Sociology

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  • 1. 
    As a social institution, Ihe economy:
    • A. 

      Produces and distributes goods and services.

    • B. 

      Guides the consumption ofgoods and services.

    • C. 

      Oper.nes in a relatively predictable manncr.

    • D. 

      All of the above are corrcct.


  • 2. 
    Over the course of human history, changes in which of the following ha\'c brought the greatest changes to the economy?
    • A. 

      Productivc tcchnology

    • B. 

      The family

    • C. 

      Population size

    • D. 

      Natual resourccs


  • 3. 
    The text dcscribes three technological revolutions that transfonned all of social life. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
    • A. 

      The Agricultural Revolution

    • B. 

      The Industrial Revolution

    • C. 

      The Immigration Revolution

    • D. 

      The Information Revolution


  • 4. 
    As societies industrialize,:1 smaller sharc of the population works in which of the following locations'!
    • A. 

      Farms

    • B. 

      Factories

    • C. 

      Assembly lines

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 5. 
    The Industrial Revolution Was based on:
    • A. 

      The spread of cottage industry.

    • B. 

      People beginning to work in their homes.

    • C. 

      "decrease in productive specialization.

    • D. 

      New sources of energy.


  • 6. 
    Early factories in New Engi:lnd, where the Industrial Revolution first developed in the United States:
    • A. 

      Employed women for half the wages paid to men.

    • B. 

      Manufactured textiles.

    • C. 

      Discouraged any worker organizations.

    • D. 

      All orthe above are correct.


  • 7. 
    The postindustrial ecollomy is defined by:
    • A. 

      The spread of factories.

    • B. 

      Mass production of goods and services.

    • C. 

      Manufacturing of raw mnterials.

    • D. 

      Service work and computer technology.


  • 8. 
    What sector of the econolllY generates raw materials directly from the natural environment?
    • A. 

      Primary sector

    • B. 

      Secondary sector

    • C. 

      Tertiary sector

    • D. 

      None oflhe above is corrcct.


  • 9. 
    Tuming metals into automobiles is work that falls within the:
    • A. 

      Primary sector.

    • B. 

      Secondary sector.

    • C. 

      Tertiary sector.

    • D. 

      Any of the above would be correct.


  • 10. 
    Looking at economics around the world. the primary sector is the largest in:
    • A. 

      High.ineome nations.

    • B. 

      Middle-income nations.

    • C. 

      Low· income nations.

    • D. 

      It is thc same size in all nations.


  • 11. 
    The expansion of office work marks the growth of the economy's:
    • A. 

      Primary sector.

    • B. 

      Secondary sector.

    • C. 

      Tertiary sector.

    • D. 

      None of Ihe above is correct.


  • 12. 
    In Ihe United States, about what percentage of lite labor force perfomls tertiary sector work?
    • A. 

      18 percent

    • B. 

      38 percent

    • C. 

      58 percent

    • D. 

      78 percent


  • 13. 
    The concept "global economy" refers to:
    • A. 

      Expanding economic activity that moves across national borders.

    • B. 

      The faetthat only a few countries now contribute to the global economy.

    • C. 

      The fact that economic output is under lhe control of global political leadership.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 14. 
    Globalization of the economy means that
    • A. 

      World regions specialize in one sector ofeconomic activity.

    • B. 

      Morc and more products pass through several nations.

    • C. 

      A slll:lllnumber ofbusincsses represent a large share of the planet's economic output.

    • D. 

      All of tthe above are correct.


  • 15. 
    N a capitalist economic systcm. "justice" amounts to:
    • A. 

      Doing what is best for socicty's poorest mcmbers.

    • B. 

      Everyone being more or less socially cqual.

    • C. 

      Rreedom ofthc m:nkelplace where a person can follow self interest.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correc!.


  • 16. 
    The United Stales is amoslly capitalist nation because:
    • A. 

      The vast majority ofproducliv~ businesses arc privately owned.

    • B. 

      We have a system of free elections.

    • C. 

      Of our high living standards.

    • D. 

      Of the extensivc government control of the economy.


  • 17. 
    Socialism is an economic system in which there is:
    • A. 

      Collective control of production.

    • B. 

      Private ownership of property.

    • C. 

      Pursuit of individual proflt.

    • D. 

      All of the abo\'e arc COrTect.


  • 18. 
    In ~cialist economic system. "justice" amounts to:
    • A. 

      Trying to meel the basic needs of all in a equal manner.

    • B. 

      Doing whatcver helps boost company earnings.

    • C. 

      Frecdom of the marketplace.

    • D. 

      All of the above arc COrTect.


  • 19. 
    Which of the following concepts refcrs to a political and economic systcm that combines a mostly markct·based economy with extensive social welfare programs?
    • A. 

