Electron beams play a significant role in welding; specifically when you want a job done that is precise, clean, and when the area surrounding it should not be heated. The electron beam is also helpful in welding because it produces a beam that is high energy enough to fuse materials together- to the point of welding.
Electron beam is also helpful and sometimes preferred for welding because it has great strength, depth, versatility, and purity. When using an electron beam for welding the beam can go as deep as 2 inches, while the high intensity of the beam creates a 95% stronghold, and it does not leave behind traces of oxides or nitrates. Electron beam welding is so precise it is computer controlled and usually occurs in a vacuum to avoid contact with gas. It is easily and accurately repeated, making it the most preferred and reliable way to weld.
The inner electrons are known to have lower energy as compared to the outer ones. The electrons that are located on the outer portion of the atom usually has more potential energy as compared to those that are staying near the nucleus.
The electrons that are in the outer shells do not have to be near the nucleus because they already have a lot of energy to begin with. They can use this energy in order to react with other atoms. They can transfer or they can share electrons with other atoms if needed while the inner electrons will just release their own energy to provide the atom with more kinetic energy.
The charge of proton in the nucleus may attract electrons but this doe not happen often. It just attracts electrons which causes the electrons to hover near the nucleus of an atom. If in case a collision does happen, this is called electron capture. The proton and the electron that collided together become neutral.
People used to think that electrons orbit the nucleus similar to how a solar system works but this is hard to say especially since the movement of electrons cannot be fully detected. There are not enough tools and materials that can be used in order to actually see how protons and electrons interact with each other. The movement of these particles are based on theories and studies created by different people.
It was in the year 1897 when free electrons were first discovered by J.J Thompson. He was just looking into the properties of the cathode ray when he made the discovery. The moment that free electrons were discovered, people looked into it and it immediately became a big deal. By the year 1900, there was already a theory made about this.
This electron theory is related to the thermal and electrical conduction in metals. There were still a few changes made to this theory by Lorentz a few years later. This was a theory that was believed in until the year 1928. By then, there were already more theories that were made that are related to free electrons.
If your element had 14 protons, it would be silicon, not aluminum. As soon as you add that one extra proton, it becomes an entirely different element, therefore, this question is invalid.
A sublevel is known to be the division of the different principle energy levels. There are different sublevels that are available but not all of them will be stated. They are just known as s, p, d, and f. Do remember that the sublevels may be infinite. An orbital is the subdivision of the sublevel.
This may also refer to the space that is most likely to acquire an electron. For example, in sublevel 4, it will come with 16 orbitals. There are no defined boundaries when it comes to orbitals but you can be sure that the regions around the nucleus will be dedicated to the potential electrons that may occupy that certain space.
Quarks and leptons are known to be particles that are more common in physics. These are particles that cannot be broken down anymore. Take note that some people say that they are not merely particles but rather families of particles that will stay together no matter what which explains why they cannot be broken down. One difference is their value.
A quark is known to have a fractional charge while a lepton comes with an integer charge. Another difference is their existence. Leptons have the ability to exist freely and easily while quarks will not be able to do that. There are also different fundamental forces that may affect both quarks and leptons. For example, the quark will not get affected by strong forces while the lepton will.
Then should the answer be electron transport since that is the process that occur in the mitochondria membrane