One type of line on this list that can be found in art is the diagonal line. This is often associated with running, with moving across the piece. While the other lines aren’t explicitly in art, there can be imaginary lines (IE one subject making eye contact with another), and there can be contour lines. These are often the lines that create shadows on a subject or in a background.
However, the other two most common types of lines are not on this list. They are horizontal and vertical lines. Almost everything we see is made up of horizontal, vertical, or diagonal lines. There are also curved lines, but those have their own properties. Horizontal lines create feelings of rest, and vertical lines create feelings of stagnation.
There are three properties of color: hue, value, and saturation. The hue of a color is the name - pink, blue, red, green, etc. The value of a color is how light or dark it is - what tint or shade it is. Colors here would include baby blue, pink, maroon, lavender, etc. The saturation is the relative brightness or dullness of a color.
A bright purple has a higher saturation than the dullest purple you can think of. A color wheel shows only hues and a few values. Saturation is best seen on the color palette that comes up in many drawing applications on the computer. The closer to the middle of the screen the color, the brighter the color is.
Neoclassicism paintings have quite a few of these mentioned characteristics. They are often rational, geometric, have an organized composition (IE everything in the piece has a purpose), and center on the subjects, instead of the background or the foreground. The subjects in these paintings and sculptures are often patriotic as well. There are a lot of famous pieces by neoclassicist artists, and include the painting “Napoleon I on His Imperial Throne” by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and the sculpture “Theseus and the Minotaur” by Antonio Canova.
It typically draws the inspiration from classic Greek or Roman art. Many of the artists looked to famous ancient Greek and Roman pieces for inspiration, instead of doing something new. These principles come from the ancient world, and the fact that they have survived means that they are worth studying.
The principles of art are the same as the principles of design: balance, rhythm, emphasis, proportion, variety, gradation, etc. These are theories meant to help art feel as though it is complete, that it is whole. To have rhythm in a piece of art simply means that the piece has some kind of repetition to it. This could be a repeating kind of line or a repeating shape to create the feeling of movement towards or away from something.
Emphasis means that the eyes are drawn to a specific part of the piece first, and then the viewer takes in the whole thing. It adds something to the piece. Something spectacular. The whole point of using these principles in the art is to unite the piece. To create something that feels whole, and on a small space too.
Three basic design planning tools are the sketchbook, the scrapbook, and the ideas book. The sketchbook is a place for designers to keep sketches of their work. These could be anything from skirts to couches and back again. Often, people think of fashion designers when they hear the word “sketchbook” in this context. The scrapbook is a place to keep scraps of fabric or materials that interest the designer.
These are more common among interior designers, furniture designers, and fashion designers. They house scraps or samples for later use, or to refer back to. It allows people to see and live with a fabric before they pick it. The ideas book is a place for inspiration. This could be as simple as a Pinterest board, or as complex as a photo album with captions that has been physically bound.
The artwork of Nefertiti comes from Egypt. In particular, this bust of Nefertiti is the reason she is so well-known in today’s culture. The original bust is made of limestone, which has been covered in stucco. The face of the bust has incredible detail, and is thought to have been designed by Thutmose, a prominent sculptor of the time period. This is thought because the bust was discovered in what’s thought to have been Thutmose’s workshop.
Nefertiti was the wife of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten. She is considered an ideal beauty standard for today because of how much her bust has been copied. The original is housed as part of the Egyptian Collection of Berlin, which is on display in the Neues Museum at the moment.
This artwork comes from the old world - Europe, Asia, etc. The particular subjects in this sculpture are King Menkaure and a queen - who could very well be named Khamerernebty. King Menkaure is the grandson of the king that built the largest pyramid at Giza. The second largest is thought to belong to Menkaure’s father, and the smallest belongs to Menkaure himself.
The reason this statue is highly regarded is because of what it creates in the viewer, and what it represents. The statue is meant to show him and his queen, standing passively like their gods. It brings the idea of eternity into reality for the pair, since the statue is in such good condition today. It instills a sense of eternity in the viewer for that reason.
The Palette of Narmer is considered to be either pre-dynasty Egypt or Old Kingdom Egypt artwork. The palette is made of siltstone. However, there had been previous debates about what it was made of because few were aware that slate and schmidt - the other two claimed materials of the palette - are more prone to flaking and scratching than siltstone.
The carvings on the palette are considered to be a real show of what Egyptian craftsmen would do after a war. The palette depicts Pharaoh Narmer (or possibly King Narmer; no one is sure what title he used, though it is clear that he ruled Egypt at the time) striking a prisoner on one side, and leading a procession on the other side.
The spotted horses and negative handprints seen on cave walls are from the paleolithic culture. There has actually been a lot of controversy over the fact that cave paintings depict horses with spotted coats. Evidence hasn’t been found to show that there were horses with spotted coats until very recently. The year 2011 is the first time anyone studied horse bones from that time period looking for the spotted coat gene specifically.
Up until this study confirmed that horses back then had spotted coats, many researchers had thought that the cave painters simply dreamed up the spotted coats of their painted horses. The study confirmed that horses had spotted coats, and there were at least a few around the Pech Merle cave.
The time period during which Akhenaten lived is often called the Amarna period, which is in the New Kingdom time period from the answers on this list. The name “Akhenaten” actually has quite a significant meaning to the Egyptian culture of the time. Aten, one of the Egyptian gods of the time, was deemed the most important god to be worshipped.
We usually hear of Ra being the most important, but this is a different time period. Oddly, this is the only recorded tip in balance between the gods and goddesses they worshipped; under every other pharaoh, the gods and goddesses were worshipped as equally as possible. It’s pretty hard to imagine how that was done, since the Egyptian pantheon is one of the most extensive.