      Capitalism

    • B. 

      Socialism

    • C. 

      Welfare capitalism

    • D. 

      Communislll


  • 20. 
    An example ofa country with a mostly private economy and extensive social welfare programs is:
    • A. 

      The United States.

    • B. 

      Sweden

    • C. 

      Japan.

    • D. 

      All of the above arc eOrTect


  • 21. 
    The concept "state cllpitillism" refers to a system in which:
    • A. 

      The government owns :llld opcr:lles most economic enterprises.

    • B. 

      Privately-owned companies cooperate closely with the government.

    • C. 

      The government owns but docs not operate most economic enterprises.

    • D. 

      Large businesses control the go\'ernment.


  • 22. 
    Contrasted to socialist economic systems, capitalist economic systems Iypieally:
    • A. 

      Generate more economic inequality.

    • B. 

      Generate less economic inequality.

    • C. 

      Gener:lte about the same level of inequality.

    • D. 

      Do not generate any social equality.


  • 23. 
    Conceming the issue of personal freedom. capitalist systems emphasize peoplc's______ • while socialisl systems emphasize people's________ .
    • A. 

      Colleclivc needs; personal needs

    • B. 

      Freedom from basic want: freedom to pursue their self·interest

    • C. 

      Freedom to pursue their self-interest; freedom from basic want

    • D. 

      Social needs; malerial needs


  • 24. 
    In the United States about what share of the population aged sixteen and older is in the paid labor force?
    • A. 

      Onc-fifth

    • B. 

      One-third

    • C. 

      Two-thirds

    • D. 

      Nine-tenths


  • 25. 
    Over the course of the last century. the number of people involved in agricultural work:
    • A. 

      Has remained aboutthc samc.

    • B. 

      Has declined steadily.

    • C. 

      Has increased dramatically.

    • D. 

      Has stayed the samc, although a larger sharc of workers arc immigrants.


  • 26. 
    Yesterday's family fanns have given way to:
    • A. 

      Importing most foods from ahroad.

    • B. 

      Collectively·run farming communes.

    • C. 

      Corporate agribusincsses.

    • D. 

      Smaller, individually-run farms.


  • 27. 
    The concept "primary labor markct" refers to:
    • A. 

      Jobs Ihat provide cxtcnsivc benefits to workcrs.

    • B. 

      Jobs typically taken by teenagers.

    • C. 

      Jobs that require no particular trainingor experience.

    • D. 

      Jobs Ihat offer littl pay and low security.


  • 28. 
    In recent decades. union membership:
    • A. 

      Has risen in the United States and olher high-incomc nations.

    • B. 

      Has riscn in the United States. but nol in olher high-incomc nations.

    • C. 

      Has declincd in thc United States. but not in other high-income nations.

    • D. 

      Has declined in the United States and other high-income nations.


  • 29. 
    Whieh of the fol1owinl; would be included in the operation of the underground cconomy?
    • A. 

      A teacher who is on disability leave for a long time

    • B. 

      An executive who illegally "borrows" funds from the company

    • C. 

      A taxi driver who fails to report most orher income

    • D. 

      Food servers who arc paid less than the minimum wage


  • 30. 
    Which category orthe U.S. population is showing the greatest Iabor·force increase in tcrms of percentagc?
    • A. 

      White men

    • B. 

      Hispanic women

    • C. 

      White women

    • D. 

      African American women


  • 31. 
    Computers are having which of the rollowing effects on the workplace?
    • A. 

      Computcrs are dcskilling labor.

    • B. 

      Computers arc limiting workplace interaction.

    • C. 

      Computers enhance employers' control of workers.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 32. 
    The concept "oligopoly" refers to:
    • A. 

      Any corporation with more than SI billion in sales.

    • B. 

      The largest company in a particular field.

    • C. 

      Domination of a market by a few producers.

    • D. 

      A large company operating in all three cconomic sectors.


  • 33. 
    Modemization theorists see large corporations as:
    • A. 

      Offering lillie to help poor nations seeking to develop.

    • B. 

      Unleashing the productive power ofcapitalism to speed developmelll in poor nalions.

    • C. 

      Responsible for the debt crisis in many poor nations.

    • D. 

      Needing the tcchnology currcntly a\'ailablc in poor nations.


  • 34. 
    Dependency theorists see large corporations as:
    • A. 

      The key to meeting the needs of people in poor nations.

    • B. 

      Helping poor nations 10 de\'elop local imluslrics.

    • C. 

      A major source of foreign invcstlllent for poor nations.

    • D. 

      Intensifying global inequality.


  • 35. 
    The ch'lptcr-opening story 'lboutthe class at New York's Bronx Community College explains that:
    • A. 

      Race is a simple maner of color.

    • B. 

