The normal ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid to maintain homeostasis of the body is 20:1. Our body’s potential hydrogen (pH) measures from 7.35 to 7.45, with the ideal pH for blood amounting to 7.4. If the amount of pH falls down below 6.8 or above 7.8, our cells will stop to properly function and it may result to death.
By maintaining the ratio of 20:1, our body is able to also maintain a pH of 7.4. It is extremely important for our body to have this normal ratio because when the amount of pH falls below 7.4 (that means our body is without proper oxygenation), we will become acidic and we will be susceptible to bacteria, molds and viruses.
Preeclampsia is a potentially very dangerous condition in pregnant women, and it is important to catch the signs of this early before eclampsia develops. Here are the signs of preeclampsia:
• Systolic blood pressure greater than 140, or diastolic blood pressure greater than 90
• Proteinuria, or excess proteins in the urine, which may cause the urine to become foamy
• Weight gain, typically caused by water retention and swelling (however, this can be difficult to distinguish from normal pregnancy symptoms)
• Decreased urine output
• HELLP syndrome, which stands for Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelet count
• Headaches, blurred vision, hyperreflexia, nausea, and vomiting
Typically, most doctors will check your blood pressure and take a urine sample at each appointment to ensure signs of preeclampsia are caught early on.
Labor is different for each woman, but it primarily occurs in three stages. The first stage of labor is known as the latent phase. At this stage, contractions are typically very mild, and are roughly 10 to 20 minutes apart. The woman can often continue to go about her usual activities at this point, and many women use this time to make any last-minute preparations for going to the hospital for the delivery.
At this point in labor, most women will remain at home, as most hospitals won’t admit a woman who is in the first stage of labor, unless there is some emergency. By breathing through the mild contractions, most women find this stage of labor easy to manage without medications.
Liver. Like other fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin A is stored in high concentrations in the liver. So eating liver is a good way to get more vitamin A. In fact, large animals have so much vitamin A in their livers that it can be harmful to eat them – beef liver contains three times the recommended daily dose of vitamin A, and polar bear livers have so much vitamin A that eating just one can result in hypervitaminosis A!
Egg yolk is also a good source of vitamin A, but not nearly as rich as liver. Vitamin A can also be found in fish, such as salmon, but again not in high enough concentrations to make this the right choice. Peanuts are not a significant source of vitamin A.
A positive ultrasound will give you the highest confidence of pregnancy – the other tests are useful, but not 100% reliable. Noticeable fetal movement starts around week 15 or 20, and are a clear reminder of pregnancy for pregnant women. However, non-pregnant women may also feel movement in their abdomen that isn’t caused by pregnancy, so this is not a positive test.
Enlargement of the uterus is also not a totally reliable sign of pregnancy – non-pregnant women can experience uterine hyperplasia (swollen uterus) due to ovarian cysts, uterine fibroids, and certain forms of cancer. Over-the-counter pregnancy tests can also be unreliable, although false positives are far less common than false negatives. A non-pregnant woman might come up with a false-positive pregnancy test if she has taken certain drugs, or has blood in her urine sample.
Option A is a case of nursing malpractice. In this example, the nurse made an error (administering penicillin) that could have been avoided with the available information. This error then immediately caused a serious health problem (cerebral damage). Option D is definitely an error, but it didn’t cause a serious health problem – vomiting once is unpleasant, but not serious enough to count as malpractice.
In option C, it’s the reverse: the broken humerus is a serious health problem, but it wasn’t caused by an error. The nurse was doing the right thing by keeping the bed locked. In option B, we don’t have enough information to say whether it was an error, or whether that error caused any serious health problems.
An 88-year old incontinent patient with gastric cancer who is confined to his bed at home. Pressure ulcers, also known as bedsores, happen when a single area of the skin is subjected to pressure over a long time. The major risk factor is immobility: if someone can’t move or change positions, they’re likely to develop pressure ulcers on the skin areas that are in contact with the bed or chair.
Options A and C, as described, are both mobile, so they are not at a particularly high risk of developing bedsores. There’s a slightly higher risk with option D, the 78-year-old who requires assistance to get out of bed. But the risk is still not as high as someone who is completely confined to bed.
The holistic approach provides for a therapeutic relationship, continuity, and efficient nursing care. This question is vague, but the holistic approach is probably the best answer. It’s true that holistic nursing provides both efficiency, continuity, and a more satisfying relationship for both nurses and patients. This is important because continuity and shared responsibility for care give both patient and nurse a sense of stake in the treatment program.
And long-term associations between nurses and their patients make the nurse better able to make decisions on behalf of the patient, and make patients better able to trust that their nurses have their personal wellbeing at heart. That’s why the holistic approach has proven to be particularly effective for both sides of the caregiving relationship.
Vitamin B6. Levodopa is used to treat Parkinson’s disease because it can cross the blood-brain barrier and affect nerve cells inside the brain. Once there, it is converted into dopamine, which helps reverse the effects of Parkinson’s disease, which is thought to be caused by a degeneration of the cells that produce dopamine.
Vitamin B6 breaks down levodopa and removes it from the body, so taking a vitamin B6 supplement with levodopa is likely to reduce its effectiveness. However, modern levodopa is often paired with carbidopa in the same pill. Carbidopa inhibits the process by which vitamin B6 breaks down levodopa, so indirectly carbidopa helps increase the long-term concentration of levodopa in the bloodstream, and thus increases its effectiveness in the brain.