Theories Of Forgetting

5 Questions  I  By Nuzzzzie
Psychology AS Level

  
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1.  Cue-dependancy Theory (Tulving, 1972) Theory is based around Tulving's  _______ SPECIFICITY PRINCIPLE which states, 'the greater the similiarity between the encoding event and _______ event, the greater the likelihood of recalling the original memory.' Examples of context-dependant forgetting:
  • LOCATION; Godden & _______ (next question)
  • MUSIC; Smith showed that without the same music as a _____ cue, recall is impaired
Examples of state-dependant forgetting:
  • ALCOHOL; Duka found that ______ with alcohol and ______ with alcohol worked best as participants were using the same physical state
  • EXERCISE: Miles & _______ found that learning while _____ and recalling while _____ worked best
  • FEAR; Lang found that students that were fearful of _____ and spiders and had their ____ induced when learning a list of words, recalled them better when induced again.
2.  Context-dependant Memory Experiment (Godden & _______, 1975) ___ participants, field experiment Aim: to investigate whether a natural environment can act as a ____ for recall Findings: recall was about _____ higher when the learning and recall contexts were the _____ Conclusion: environment can act as a contextual cue for ______
3.  Evaluation of Context-dependant Memory Experiment STRENGTHS:
  • order effects, such as fatigue, were avoided using ______________ of the 4 conditions
  • findings support ______'s cue-dependancy theory
WEAKNESSES: 
  • low ______ _______, task is unlike real-life
  • ________ such as weather conditions and noise levels could not be _________ in this field setting
4.  Repression (Freud) Repression is one of our brain's defence _________. Freud believed that these blocked memories remain active in the unconcious mind and can trigger inexplained ______ illness, or inexplicable and abnormal behaviours. Evaluation STRENGTHS:
  • supported by research by Koehler (2002); sweat and stress study, _______ words caused more stress in individual
WEAKNESSES:
  • undermined by reasearch by Hadley & Mckay (2007); students shown words, _____ words were more likely to be recalled
5.  KEY ISSUE - Eye Witness Testimony Reasons why it's accurate:
  • LOP Theory would suggest that any ______ information (crime scene, people involved - what they looked like) would only be processed shallowly and would not be well _________
  • RECON Theory would suggest that memories would become distorted over time due to ______ and _________ information
  • Cue-dependancy theory would suggest that _____ of events may be poor without state/______ cues
  • Repression theory suggests that witnesses to emotionally disturbing events will have a poor ______
Reasons why it's accurate:
  • LOP theory also suggests that recall is likely to be accurate. If the information was processed _________, they're more likely to remember
  • Yuille & ______'s research into real-life accounts suggest that memories are accurate
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