      ManY pcople have mixcd racial and ethnic ancestry.

    • C. 

      Race is not important to most people in the Unitcd States.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correc!.


  • 36. 
    Human beings are all:
    • A. 

      Members of a single biological species.

    • B. 

      Members of various species, depending on color.

    • C. 

      Mcmbers of various species, depending on cultural background.

    • D. 

      Mcmbers of various species, depending on where in the world they live.


  • 37. 
    Race refers to______ _~ considered important by a society; ethnicity refers to -----------'
    • A. 

      Cultural traits; biologicaltrnits

    • B. 

      Biological traits: cultural traits

    • C. 

      Differences; what we have in common

    • D. 

      What we have in COllllllon; differences


  • 38. 
    A family leaves Russia and takes up residellce in the United States, where they gradually lose cultural tr<lditiolls. Doing so, these people have modified their:
    • A. 

      Race.

    • B. 

      Ethnicity

    • C. 

      Ancestry.

    • D. 

      Religion.


  • 39. 
    Which of the following is Ihe largest minority category within the U.S. population?
    • A. 

      People of Asian descent

    • B. 

      People of African descent

    • C. 

      People of Hispanic descent

    • D. 

      Pcople of Nativc American descent


  • 40. 
    111 the United States. minorities typically have less:
    • A. 

      Incomc.

    • B. 

      Occupational prestige.

    • C. 

      Schooling.

    • D. 

      All of the above arc corrcct.


  • 41. 
    ACl.:ording to thc most reccnt data, African Ameril.:ans accounted for about what perl.:cntage orthe U.S. population?
    • A. 

      42.3 percent

    • B. 

      32.3 percent

    • C. 

      22.3 percent

    • D. 

      12.8 percent


  • 42. 
    Which ofthc following statements about prejudice is true'!
    • A. 

      Prejudicc involvcs prejudgments.

    • B. 

      Prejudice trcats cveryone in some category in the same way.

    • C. 

      Prejudice can be positive or negative.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 43. 
    Based all research using the social dislance scale. you can correctly say that U.S. college studenls today:
    • A. 

      Are less prejudiced than their counterparts fifty years ago.

    • B. 

      See less difTerencc between various minorily categories.

    • C. 

      Express greater prejudice towards Arabs than African Americans.

    • D. 

      All of the above arc correct.


  • 44. 
    Scapegoat theory slates that prejudice is created by:
    • A. 

      Culture beliefs.

    • B. 

      High levels of immigration.

    • C. 

      Frustration among disadvantaged people.

    • D. 

      People with rigid personalities.


  • 45. 
    Authoritarian personality theory states that extreme prejudice is:
    • A. 

      Built into culture itself.

    • B. 

      A trait of certain individuals.

    • C. 

      Found among poor and disadvantaged people.

    • D. 

      Found among most people in all societies.


  • 46. 
    Conflict theory states lhat prejudice is:
    • A. 

      Used by powerful people to justify oppressing olhers.

    • B. 

      Built in to culture itself.

    • C. 

      Common among immigrants.

    • D. 

      Common among certain people with rigid personalities.


  • 47. 
    While prejudice is a maHer of_______ . discrimination is a matter of ___________.
    • A. 

      Biology; culture

    • B. 

      Attitude; action

    • C. 

      Choice; social Structure

    • D. 

      Abnormality; what a society considers normal


  • 48. 
    Institutional prejudice alld discriminationl refers to lhe fact that:
    • A. 

      Some people hold rigid and unfair attitudes.

    • B. 

      Bias was more pronounccd in this nation's history.

    • C. 

      Bias is built into the operation of social institutions.

    • D. 

      Lllany people still hold prejudiced opinions.


  • 49. 
    The idea that prejudice and discrimination form a vicious cycle means that:
    • A. 

      Prejudicc is more common than actual discrimination.

    • B. 

      It is easy to provc that most stereotypes arc wrong.

    • C. 

      Most people will act on their prejudices.

    • D. 

      Bias is ealsily continued over time.


  • 50. 
    The claim that defining members of some minority as inferior will make them inferior is one applisatlon of:
    • A. 

      Social distance research.

    • B. 

      The iron law ofoligarchy.

    • C. 

      The Thomas Theorem.

    • D. 

      Authoritarian personality theory.


  • 51. 
    Thc United Stales is not lruly pluralistic because:
    • A. 

      Some people live in "ethnic enclaves."

    • B. 

      Many people value cthnic diversity.

    • C. 

      Racial and ethnic categories do not have roughly equal social standing.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 52. 
    Assimilation refers to the pattern by which:
    • A. 

      People become more tolerant of minorities.

    • B. 

      Minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category.

    • C. 

      All minority categories become more equal in social standing.

    • D. 

      People regain their lost cultural heritage.


