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Human Psychology Questions and Answers (Q&A)

The greatest proportion of people measured by the MBTI fall into the personality type ESFJ, that is, Extraverted, Sensing, Feeling, Judging personalities. This group accounts for over 12% of the population tested. In general, those who prefer Sensing are more frequent in the population than those who prefer Intuition. The percentages falling into each of the 16 types were gained by using the data banks collated between 1972 and 2002, so the sample size would be huge.

Bear in mind that the only factor with very wide acceptance of its validity, reliability (and usefulness) is the Extraversion/Introversion factor. When comparing the MBTI with the Big Five, Extraversion is the most coherent. Therefore, the most common and least common MBTI types may relate more to reliability and validity of the descriptors used than to their occurrence in the population.

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No! No personality test of whatever kind resembles an IQ test. The efficiency with which we solve verbal and non-verbal problems is independent of our preferred ways of interacting with people. That is, insofar as anything we do has an element of personality attached. For instance, nervousness approaching an IQ test versus confidence may have more to do with personality than ability to do well on the IQ test.

However, the results of the personality test would not be expected to affect our intellectual ability which would remain constant irrespective of whether we were an introspective, caring personality or an unfeeling, judging one. You must regard personality testing as of a different order from intelligence testing. The one thing they have most certainly in common is the drive to measure human behaviour; there are many who dislike the whole concept of this.

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This is a minefield question if you mean which of the available tests for psychologists to use. However, since at least three aspects of intellectual functioning: memory, verbal reasoning, non-verbal reasoning (spatial ability) are necessary for an IQ to be calculated, the Wechsler Scales which include a number of sub-tests tapping these areas, are the most likely to return a valid and reliable result.

When a psychologist administers a standardised test individually there are clues in the way a person approaches the tasks which enhance the results gained from the set calculations. The time allowed for each task and the manner of presenting it is set down very precisely so that the results gained for an individual on one occasion with one psychologist should be virtually identical with those gained on a second occasion even with a different psychologist. Basically, if you are thinking of trying a free test on-line then don't take too much, seriously. It will be a very blunt instrument.

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Theoretically there should be no correlation between IQ and suffering from depression. The range of environmental stressors, loss of a loved one, war, disruption etc., can occur to anyone whereever they happen to score on an IQ test. However, a recent study of nearly 4,000 individuals in the top 2% of the distribution for intelligence, found that around a quarter suffered or had suffered from a mood disorder and 20% suffered or had suffered from an anxiety disorder. Both mood and anxiety disorders can include depression.

However, this sample was drawn from members of Mensa the "High IQ society" and it could be argued that people who opt to belong to such a society - indicating a preoccupation with their mental functioning and/or desire to demonstrate this with some social recognition - may be more prone to suffer from depression than those with high IQs who spend their time in sport, voluntary work or artistic endeavours. An earlier study of 50-year-olds found that those with high IQs in youth were less likely to be reporting problems with depression.

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D is the answer to this question. This comes from the theory created by Sigmund Freud, which he called Psychoanalysis. This is composed of different stages wherein the child starts to discover more about himself. The phallic stage is the third stage of development.

This is the time when the erogenous zone of the infant is his genitalia. Take note that the pleasure zone may change depending on the age or the stage that the infant is going through. Some adults may never get over this stage until they reach adulthood, wherein they may develop some abnormal mannerisms and habits because they were not able to satisfy their wants when they were younger.

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They are negatively correlated. That is, criminality is more evident amongst those with lower rather than higher IQs. Criminals and delinquents score typically 8% or more lower on IQ tests than those who have no criminal record. There have been five major studies in different countries that lead to such findings. More interestingly, one study analysed the type of intellectual functioning and found it was the verbal reasoning, not the spatial ability, that was weak in violent and repeat offenders.

It is easy to understand that without employing the kind of reasoning engaged in when considering a criminal act (should I do this, will it hurt someone, what will be the consequence) a person is at a distinct disadvantage. "I didn't think" might be a typical response. Impulsive and inconsequential are adjectives that might describe many criminal acts.

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The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator has been enormously successful but you may be under a misapprehension that psychologists "so laud" it. The psychological press has given its fair share of critical analysis of the test but its very extensive adoption by the business community has given the MBTI a success that cannot be denied. It would be expected that business psychologists would stand by an instrument that has served the business community for decades.

On that basis, had the MBTI been weak and faulty, its results would not have helped the business community and the whole process would have ground to a halt. From the viewpoint of the academic psychologist, the adoption of Jung's concepts and a coherent development of these into categorising individuals in one of 16 types is creative and structurally satisfying. It has enough 'meat' to it for serious analysis. There is a good body of research around the MBTI such that an individual researcher can form his/her own conclusions about its worth.

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Socially it is important to be outgoing (extravert) but at the same time sensitive to the needs and feelings of others. You affect others' well-being if you are constantly late or fail to meet your commitments in work or in the family, and therefore planning is important. Someone with this MBTI personality type is probably going to be an ENFP - Extraversion, Intuitive, Feeling, Perceiving.

Outgoing and charming, but attentive and genuinely interested in others, they will be attractive company. With the motivation to work out what is best for others and the self-discipline to carry out tasks reliably, such a person should be highly popular in the workplace. They might well be the life and soul of the party as well as caring and perceptive life partners.

Altogether, this might be the strongest personality type socially but remember all types are equal and being categorised as one type rather than another does not show HOW FAR into such a category an individual fits. i.e. each of the four quadrants will have a percentage 'score' attached. e.g. you could theoretically be 50% extraversion 50% introversion and so on for each of the four.

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