Urinary & Respiratory System (continued)

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Urinary System Quizzes & Trivia
A&P 2 urinary and respiratory (continued)

  
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  • 1. 
    Which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood ph?
    • A. 

      By secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate

    • B. 

      By reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions

    • C. 

      By producing new bicarbonate ions

    • D. 

      By secreting sodium ions


  • 2. 
    In the ascending limb of the loop of henle the
    • A. 

      Thin segment is freely permeable to water

    • B. 

      Thick segment is permeable to water

    • C. 

      Thin segment is not permeable to sodium and chloride

    • D. 

      Thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption


  • 3. 
    Select the correct statement about urinary system development
    • A. 

      Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges

    • B. 

      The metanephric ducts will become the urethras

    • C. 

      The pronephros (first tubule system) develops during the tenth week of gestation

    • D. 

      The mesonephros will develop into the kidneys


  • 4. 
    Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?
    • A. 

      Disposing of substances not already in the filtrate, such as certain drugs

    • B. 

      Eliminating undesirable substances such as urea and uric acid that have been reabsorbed by passive processes

    • C. 

      Ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

    • D. 

      Ridding the body of excessive potassium ions


  • 5. 
    Which statement is correct?
    • A. 

      Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled

    • B. 

      Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein

    • C. 

      Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine

    • D. 

      The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood


  • 6. 
    What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    • A. 

      Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

    • B. 

      Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys

    • C. 

      Help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys

    • D. 

      Help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys


  • 7. 
    Which of the choices below is the salt level monitoring part of the nephron?
    • A. 

      Mascula densa

    • B. 

      Principal cell

    • C. 

      Vasa recta

    • D. 

      Loop of henle


  • 8. 
    Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?
    • A. 

      ADH

    • B. 

      Thyroxine

    • C. 

      Aldosterone

    • D. 

      Atrial natriuretic peptide


  • 9. 
    Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?
    • A. 

      Renal autoregulation

    • B. 

      Neural regulation

    • C. 

      Electrolyte levels

    • D. 

      Hormonal regulation


  • 10. 
    Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?
    • A. 

      Angiotensin II and ADH

    • B. 

      Angiotensin II and aldosterone

    • C. 

      Angiotensin I and epinephrine

    • D. 

      Angiotensin I and atrial natriuretic peptide


  • 11. 
    Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?
    • A. 

      Juxtaglomerular cells

    • B. 

      Mesangial cells

    • C. 

      Mascula densa cells

    • D. 

      Podocytes


  • 12. 
    The bodys water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
    • A. 

      Calcium ions

    • B. 

      Potassium ions

    • C. 

      Hydrogen ions

    • D. 

      Sodium ions


  • 13. 
    The term hypotonic hydration refers to
    • A. 

      The feeling one might have after a long swim

    • B. 

      The unpleasant feeling people have after drinking too much liquor

    • C. 

      A condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water

    • D. 

      A condition that is caused by high levels of sodium in the extracellular fluid compartment


  • 14. 
    Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins.  This problem is often characterized by
    • A. 

      Tissue edema

    • B. 

      Extreme weight loss

    • C. 

      Extreme weight gain

    • D. 

      Nerve damage


  • 15. 
    Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?
    • A. 

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • B. 

      Erythropoietin

    • C. 

      Aldosterone

    • D. 

      Renin


  • 16. 
    Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart.  The influence of this hormone is to
    • A. 

      Enhance atrial contractions

    • B. 

      Activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism

    • C. 

      Prevent pH changes caused by organic acids

    • D. 

      Reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention


  • 17. 
    Respiratory acidosis can occur when
    • A. 

      A person consumes excessive amounts of antacids

    • B. 

      A persons breathing is shallow due to obstruction

    • C. 

      A runner has completed a very long marathon

    • D. 

      The kidneys secrete hydrogen ions


  • 18. 
    Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?
    • A. 

      The lungs and the kidneys

    • B. 

      The adrenal glands and the testes

    • C. 

      The thyroid gland and the heart

    • D. 

      The stomach and the liver


  • 19. 
    Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?
    • A. 

      Neuromuscular activity

    • B. 

      Membrane permeability

    • C. 

      Secretory activity

    • D. 

      Anabolism of proteins


  • 20. 
    Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?
    • A. 

      ADH

    • B. 

      Aldosterone

    • C. 

      Water levels

    • D. 

      Glucocorticoids


  • 21. 
    The fluid link between the external and internal environment is
    • A. 

      Plasma

    • B. 

      Intracellular fluid

    • C. 

      Interstitial fluid

    • D. 

      Cerebrospinal fluid


  • 22. 
    Newborn infants have a relatively higher  ___________ content in their EFC tha do adults
    • A. 

      Iron

    • B. 

      Sodium

    • C. 

      Magnesium

    • D. 

      Bicarbonate


  • 23. 
    Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most  _____________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
    • A. 

      Iron

    • B. 

      Chloride

    • C. 

      Potassium

    • D. 

      Magnesium


  • 24. 
    Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and postassium between cells and body fluids?
    • A. 