  • 53. 
    In the United States during the 1930s and 1940s, the existence ofthe "Negro leagues," with all African-American players, is an example of:
    • A. 

      Assimilation.

    • B. 

      Segregation.

    • C. 

      Pluralism.

    • D. 

      Miscegenation.


  • 54. 
    Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton documented which of the following patterns in U.S. inner cities?
    • A. 

      Hypersegregation

    • B. 

      The absence ofracial segregation

    • C. 

      De jure segregation

    • D. 

      Declining segregation


  • 55. 
    The killing of people in the Darfur region ofAfrica is a recent example of:
    • A. 

      Assimilation.

    • B. 

      Genocide.

    • C. 

      Miscegenation.

    • D. 

      Hypersegregation.


  • 56. 
    When the first Europeans arrived in the Americas in the fifteenth century, Native Americans:
    • A. 

      Followed shortly thereafter.

    • B. 

      Had just migrated to North America from Asia.

    • C. 

      Came with them from Europe.

    • D. 

      Had inhabited this land for 30,000 years.


  • 57. 
    Native Americans gained the right to U.S. citizenship in:
    • A. 

      1865.

    • B. 

      1924.

    • C. 

      1965.

    • D. 

      1990.


  • 58. 
    What Gunnar Myrdal called the "American dilemma" was:
    • A. 

      The denial ofbasic rights to African Americans by a so-called "democratic society."

    • B. 

      The placing of Native Americans on reservations.

    • C. 

      The restriction of immigration by a nation that was built by immigrants.

    • D. 

      The refusal of many minorities to improve their social standing.


  • 59. 
    Read the following statements. Which one is correct?
    • A. 

      Half of the ten largest U.S. cities have elected black mayors.

    • B. 

      After the 2006 elections, just one senator was African American.

    • C. 

      Median income for African American families is 56 percent ofthe amount for nonHispanic white families.

    • D. 

      All of the above statements are correct.


  • 60. 
    The largest category of Asian Americans in the United States is people of__ancestry.
    • A. 

      Korean

    • B. 

      Japanese

    • C. 

      Chinese

    • D. 

      Vietnamese


  • 61. 
    Which ofthe following categories ofthe U.S. population is most likely to own and operate a small business?
    • A. 

      Native Americans

    • B. 

      African Americans

    • C. 

      Korean Americans

    • D. 

      Mexican Americans


  • 62. 
    The Hispanic population of the United States is:
    • A. 

      Spread evenly across the country.

    • B. 

      Concentrated in the West and also in southern Florida.

    • C. 

      Concentrated in industrial cities of the Northeast.

    • D. 

      Concentrated in the Deep South.


  • 63. 
    Arab Americans are a U.S. minority that:
    • A. 

      Is increasing in population size.

    • B. 

      Has ancestors from many different nations.

    • C. 

      Has Islam as the dominant religion.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 64. 
    The concept "white ethnics" refers to:
    • A. 

      People of Hispanic ancestry who are light skinned.

    • B. 

      People of any ethnicity who are light skinned.

    • C. 

      Biracial or multiracial people.

    • D. 

      Non-WASPs of European ancestry.


  • 65. 
    From which world regions do most oftoday's immigrants come?
    • A. 

      Latin America and Asia

    • B. 

      Asia and Africa

    • C. 

      Africa and Latin America

    • D. 

      Africa and Europe


  • 66. 
    Politics is a social institution that is defined in tenns ofa society's:
    • A. 

      Distribution ofpower, goals, and decision making.

    • B. 

      System of elections.

    • C. 

      Income distribution.

    • D. 

      Types of authority.


  • 67. 
    Max Weber defined power as:
    • A. 

      Simply a reflection of wealth.

    • B. 

      The ability to achieve desired ends, despite resistance.

    • C. 

      The ability to achieve desired ends, despite resistance.

    • D. 

      The source of all bureaucracy.


  • 68. 
    Preindustrial societies, explained Max Weber, are characterized by having:
    • A. 

      Mostly traditional authority.

    • B. 

      Mostly rational-legal authority.

    • C. 

      Mostly charismatic authority.

    • D. 

      No authority at all.


  • 69. 
    Industrialization increases the importance of which type ofauthority?
    • A. 

      Traditional authority

    • B. 

      Rational-legal authority

    • C. 

      Charismatic authority

    • D. 

      No authority at all


  • 70. 
    As Max Weber saw it, the essential difference between power and authority is that:
    • A. 

      Authority is more rational.

    • B. 

      People perceive authority as legitimate, rather than coercive.

    • C. 

      Raw power is always the foundation ofjustice.

    • D. 

      Power is more efficient in getting the job done.


  • 71. 
    People who attract followers, including Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, display:
    • A. 

      Traditional authority.

