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Sociology Test 1

27 Questions
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Sociology Test 1Time: 1 hr 15mins

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
  • 2. 
    The sociological perspective reveals that:
    • A. 

      “common sense” is usually pretty close to the truth.

    • B. 

      much of what passes for “common sense” turns out to be at least partly wrong.

    • C. 

      Most people readily see how society shapes our lives.

    • D. 

      “common sense” is not very popular.

  • 3. 
    The idea that the social world guides our actions and life choices just as the seasons influence activities and choice of clothing describes:
    • A. 

      The basis of what philosophy calls “free will.”

    • B. 

      the essential wisdom of the discipline of sociology.

    • C. 

      The fact that people everywhere have “common sense.”

    • D. 

      the fact that people from countries all around the world make mostly identical choices about how to live.

  • 4. 
    Sociology provides an advantage to students preparing for later careers by preparing them for work:
    • A. 

      Only as teaching sociologists.

    • B. 

      Only in criminal justice or social work.

    • C. 

      Only as clinical sociologists.

    • D. 

      in all of the above careers and many others, including business, education, and law enforcement.

  • 5. 
    Examples of people applying their knowledge of sociology at work include people in:
    • A. 

      Law enforcement, understanding which categories of people are at high risk of becoming victims of crime.

    • B. 

      Medicine, understanding patterns of health in a community.

    • C. 

      business, dealing with different categories of people.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.

  • 6. 
    Which of the following historical changes is among the factors that stimulated the development of sociology as a discipline?
    • A. 

      The founding of the Roman Catholic church

    • B. 

      the rise of industrial factories and cities

    • C. 

      The power of tradition

    • D. 

      A belief that our futures are defined by "fate"

  • 7. 
    In which of the countries noted below did sociology first appear as a formal discipline?
    • A. 

      the United States

    • B. 

      Japan

    • C. 

      France

    • D. 

      China

  • 8. 
    Sociology differs from the older discipline of philosophy by focusing on:
    • A. 

      What the ideal society should be.

    • B. 

      Human nature.

    • C. 

      the place of God in shaping human events.

    • D. 

      How society actually operates.

  • 9. 
    According to Comte, people living in Europe during the Middle Ages thought of society as:
    • A. 

      A system operating according to its own laws.

    • B. 

      chaotic and having little form.

    • C. 

      An expression of God's will.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.

  • 10. 
    According to Comte's approach, the kind of thinking favored by people such as Thomas Edison, the inventor of the light bulb, becomes common in a society at which stage of societal development?
    • A. 

      theological stage

    • B. 

      Metaphysical stage

    • C. 

      scientific stage

    • D. 

      All of the above.

  • 11. 
    Sociologists cannot identify "laws of society" that allow us to predict individual human behavior:
    • A. 

      because human behavior is patterned but also spontaneous.

    • B. 

      because sociology is still very young.

    • C. 

      because no sociologist ever tried to discover such laws.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

  • 12. 
    Which of the following best describes the focus of the structural-functional approach?
    • A. 

      the meaning people attach to their behavior

    • B. 

      patterns of social inequality

    • C. 

      The consequences of social patterns for the operation of society

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.

  • 13. 
    Using the structural-functional approach, which of the following questions might you ask about marriage?
    • A. 

      What do people think marriage means?

    • B. 

      How does marriage benefit women and men unequally?

    • C. 

      What are the consequences of marriage for the operation of society?

    • D. 

      How can we help people find more pleasure in their marriages?

  • 14. 
    Social structures sometimes have negative consequences for the operation of society as a whole. What is the term for these negative consequences?
    • A. 

      Social structure

    • B. 

      eufunctions

    • C. 

      social functions

    • D. 

      social dysfunctions

  • 15. 
    The recognized and intended consequences of a social pattern are referred to as:
    • A. 

      latent functions.

    • B. 

      Manifest functions.

    • C. 

      eufunctions.

    • D. 

      Dysfunctions.

  • 16. 
    Which of the following is the best example of a latent function of going to college?
    • A. 

      providing skills needed for later jobs

    • B. 

      keeping young people out of the labor force, which may not have jobs for them

    • C. 

      Gaining the knowledge required to be an active and thoughtful citizen

    • D. 

      Giving young people experience living on their own

  • 17. 
    Which of the following is an accurate criticism of the structural-functional approach?
    • A. 

      It ignores inequality that can generate tension and conflict.

    • B. 

      It focuses too much on social dysfunction.

    • C. 

      It focuses too much on power divisions in society.

    • D. 

      It is a politically liberal view of society.

  • 18. 
    Which of the following statements might be made by a sociologist using the social-conflict approach?
    • A. 

      Men and women share in the joys of family life.

    • B. 

      Men earn more than women in the workplace.

    • C. 

      Gender functions in an important way to keep society operating.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.

  • 19. 
    Which theoretical approach would highlight the fact that, on average, African American families have less income than white families?
    • A. 

      the race-conflict approach

    • B. 

      The gender-conflict approach

    • C. 

      The structural-functional approach

    • D. 

      The symbolic-interaction approach

  • 20. 
    The basic idea of the symbolic-interaction approach is that society is:
    • A. 

      an arena of conflict between categories of people.

    • B. 

      The product of people interacting in everyday situations.

    • C. 

      A system that operates to benefit people.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.

  • 21. 
    A criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach is that it:
    • A. 

      Calls attention to major social institutions.

    • B. 

      Ignores how structural factors such as class affect people’s experiences.

    • C. 

      paints a very positive picture of society.

  • 22. 
    Which of the following is a manifest function of sports?
    • A. 

      providing recreation and physical conditioning

    • B. 

      fostering social relationships

    • C. 

      generating jobs

    • D. 

      Teaching a society’s way of life

  • 23. 
    Building social relationships and creating tens of thousands of jobs are two of the ____ of sports.
    • A. 

      Manifest functions

    • B. 

      latent functions

    • C. 

      dysfunctions

  • 24. 
    Which of the following would be the focus of a social-conflict analysis of sports?
    • A. 

      the way in which sports help encourage competition

    • B. 

      the importance of physical ability in success

    • C. 

      How sports reflect social inequality

    • D. 

      the different meanings people attach to games

  • 25. 
    Which of the following statements is based on a symbolic-interaction analysis of sports?
    • A. 

      Winning at sports means different things to different people.

    • B. 

      Some categories of people benefit more than others from sports.

    • C. 

      Sports help develop important cultural values.

  • 26. 
    Unlike simple stereotypes, sociological generalizations:
    • A. 

      do not apply to all individuals in some category.

    • B. 

      Are based on all available facts.

    • C. 

      Are offered fair-mindedly with an interest in the truth.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.

  • 27. 
    Name the three social changes in European history that were especially important to the development of sociology.