The hypodermis, or subcutaneous layer. This layer contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, sweat glands, hair follicles, and adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is the medical term for body fat, which acts as insulation in the skin.
Effleurage is one type of massage taught at esthetician school. It involves long, stroking movements performed with the flat of the hand or fingers and is meant to increase relaxation and circulation. The other five types of massage are petrissage, friction, tapotement, vibration, and compression.
Soft waxing refers to using wax for hair removal on the eyebrow. An esthetician performing soft waxing must apply antiseptic to the area to be waxed, test the temperature of the wax, apply wax in the direction of hair growth, and remove in the opposite direction.
The National Esthetics Practical Examination tests candidates on seven core services, including setup and client protection, massaging the face, cleansing and steaming the face, manual extraction on the forehead, hair removal of the eyebrows, facial mask, and facial makeup. Occasionally, lip waxing (hard waxing) is also tested.
Skin tags, or acrochordons, are small protrusions on the skin about the size and shape of a grain of rice. They are benign tumors thought to be caused by skin-to-skin friction. Acrochordons are not harmful, but they may be removed through cryosurgery or cauterization.
The medical term for a wrinkle is a rhytid. Rhytids occur when skin begins to sag as a result of lost strength and flexibility. Aging, sun exposure, and smoking all contribute to wrinkles by decreasing skins elasticity. Sun exposure is the primary cause of early wrinkling.
Skin color is largely determined by the number of melanocytes in a persons skin, which produce melanin--increased melanin means darker skin. Melanin protects skin from the ultraviolet rays of the sun, so sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase melanin production. Albinism occurs when the skin fails to produce melanin.
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