    • B. 

      Rational-legal authority.

    • C. 

      Charismatic authority.

    • D. 

      Power rather than authority.


  • 72. 
    Which ofthe following concepts refers to a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation?
    • A. 

      Democracy

    • B. 

      Monarchy

    • C. 

      Totalitarianism

    • D. 

      Aristocracy


  • 73. 
    In Max Weber's view, monarchy claims legitimacy based on:
    • A. 

      Traditional authority.

    • B. 

      Charismatic authority.

    • C. 

      Rational-legal authority.

    • D. 

      Rational-legal authority.


  • 74. 
    Which ofthe following concepts refers to a political system in which power resides in the hands of the people as a whole?
    • A. 

      Democracy

    • B. 

      Monarchy

    • C. 

      Totalitarianism

    • D. 

      Aristocracy


  • 75. 
    For which ofthe following reasons might you argue that the United States is not truly democratic?
    • A. 

      There is a lot of economic inequality.

    • B. 

      Millions of bureaucratic officials are not elected..

    • C. 

      Most U.S. adults have never voted.

    • D. 

      Both A and B, but not C, are correct.


  • 76. 
    In 2008, about what percentage of the world's people lived in countries that can be considered politically "free?"
    • A. 

      6 percent

    • B. 

      26 percent

    • C. 

      46 percent

    • D. 

      66 percent


  • 77. 
    The concept "political economy" refers to:
    • A. 

      Any system in which people are unequal.

    • B. 

      The interplay of politics and economics.

    • C. 

      Democratic political systems.

    • D. 

      The most efficient form ofgovernment.


  • 78. 
    Capitalist societies base their claim to democracy on:
    • A. 

      People having personal liberty.

    • B. 

      Meeting the basic needs of all.

    • C. 

      Maintaining public order.

    • D. 

      Their high living standards.


  • 79. 
    Socialist societies base their claim to democracy on:
    • A. 

      People having personal liberty.

    • B. 

      Meeting the basic needs ofall.

    • C. 

      Maintaining public order.

    • D. 

      Their high living standards.


  • 80. 
    A totalitarian political system:
    • A. 

      Mixes politics with religion.

    • B. 

      Is completely democratic.

    • C. 

      Is government without any bureaucracy.

    • D. 

      Concentrates power and closely regulates people's lives.


  • 81. 
    Which ofthe following statements correctly describes how the U.S. population falls on the political spectrum?
    • A. 

      The largest share of people are moderates who fall ncar the political center.

    • B. 

      Most people fall on the political left.

    • C. 

      Most people fall on the political right.

    • D. 

      Most people fall near one or the other outer edge ofthe spectrum.


  • 82. 
    The gun lobby is an example of a:
    • A. 

      Special-interest group.

    • B. 

      Political action committee.

    • C. 

      Political party.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 83. 
    Which ofthe following statements about political parties in the United States is true?
    • A. 

      Democrats have had control of Congress for more than twenty years.

    • B. 

      Most people claim to be either a strong Republican or a strong Democrat.

    • C. 

      National political power tends to swing from one party to the other over time.

    • D. 

      The last five presidents have all been Republicans.


  • 84. 
    In the United States,__people tend to vote Democratic, while__people mostly vote Republican.
    • A. 

      Rural; urban

    • B. 

      Urban; rural

    • C. 

      High-income; low-income

    • D. 

      Conservative; liberal


  • 85. 
    In the 2008 presidential election, about what percentage of registered voters actually went to the polls?
    • A. 

      About 80 percent

    • B. 

      About 63 percent

    • C. 

      About 30 percent

    • D. 

      About 20 percent


  • 86. 
    A pluralist approach to the U.S. political system suggests that:
    • A. 

      Power is concentrated in the hands ofa few.

    • B. 

      An anti-democratic bias exists in the capitalist system.

    • C. 

      Power is widely dispersed throughout society.

    • D. 

      Many people do not vote because they are alienated from the political system.


  • 87. 
    A power-elite approach to the U.S. political system suggests that:
    • A. 

      Power is concentrated in the hands ofa few.

    • B. 

      An anti-democratic bias exists in the capitalist system.

    • C. 

      Power is widely dispersed throughout society.

    • D. 

      Many people do not vote because they are alienated from the political system.


  • 88. 
    The Marxist political-economy model suggests that:
    • A. 

      Power is no longer concentrated in the hands ofa few.

    • B. 

      An anti-democratic bias exists in the capitalist system.

    • C. 

      Power is widely dispersed throughout society.

    • D. 

      Many people do not vote because they are satisfied with the political system.


  • 89. 
    Which ofthe following is a factor encouraging political revolution?
    • A. 

      Rising expectation ofa better life

    • B. 

      Unresponsive government

    • C. 

