DNA is the abbreviation for DeoxyriboNucleic acids. DNA usually takes active roles during human formation because it contains genetic information that can be passed from one generation to another. The reason why some traits in your family which were very visible in the older generations are still being noticed in the present generation is due to DNA because it acts in such a way that it replicates copies of itself. It does this by forming a new strand so that each new cell can have the genetic composition of the old cell.
Since DNA can be found in the nucleus of each cell, it helps in regulating and coordinating the metabolic process of the cell and the development of organisms. Genetic information is stored as codes through the four bases in DNA, the codes are Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine. They ensure that hereditary materials are passed from parents to their children
Okazaki fragments and lagging strands are terms in DNA replication. These two terms are not in any way the same, but they are related. Lagging strands refers to the DNA strands that grow or replicate in a discontinuous manner. It becomes by producing Okazaki fragments. For Okazaki fragments to be added to the lagging strand, a new primer is needed for each Okazaki fragment. These primers are later removed by DNA polymerase I and the gaps between the Okazaki fragments are sealed off by DNA ligase.
Okazaki fragments are small fragments of DNA added to the lagging strands. It was named after the Japanese scientist that discovered it. The leading strand of DNA does not have Okazaki fragments as it grows in a continuous manner rather than a discontinuous manner like the lagging strand. In summary, the lagging strand is the DNA strand that grows in a discontinuous manner, and Okazaki fragments are fragments added to the lagging strand. I hope this helps.
Enhancers and promoters are different, but both play vital roles in DNA transcription. An enhancer is a special sequence of DNA that helps to increase the rate of initiation of DNA transcription by RNA polymerase II. Enhancers have specialized DNA called “response elements” that bind to transcription factors. Enhancers are always located on the same chromosome as the gene that is to be transcribed.
They can either be upstream or downstream of the transcription start site. On the other hand, the promoter is a special sequence of DNA that helps to initiate gene transcription by RNA polymerase II. In Eukaryotes, the promoter is made up of a sequence known as the TATA box, which is about 25 to 35 base pairs. It is always located upstream to the site of initiation. Unlike enhancers, promoters bind to both transcription factors and RNA polymerase II to initiation transcription.
Purines and Pyrimidines have both similarities and differences. They share some similarities on the ground that they are both heterocyclic organic compounds. Also, they both serve the same function. Part of their functions is to regulate enzymes and other cells activities in the body. They also help in the production of DNA and RNA, starches and proteins. However, they differ in their compositions. Purines are heterocyclic organic compound that consist of both imidazole and pyrimidine rings and there are four nitrogen carbons in their compounds.
While pyrimidines are a heterocyclic organic compound that has structures in the form of benzene rings with two nitrogen atoms at carbon 1 and 3. Another difference is that, purine contains two rings while pyrimidine contains just a ring, that is why purine tends to have more weight than pyrimidine. The end product of pyrimidine after the body has synthesized it is ammonia and carbon dioxide while the end product of purines is uric acid.
It is true that identical twins form from one egg. They share some similarities when it comes to their DNA but fingerprints cannot be considered entirely as a genetic characteristic. This means that there are different factors that may affect the formation of any person’s fingerprints. The identical twins may develop their fingerprints while they are in their mother’s womb.
Their positions and movements may change the type of fingerprints that they will form. Some identical twins have very similar fingerprints but they are not exactly the same. The hormone levels of identical twins may also have an effect on the formation of fingerprints as well as moles and freckles.
The correct answer is option D – The DNA molecule will code for a different protein. A change in the DNA molecule will cause a change in the RNA transcription and eventually lead to the formation of a different protein. The effect of this change will depend on the kind of mutation that occurs due to this change. If it is silent mutation, the same amino acid was coded and this will have no change or less effect on the structure and function of the protein.
If the amino acid produced is different from the initial amino acid at the site of the change, a nonsense mutation or missense mutation has occurred. This will affect the function and structure of the protein produced. This mutation also causes premature signals to stop making protein resulting in a shortened protein that will not function properly.
DNA fingerprinting is a test that is done to determine the genetic makeup of a person. It is also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting. Everyone has a unique sequence of DNA. The most commonly used methods for DNA fingerprinting include: Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction (PCR) Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP).
DNA fingerprinting plays vital role in our society; it is used in many spheres of life to identify a person from others. We use to determine blood relationships between people, to identify a body, in forensic studies, to determine if two people are genetically a good match, used in medicine to determine the possibility of the genetic match for organ donation. DNA fingerprinting can also be done on other living organisms; it plays an important role in agriculture as well. DNA fingerprinting can be used to determine the modification of genetic materials in the plant.
DNA fingerprinting is a process that is done to determine the genetic makeup of a person. It is done by collecting samples of sweat, blood, saliva, hair, or other bodily fluids. This is done in forensic studies to determine blood relationships between people, to study diseases, and much more. Gel electrophoresis is a laboratory technique that is used to analyze fragments of DNA, RNA, and proteins based on the size and the charge they carry. The fragments to be analyzed are placed in a gel that has small pores.
The fragments are pushed by an electric field. The separate fragments will travel across the gel with speed inversely proportional to their length. This means shorter fragments will travel farther than longer fragments. By default, DNA and RNA are negatively charged, so if fragments of DNA and RNA are being processed, it will move towards the positive side.
Deoxyribonucleotide and ribonucleotide are different forms of nucleotides found in either DNA or RNA. Deoxyribonucleotide is the monomer in DNA. Deoxyribonucleotide has three components which are: a deoxyribose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group. Ribonucleotide reductase is the enzyme that causes the reduction of ribonucleotide to deoxyribonucleotide.
The hydroxyl group present at the second carbon in the ribose ring is replaced with a hydrogen atom to form deoxyribose. Without this enzyme, deoxyribose cannot be made. Ribonucleotide is the monomer present in RNA. The sugar component in RNA is ribose, unlike DNA that has deoxyribose. Ribonucleotide also has a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group with ribose sugar.
The leading strand and lagging strand are the two types of DNA strands. The leading strand is the strand positioned in 5’ to 3’ direction. It is in the same direction as the replication fork. The new DNA synthesized on a leading strand is done in a continuous manner without breaks. The leading strand of DNA does not require an RNA primer.
On the other hand, the lagging strand is positioned in 3’ to 5’ direction, and it is opposite to the direction of the replication fork. This causes synthesis to be discontinuous, producing fragments of DNA. These fragments of DNA synthesized are called Okazaki fragments. The lagging strand of DNA requires primase to add RNA primer before another portion of DNA can be synthesized.