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Glucagon causes liver glycogenolysis
Polyuria is the kidney being overworked to get rid of the excess sugar through excessive urination and then a thirst signal is initiated to dilute the blood and regain water lost in urination
Albumin in the urine is one of the earliest signs of kidney disease which is a significant risk factor for coronary artery disease.
Kidney disease will show a decrease in creatinine and BUN on lab results
Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy which results in impaired axonal transport and structural breakdown of nerves
Glycated hemoglobin is low in poorly controlled diabetics
With each 1% increase or decrease in HbA1C add or subtract 35mg/dl respectively or 30mg/dl respectively
A HbA1c of 7% represents an average blood sugar 70mg.dl or 50mg/dl
Metformin cannot be used in patients with significant renal diase, liver disease or congestive heart failure
Rhinophymis - overgrowth of sebaceous/connective tissue of the nose
Papules and Pustules
Rash appears on one side of the body, mostly in the thoracic region
Flu symptoms as well as pain, burning and numbing in an affected area that usually last 48 hours
Blisters with the clear fluid becoming cloudy in 3-4 days and burst on the 5th.
Bladder inflammation leads to increase stimulation of the detrusor muscle
The brainstem sending a signal to the detrusor which then contracts and voids
Decrease function in brain centers that cause inhibition causes include stroke, tumors, spinal cord damage, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, hypoxia and dementia
Rapid urine production that leads to high flow of urine into bladder such as diuretics, caffeine and alcohol
Alpha adrenergic agonists
Calcium channel blockers
Narcotics and Sedatives
Is commonly caused by staph aureus
Occurs when a blood clot from a vein dislodges and embolizes to the pulmonary arteries
Is a narrowing of the airways.
Is the 4th leading cause of death in the elderly
Flovent and advair
Patients suffering from this are typically referred to as pink puffers
Bronchial tubes that carry air to the lungs get inflammed and create mucous
There is an increase in cardiac output and an increase in weight
Alveoli are damaged and less O2 enters into the blood.
It is a result of a decrease in B12, therefore she will problem begin to exhibit neurological symptoms
It is due to a decrease in folate, luckily she will not present with neurologicial symptoms
It is a result of her bone marrow not making enough blood cells. It also causes pancytopenia
It is due to a decrease in parietal cells in the gastric mucosa which leads to a loss of the intrinsic factor needed to bind B12 so it can be absorbed into the ileum
It is the result of NSAID abuse or possibly blood loss.
It is most commonly caused by Hashimoto's disease when the body's own T cells attack the thyroid
Other causes for it include thyroid surgery, iodine deficiency, amiodarone and lithium use.
Symptoms include palpitations, sweating, tremor, tachycardia, heat intolerance, appearance of goiters and weight lost to name a few
Decrease in TRH, TSH and an increase in T4 and T3
Treatment includes levothyroxine
Eye symptoms include double vision/true von Grafe sign, peri - orbital edema, conjunctival edema, dry eyes and optic atrophy