Cue-dependancy Theory (Tulving, 1972)
Theory is based around Tulving's _______ SPECIFICITY PRINCIPLE which states, 'the greater the similiarity between the encoding event and _______ event, the greater the likelihood of recalling the original memory.'
Examples of context-dependant forgetting:
LOCATION; Godden & _______ (next question)
MUSIC; Smith showed that without the same music as a _____ cue, recall is impaired
Examples of state-dependant forgetting:
ALCOHOL; Duka found that ______ with alcohol and ______ with alcohol worked best as participants were using the same physical state
EXERCISE: Miles & _______ found that learning while _____ and recalling while _____ worked best
FEAR; Lang found that students that were fearful of _____ and spiders and had their ____ induced when learning a list of words, recalled them better when induced again.
Context-dependant Memory Experiment (Godden & _______, 1975)
___ participants, field experiment
Aim: to investigate whether a natural environment can act as a ____ for recall
Findings: recall was about _____ higher when the learning and recall contexts were the _____
Conclusion: environment can act as a contextual cue for ______
Evaluation of Context-dependant Memory Experiment
order effects, such as fatigue, were avoided using ______________ of the 4 conditions
findings support ______'s cue-dependancy theory
low ______ _______, task is unlike real-life
________ such as weather conditions and noise levels could not be _________ in this field setting
Repression is one of our brain's defence _________.
Freud believed that these blocked memories remain active in the unconcious mind and can trigger inexplained ______ illness, or inexplicable and abnormal behaviours.
supported by research by Koehler (2002); sweat and stress study, _______ words caused more stress in individual
undermined by reasearch by Hadley & Mckay (2007); students shown words, _____ words were more likely to be recalled
KEY ISSUE - Eye Witness Testimony
Reasons why it's accurate:
LOP Theory would suggest that any ______ information (crime scene, people involved - what they looked like) would only be processed shallowly and would not be well _________
RECON Theory would suggest that memories would become distorted over time due to ______ and _________ information
Cue-dependancy theory would suggest that _____ of events may be poor without state/______ cues
Repression theory suggests that witnesses to emotionally disturbing events will have a poor ______
Reasons why it's accurate:
LOP theory also suggests that recall is likely to be accurate. If the information was processed _________, they're more likely to remember
Yuille & ______'s research into real-life accounts suggest that memories are accurate