      Radical leadership by intellectuals

    • D. 

      All ofthe above are correct.


  • 90. 
    Terrorism refers to:
    • A. 

      The use of military force by a nation state.

    • B. 

      The use or threat of violence as a political strategy by an individual or group.

    • C. 

      Organized, armed conflict between groups.

    • D. 

      Unorganized, violent conflict between any two parties.


  • 91. 
    Which ofthe following concepts refers to the use of violence by governments, often against their own people?
    • A. 

      Authoritarianism

    • B. 

      State terrorism

    • C. 

      Totalitarianism

    • D. 

      Counterterrorism


  • 92. 
    Which 'of all U.S. wars was the most deadly in terms of loss of (U.S.) lives?
    • A. 

      The Civil War

    • B. 

      World War I

    • C. 

      World War II

    • D. 

      The War in Iraq


  • 93. 
    A sociological profile ofmen and women in the U.S. armed forces reveals a large share ofyoung people who:
    • A. 

      Are of working-class background.

    • B. 

      Are looking to the military for a job.

    • C. 

      Join the military to earn money for college or just to get out of a small home town.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 94. 
    About how much money docs the world as a whole spend annually for military purposes?
    • A. 

      $12 million

    • B. 

      $120 million

    • C. 

      $12 billion

    • D. 

      $1.2 trillion


  • 95. 
    The military-industrial complex refers to:
    • A. 

      The fact that war often destroys a country's economic infrastructure.

    • B. 

      The close link between the government, defense contractors, and the military.

    • C. 

      The fact that the postindustrial economy is increasingly dominated by war production.

    • D. 

      The fact that the military is the world's largest industrial corporation.


  • 96. 
    For almost fifty years, what strategy has kept the peace between the world's nuclear superpowers?
    • A. 

      Deterrence

    • B. 

      High-technology defense

    • C. 

      Disarmament

    • D. 

      Resolving underlying differences


  • 97. 
    The family is a social institution that is found in:
    • A. 

      Most but not all societies.

    • B. 

      About half ofhuman societies in the world today.

    • C. 

      High-income nations but not in most low-income nations.

    • D. 

      Every society.


  • 98. 
    People include as "kin" others linked by:
    • A. 

      Having the same ancestors.

    • B. 

      Marriage.

    • C. 

      Adoption.

    • D. 

      All of the above are a basis for kinship.


  • 99. 
    A family that includes parents and children as well as other kin is called:
    • A. 

      A nuclear family.

    • B. 

      An extended family.

    • C. 

      A family of affinity.

    • D. 

      A conjugal family.


  • 100. 
    A family composed of one or two parents and their children is called:
    • A. 

      A nuclear family.

    • B. 

      An extended family.

    • C. 

      A family of affinity.

    • D. 

      A consanguine family.


  • 101. 
    A system ofmarriage that unites one woman with two or more men is called:
    • A. 

      Polygyny.

    • B. 

      Polygamy.

    • C. 

      Polyandry.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 102. 
             The concept "patrilocality" refers to:
    • A. 

      Rule ofmen over women.

    • B. 

      A residential pattern by which a married couple lives near the husband's family.

    • C. 

      A system of tracing descent through males.

    • D. 

      A family composed of only males.


  • 103. 
       Typically, high-income societies make use of which of the following systems to trace ancestry?
    • A. 

      Bilateral descent

    • B. 

      Matrilineal descent

    • C. 

      Patrilineal descent

    • D. 

      None of the above is correct.


  • 104. 
       Which ofthe following are counted among the functions of the family?
    • A. 

      Socialization of the young

    • B. 

      Regulation ofsexual activity

    • C. 

      Social placement

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 105. 
       A social-exchange analysis of family life is likely consider:
    • A. 

      How families keep society as a whole operating.

    • B. 

      How families perpetuate social inequality.

    • C. 

      How individuals select partners who offer about as much as they do.

    • D. 

      How families regulate sexual activity.


  • 106. 
       What is the effect of industrialization on the number of children in a typical family?
    • A. 

      Families have more children.

    • B. 

      Families have the same number of children.

    • C. 

      Families have fewer children.

    • D. 

      Families no longer care about how many children they have.


  • 107. 
       Today's baby boomers are often called the "sandwich generation" because:
    • A. 

      Of their love of fast food.

    • B. 

      They do not easily mix family and work responsibilities.

    • C. 

      Their families rarely eat meals together.

    • D. 

      They spend time caring for both children and aging parents.


  • 108. 
       Regardless of race, families headed by single women are:
    • A. 

      At high risk for poverty.

    • B. 

      Much larger than other family types.

    • C. 

      Much smaller than other family types.

    • D. 

      Likely to experience greater upward social mobility.


