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DNA Questions and Answers (Q&A)

One of the major applications of DNA fingerprinting is its use in forensics. A criminal investigation involves interviews, interrogations, and searching to determine how an incident occurred. DNA is acquired from the scene of the crime, and the DNA is compared to the DNA of suspects. DNA samples such as blood, saliva, semen, hair, and other tissues can be collected from suspects of a criminal investigation.

Since DNA is unique to a person, this can be used to find criminals of a crime. If the DNA at the crime site is similar to that of any suspects, further interrogations will be done, and even if the DNA samples from the crime scene and that of the suspect does not match, it will help the investigators to know the line of action.

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Absolutely! DNA fingerprinting is reliable. DNA fingerprinting works to analyze the genetic material in a person. This can be done by taken samples such as saliva, blood, semen, hair or other tissue. We all have a unique DNA sequence, so the DNA identified during DNA fingerprinting is specific to one person. No two people can have the same DNA sequence.

This makes it easy to detect the unique features of a person. DNA fingerprint can detect similarities between bloodline relations. Many people have found lost family relations through the use of DNA fingerprinting. It has proven to be helpful in criminal investigation. The results are absolutely reliable and it has helped solve many mysteries in our world today.

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The correct answer to this question is option B – Unwinding protein. From the description above, we can tell that this child has a rare genetic condition known as PROGERIA (Hutchinson – Gilford Progeria Syndrome - HGPS). This condition is characterized by fast aging of a child’s body. Progeria affects both sexes and most children with this condition usually do not live pass the age of 13. Progeria is an autosomal dominant condition.

Although, affected individuals do not live to transfer defective genes to their offspring, progeria often manifest as a new mutation in an affected person. Children with progeria look healthy at birth but begin to manifest signs and symptoms as they grow older. Some of these signs and symptoms include: limited growth, alopecia, small face, skin conditions. As the child grows older signs and symptoms become severe. Cardiovascular problems, kidney problems, wrinkled skin, eyesight problems can also be detected in an affected person.

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A hydrogen bond is formed by intermolecular forces between hydrogen atoms and other atoms such as oxygen and carbon. A hydrogen bond is not as strong as covalent or ionic bond. It plays a great role in holding DNA, proteins, and many other molecules together. A covalent bond is a chemical bond that occurs when atoms share pairs of electrons. It is much stronger than Hydrogen bonds. A hydrogen bond plays a crucial role in DNA. It is responsible for the stability of the double helix structure of DNA.

The two strands of DNA are held together by Hydrogen bonds. Between complementary nucleotide bases, hydrogen bonds are present to keep them together. Between adenosine and thymine, there are two hydrogen bonds, and between cytosine and quinine, there are three hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are important in DNA synthesis. It is easier to break hydrogen bonds than covalent bonds. This makes it easy to unwind DNA.

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The correct answer is option E Option E represents the bag with the lowest initial concentration of sucrose. If the five bags were constructed from a semi permeable membrane is IMPERMABLE to sucrose and placed each dialysis bag is placed in separate beakers that contain an initial concentration of 0.6 M sucrose solution. The dialysis bag with the lowest concentration of sucrose will decrease in mass over time.

At ten minute intervals, the weight of each bag will remain unchanged in the percentage of concentration. This is because the bag is impermeable to sucrose. Therefore, the bag with the initial lowest concentration of sucrose would be the one that experience decrease in mass over time. From the graph, we can tell that option E has the lowest initial concentration of sucrose.

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The correct answer is option A – Primer bind to the newly separated DNA strand. Polymerase Chain Reaction is a lab technique that is used in generating thousands to millions of copies of a specific section of DNA. In Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), there are three major steps. These are the denaturation step, annealing step, and the extension (elongation) step. In the annealing step, the temperature is lowered to about 50 to 60 degrees Celsius. This will allow primers to attach to specific regions on the DNA through hydrogen bonding.

The annealing step takes about 10 to 20 seconds to complete. The primer is made up of either DNA or RNA sequence of 20 to 30 base s in length. The primer marks the starting point for the synthesis of DNA, and they are complementary to the specific DNA segment to be copied.

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The correct answer to this question is option B – Incomplete dominance. Incomplete dominance is an inheritance pattern in which an individual expresses features that are not identical to any of the patent alleles. The blending of alleles results in the formation of a third phenotype that doesn’t look like any of the parents. Offsprings with incomplete dominance pattern of inheritance express trait of the third phenotype.

Examples of features include changes in skin color, height, and eye color. Incomplete dominance is not the same as codominance. Co dominance is an inheritance pattern where both parent alleles are expressed in the offspring. Example: A white flower and red flower producing an offspring with white and red patches. Complete dominance, on the other hand, occurs when a parent allele is completely expressed in an offspring.

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The 3rd phase in mitosis is Anaphase. During this phase, the chromosomes separate. The sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the parent cell with the help of spindle fibers that pull them apart. This happens with the shortening of the spindle fibers.

One sister chromatid is present on one side of the pole, and the other moves to the opposite side of the pole. As the sister chromatids divide, centromere also divides. At the end of Anaphase, each side of the pole has a complete set of chromosomes, making two chromosomes in one cell.

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The correct answer to this question is option A – Real time. Just as the name implies, real-time PCR is the type of PCR that quantifies the rate at which new DNA is synthesized. Real-time PCR monitors the progress by using a florescent dyes reporter molecule. The fluorescent emitted by the reporter allows early detection of PCR production early in the reaction.

Compare to the traditional PCR; real-time PCR is less time consuming due to the ability to detect amplification early in each cycle. Real-time PCR does not require post PCR processing. Real-time PCR can be used in all applications, just like the traditional PCR mostly in biological science, genetic expression analysis, and genetic testing.

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DNA fingerprinting depends on one very important factor- the fact that every person, animal or otherwise all have different DNA fingerprints. If more than one person had the same DNA fingerprint, then it would throw the entire system out of whack.

You would not be able to convict anyone of a crime, to be able to even tell that the DNA belongs to multiple individuals, and it would make it very unreliable. Thankfully this is not the case and DNA fingerprinting is incredibly accurate and precise. In the same way that everyone has different fingerprints, everyone has a different DNA fingerprint or profile.

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