is a procedure that take one dose of medicine and it is injected into either the rectum, urethra, or vagina. The medicine then will liquify in its place. Many suppositories that are used in the rectum are shaped like a torpedo because after many studies this shape seems to be the easiest to insert. The urethral suppository is not used as often due to other ways or providing medication especially when it is used for erectile dysfunction.
Now, oral medication is used for that reason. However, if a client needs a glycerin suppository and a nurse is about to administer it, she may want to use a lubricant because it will make it easier and smoother to put the suppository into the patient.
Often when a shot is given to a child, it is expected for the child to start crying immediately. They know what to expect. They may even start crying before the shot is even taken out of the syringe. This is because the nurse will disinfect the site for the shot with rubbing alcohol.
The child starts to worry because they know what is coming next. However, the nurse needs to wait at least sixty seconds for the alcohol to dry before administering the shot.
The same can be said as true in a hospital no matter who is getting the shot and what shot or injection is being given. The alcohol should always be dried first but it is good that it doesn’t take long for the rubbing alcohol to dry.
Option A - the spacer traps medicine from the inhaler then breaks up and slow down the medication particles so you get more medication.
Spacers are large empty devices, it helps you get the best from your asthma medication. Spacer connects to the mouthpiece of the inhalerand holds the medicine until you can breathe it in. The medicine goe into the spacer first, it reduces the amount of medicine that is wasted.
The spacer is a better way for you to receive the medication from the inhaler but you have to inhale when using it.
The nurse should be familiar with how the spacer works.
When an E-discharge occurs there is certain information that should be exchanged between patients and their caregivers so that patients can still take care of themselves when they return home to their normal lives.
Amongst the things that should be discussed is what medications will be continued at home vs which ones will discontinue after release from the hospital, which medications will be the same as they were before the hospital stay, which medications have changed after the hospital stay, which medications have stopped altogether, and any new medications to be taken.