  • 109. 
       The recent trend in racially mixed marriages has been:
    • A. 

      Ard-thenumbersareincreasing. upward - the numbers are increasing

    • B. 

      Stable-the numbers are holding steady.

    • C. 

      Downward-the numbers are falling.

    • D. 

      Rising in good economic times, and falling in bad economic times.


  • 110. 
       Compared to what it was a century ago, the U.S. divorce rate is now:
    • A. 

      About the same.

    • B. 

      Half as high.

    • C. 

      Twice as high.

    • D. 

      About ten times higher.


  • 111. 
       Based on the text, which of the following categories ofpeople would you expect to have the highest risk of divorce?
    • A. 

      Young people who marry after a short courtship

    • B. 

      A couple facing a wanted and expected pregnancy

    • C. 

      A couple whose parent~ never experienced divorce

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 112. 
       Most people in the United States who divorce:
    • A. 

      Remain single.

    • B. 

      Experience a rising standard of living.

    • C. 

      Remarry within five years.

    • D. 

      Have experiencecffamily violence.


  • 113. 
       Almost all adults who abuse children typically have what in common?
    • A. 

      They are middle class.

    • B. 

      They are women.

    • C. 

      They were abused themselves as children.

    • D. 

      They were married at a very young age.


  • 114. 
       Research shows that growing lip in a single-parent family:
    • A. 

      Is beneficial to children.

    • B. 

      Has no effect on children.

    • C. 

      Can disadvantage children.

    • D. 

      Is beneficial to boys, but harmful to girls.


  • 115. 
       In 1989, which country became the first to permit legal same-sex partnerships with many of the benefits of marriage?
    • A. 

      Denmark

    • B. 

      Canada

    • C. 

      Sweden

    • D. 

      The United States


  • 116. 
       Looking for evidence about how much the traditional family is eroding, you might point to the fact that:
    • A. 

      Singlehood is up.

    • B. 

      The divorce rate is up.

    • C. 

      More children are born to single mothers.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 117. 
       The concept of gender refers to:
    • A. 

      The degree of inequality between men and women in a society.

    • B. 

      The secondary sex characteristics of individuals.

    • C. 

      The personal traits and social positions that members ofa society attach to being female or male.

    • D. 

      Patterns of sex.ual orientation.


  • 118. 
       The chapter argues that gender is a matter of not just difference but also of differences in:
    • A. 

      Power.

    • B. 

      Wealth.

    • C. 

      Privileges.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 119. 
       On average, do women or men live longer?
    • A. 

      On average, men outlive women by about one year.

    • B. 

      On average, women outlive men by about one year.

    • C. 

      On average, men outlive womcn by about five years.

    • D. 

      On avcrage, women outlive men by about five years.


  • 120. 
       Comparing thc performances of female and male athletes over time shows:
    • A. 

      Little or no change in female-male differences in performance.

    • B. 

      Male performances are improving faster than female performances.

    • C. 

      Women have been closing the gap with men in most athletic performances.

    • D. 

      Women now outperform men in most athletic events.


  • 121. 
       The point ofdescribing gendcr in the Israeli kibbutzim is to show that:
    • A. 

      Gender is rooted in biology.

    • B. 

      Women can dominate men.

    • C. 

      Cultures define gender in different ways.

    • D. 

      To show that boys and girls must be raised by biological parents.


  • 122. 
       Which of the following concepts refers to social organization in which males dominate females?
    • A. 

      Patriarchy

    • B. 

      Matriarchy

    • C. 

      Monarchy

    • D. 

      Oligarchy


  • 123. 
       What is the form of social organization in which females dominate malcs?
    • A. 

      Patriarchy

    • B. 

      Matriarchy

    • C. 

      Monarchy

    • D. 

      Oligarchy


  • 124. 
       Based on the map and discussion in the text, where would you go to find societies in which women's social power is lowest compared to that of men?
    • A. 

      Europe

    • B. 

      North America

    • C. 

      Africa

    • D. 

      South America


  • 125. 
       Which concept refers to attitudes and activities that a society links to people ofeach sex?
    • A. 

      Primary sex characteristics

    • B. 

      Sexual orientation

    • C. 

      Gender roles

    • D. 

      Secondary sex characteristics


  • 126. 
       Where would you look in U.S. schools to find courses in which men outnumber women?
    • A. 

      The fine arts

    • B. 

      The sciences

    • C. 

      The social sciences

    • D. 

      Any and all subjects


  • 127. 
       What share of today's U.S. women are working for income?
    • A. 

      20 percent

    • B. 

      30 percent

    • C. 

      40 percent

    • D. 

      60 percent


  • 128. 
       A majority of U.S. women in which of the following categories are in the labor force?
    • A. 

      Married women with children

    • B. 

      Single women with children

    • C. 