      K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

    • B. 

      Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids

    • C. 

      Equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluids

    • D. 

      Little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids


  • 25. 
    Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their
    • A. 

      Inefficient kidneys

    • B. 

      Comparativley low metabolic rates

    • C. 

      Low rate of insensible water loss

    • D. 

      Low daily rate of fluid exchange


  • 26. 
    The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is
    • A. 

      The potassium ion content in the renal tubule cells

    • B. 

      The pH of the ICF

    • C. 

      Intracellular sodium levels

    • D. 

      Potassium ion concentration in blood plasma


  • 27. 
    The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system
    • A. 

      Phosphate

    • B. 

      Hemoglobin

    • C. 

      Bicarbonate

    • D. 

      Protein


  • 28. 
    A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates
    • A. 

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B. 

      Respiratory alkalosis

    • C. 

      Metabolic acidosis

    • D. 

      Metabolic alkalosis


  • 29. 
    The movement of fluids between cellular compartments
    • A. 

      Requires active transport

    • B. 

      Is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

    • C. 

      Requires ATP for the transport to take place

    • D. 

      Involves filtration


  • 30. 
    What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?
    • A. 

      ADH

    • B. 

      Aldosterone

    • C. 

      Atrial natriuretic peptide

    • D. 

      Thyroxine


  • 31. 
    Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?
    • A. 

      Chemical buffer system

    • B. 

      Diet

    • C. 

      Repiratory changes

    • D. 

      Renal mechanism


  • 32. 
    Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?
    • A. 

      Bicarbonate

    • B. 

      Phosphate

    • C. 

      Nucleic acid

    • D. 

      Protein


  • 33. 
    Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except
    • A. 

      Lymph and interstitial fluid

    • B. 

      Blood plasma

    • C. 

      Cerebrospinal fluid

    • D. 

      Glucose


  • 34. 
    Which of the following statements is true regarding the fluid shifts?
    • A. 

      Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts

    • B. 

      Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid shifts in the body

    • C. 

      Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts

    • D. 

      There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution; it is therefore impossibe to follow fluid shifts


  • 35. 
    Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?
    • A. 

      Aldosterone

    • B. 

      Thymosin

    • C. 

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • D. 

      Atrial natriuretic peptide


  • 36. 
    The maintenenace of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of
    • A. 

      The control of repiratory ventilation

    • B. 

      The operation of the various buffer systems in the stomach

    • C. 

      The active secretion of OH- into the filtrate by the kidney tubule cells

    • D. 

      Control of the acids produced in the stomach


  • 37. 
    Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?
    • A. 

      Excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion

    • B. 

      Hypotonic hydration, in which sodium content is normal but water content is high

    • C. 

      Edema or tissue swelling, which is usually due to an increased capillary hydrostic pressure

    • D. 

      Excess water in interstitial spaces due to a low level of plasma proteins


  • 38. 
    The regulation of sodium
    • A. 

      Is due to a specific sodium receptors in the hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Is linked to blood pressure

    • C. 

      Involves aldosterone, a hormone that increases sodium excretion in the kidneys

    • D. 

      Involves hypothalamic osmoreceptor detection of ion concentration


  • 39. 
    Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance
    • A. 

      The kidneys are not able to excrete phosphoric acid

    • B. 

      Excreted hydrogen ions are unbound in the filtrate

    • C. 

      Kidney tublue cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion

    • D. 

      The kidneys are the most important mechanisms for eliminating all bicarbonate ions


  • 40. 
    Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and hte patient is breathing rapidly.  Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?
    • A. 

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B. 

      Metabolic acidosis

    • C. 

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • D. 

      Respiratory alkalosis


  • 41. 
    A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is likely the diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B. 

      Metabolic acidosis

    • C. 

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • D. 

      Respiratory alkalosis


  • 42. 
    One of the major physilogical factors that triggers thirst is
    • A. 

      A dry mouth from high temperatures

    • B. 

      Becoming overly agitated

    • C. 

      Drinking caffeinated beverages

    • D. 

      A rise in plasma osmolality


  • 43. 
    Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese.  How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?
    • A. 

      It will increase the osmolality of the blood

    • B. 

      There will be a temporary increase in blood volume

    • C. 

      She will experience hypotension

    • D. 

      There will be a shift in the pH of her body fluids to the higher side of the pH scale


  • 44. 
    The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is
    • A. 

      Osmotic pressure of plasma proteins

    • B. 

      Hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

    • C. 

      Hydrostatic pressure of intersituial fluid

    • D. 

      Intracellular hydrostatic pressure


  • 45. 
    Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?
    • A. 

      Membrane polarity

    • B. 

      Neuromuscular excitability

    • C. 

      Maintenance of osmotic relations between cells and ECF

    • D. 

      Amount of body fat


  • 46. 
    The regulation of potassium balance
    • A. 

      Is not linked to sodium balance

    • B. 

      Includes renal secretion, but never absorption

    • C. 

      Is accomplished mainly by hepatic mechanisms

    • D. 

      Involves aldosterone-induced secretion of postassium


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