      Divorced women with children

    • D. 

      All of the above arc correct.


  • 129. 
         T he concept "glass ceiling" refers to:
    • A. 

      The barrier that prevents women from reaching the top.

    • B. 

      The fact that women's dreams are easily broken.

    • C. 

      The fact that cleaning the home is all most women do.

    • D. 

      The barrier that keeps women in service work.


  • 130. 
       Which of the following is an important exception to male domination of the U.S. workplace?
    • A. 

      Women now own more than 6 million small businesses.

    • B. 

      Women hold 80 percent of pink-collar jobs.

    • C. 

      Most college and university faculty are women.

    • D. 

      A majority of corporate executives are women.


  • 131. 
       For which of the following categories of the U.S. population is it true that women do most ofthe housework?
    • A. 

      Employed people

    • B. 

      Married people

    • C. 

      People with children

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 132. 
       In the United States in 2007. women in the labor force working full time earned__as much as men working full time.
    • A. 

      97 percent

    • B. 

      87 percent

    • C. 

      78 percent

    • D. 

      57 percent


  • 133. 
       Recent research reveals that about what share of our country's richest people are women?
    • A. 

      91 percent

    • B. 

      71 percent

    • C. 

      51 percent

    • D. 

      10 percent


  • 134. 
       As of.2007, women held about what share of seats in Congress?
    • A. 

      16 percent

    • B. 

      36 percent

    • C. 

      56 percent

    • D. 

      76 percent


  • 135. 
       In which ofthe following nations docs the greatest political power of women come closest to that of men?  
    • A. 

      United States

    • B. 

      Norway

    • C. 

      China

    • D. 

      Cuba


  • 136. 
       Women have served in the U.S. armed forces:
    • A. 

      Since World War II.

    • B. 

      Since the Vietnam War.

    • C. 

      Since the Persian Gulf War.

    • D. 

      Since colonial times.


  • 137. 
       Which of the following statements is a correct reason to see women as a minority in the United States  
    • A. 

      At every class level, women have less income, wealth, education, and power than men do.

    • B. 

      Almost all women see themselves as a minority.

    • C. 

      In the United States, men outnumber women.

    • D. 

      All ofthe above are correct.


  • 138. 
       Intersection theory explains that which ofthe following is a source of social disadvantage?
    • A. 

      Gender

    • B. 

      Race

    • C. 

      Class

    • D. 

      All of the above arc correct.


  • 139. 
       If you could end violence against women in one setting, which ofthe following would reduce this type of violence the most?
    • A. 

      The workplace

    • B. 

      The home

    • C. 

      Public places

    • D. 

      College campuses


  • 140. 
       In what percentage of rapes and attempted rapes does the woman know her attacker?
    • A. 

      10 percent

    • B. 

      30 percent

    • C. 

      70 percent

    • D. 

      90 percent


  • 141. 
       Most cases of female genital mutilation occur in which ofthe following places?
    • A. 

      Latin America

    • B. 

      The United States

    • C. 

      Africa

    • D. 

      Asia


  • 142. 
       Sexual harassment is an important social issue because:
    • A. 

      It actually targets men more often than women.

    • B. 

      Halfofworking women report receiving unwanted sexual attention.

    • C. 

      It almost always involves blatant threats.

    • D. 

      All ofthe above arc correct.


  • 143. 
       Structural-functional analysis points out that industrialization encourages:
    • A. 

      Men to take control ofthe workplace.

    • B. 

      Growing gender equality.

    • C. 

      Women to have more children.

    • D. 

      All ofthe above are correct.


  • 144. 
       Talcott Parsons explained that males tend toward__behavior, while females are more__.
    • A. 

      Instrumental; expressive

    • B. 

      Expressive; instrumental

    • C. 

      Egalitarian; hierarchical

    • D. 

      Rational; emotional


  • 145. 
       Engels claimed that men's desire to control their property brought about:
    • A. 

      Educational reform.

    • B. 

      Widespread use of birth control.

    • C. 

      Monogamous marriage.

    • D. 

      The rise of industry.


  • 146. 
       Which type of feminism accepts the basic organization ofU.S. society, but seeks to give women the same rights and opportunities as men?
    • A. 

      Liberal feminism

    • B. 

      Socialist feminism

    • C. 

      Radical feminism

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 147. 
       Which type of feminism seeks to end patriarchy by eliminating the idea of gender itself?
    • A. 

      Liberal feminism

    • B. 

      Socialist feminism

    • C. 

      Radical feminism

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.


  • 148. 
       Opposition to feminism is:
    • A. 

      Expressed by a majority of people in the United States.

    • B. 

      Directed mostly at socialist and radical feminism.

    • C. 

      Now just about gone in the United States.

    • D. 

      Increasing over time.


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