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Radiography: Radiobiology & Radiation Safety Ch 13

32 Questions
Radiobiology Quizzes & Trivia

From book Radiography Essentials for Limited Practice 3rd Edition

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The conventional (British system) radiation unit for measuring patient dose is the:
    • A. 

      Roentgen

    • B. 

      Rem.

    • C. 

      Rad.

    • D. 

      Sievert

  • 2. 
    What is the conventional (British system) radiation unit to express radiation intensity in air?
    • A. 

      Coulomb/kilogram (C/kg)

    • B. 

      Watt

    • C. 

      Ohm

    • D. 

      Roentgen

  • 3. 
    The unit of the SI system used to measure the ionization of dry air nby an x-ray beam is:
    • A. 

      R.

    • B. 

      C/kg.

    • C. 

      Rad.

    • D. 

      Rem.

  • 4. 
    The unit commonly used to report occupational dose to radiation workers in the United States is:
    • A. 

      MR

    • B. 

      Mrad

    • C. 

      Mrem

    • D. 

      MGy

  • 5. 
    What is the conventional (British System) radiation unit of absorbed dose?
    • A. 

      Rad

    • B. 

      Roentgen

    • C. 

      Gray

    • D. 

      Rem

  • 6. 
    How many rad are equivalent to one (1) Gy?
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      100

    • C. 

      1

    • D. 

      0.1

  • 7. 
    A _________ is a number assigned to each type of radiation based on its relative biologic effect compared with x-rays.
    • A. 

      Quantity factor

    • B. 

      Quality factor

    • C. 

      Rem

    • D. 

      Sievert

  • 8. 
    What is the "weighting factor" that is assigned to the equivalent dose (EqD)?
    • A. 

      The SI unit for expressing radiation exposure in human tissue

    • B. 

      The unit to express the rate in which radiation gives up its energy to human tissue

    • C. 

      A number assigned to each type of radiation based on the variation in biologic damage that is produced when an individual receives exposure from different types of radiation

    • D. 

      A comparison of exposure factors and patient dose, expressed as a numeric value

  • 9. 
    In radiography, patient dose is usually calculated:
    • A. 

      At the target organ

    • B. 

      By using the personnel dosimeter worn on the collar

    • C. 

      In DNA

    • D. 

      At the skin

  • 10. 
    Which of the following radiographic examinations typically delivers the greatest gonadal exposure?
    • A. 

      Chest

    • B. 

      Lumbar spine

    • C. 

      Femur

    • D. 

      KUB

  • 11. 
    According to the Laws of Bergonie and Tribondeau, which of the following types of cells is most radiosensitive?
    • A. 

      Brain cells

    • B. 

      Embryonic tissue

    • C. 

      Cells of the gastric mucosa

    • D. 

      Skin cells

  • 12. 
    Which of the following results from an indirect hit?
    • A. 

      Free radicals

    • B. 

      Enzymes

    • C. 

      DNA breakage

    • D. 

      Genetic damage

  • 13. 
    Temporary molecules and parts of molecules that form because of radiation interacting with water and are toxic to human tissue are called:
    • A. 

      Deviant enzymes

    • B. 

      Extreme ions

    • C. 

      Antimatter

    • D. 

      Free radicals

  • 14. 
    Which of the following cells would not be as vulnerable to x-rays?
    • A. 

      Thyroid cells

    • B. 

      Skin cells

    • C. 

      Nerve cells

    • D. 

      Blood cells

  • 15. 
    What is a direct hit?
    • A. 

      Breakage of a DNA molecule as a result of an interaction with an x-ray photon

    • B. 

      Chemical decomposition of water that reults from an interaction with an x-ray photon

    • C. 

      Interruption of cell mitosis caused by an interaction with an x-ray photon

    • D. 

      Accurate x-ray centering combined with appropriate exposure factors.

  • 16. 
    Which of the following types of radiation effect is typical of the risk to a patient undergoing a diagnostic x-ray examination?
    • A. 

      Short term effects

    • B. 

      Genetic effects

    • C. 

      Nonstochastic effects

    • D. 

      Stochastic effects

  • 17. 
    Which of the following is a stochastic radiation effect?
    • A. 

      Breast cancer

    • B. 

      Erythema

    • C. 

      Decreased leukocyte count

    • D. 

      "radiation sickness"

  • 18. 
    Which of the following occur with high radiation doses?
    1. stochastic effects
    2. short-term somatic effects
    3. nonstochastic effects
    • A. 

      1 and 2 only

    • B. 

      1 and 3 only

    • C. 

      2 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, and 3

  • 19. 
    What is erythema?
    • A. 

      Loss of hair caused by a high-radiation dose

    • B. 

      Loss of hair caused by long-term, low-radiation dose

    • C. 

      Reddening of the skin caused by high-radiation dose

    • D. 

      Reddening of the skin caused by long-term, low-radiation dose

  • 20. 
    What is the guiding philosophy of radiation protection?
    • A. 

      ALRMA--as long as radiographs are made accessible

    • B. 

      ALARA--as low as reasonably achievable

    • C. 

      ALAIS--as long as ionizations are small

    • D. 

      ALAP--as low as possible

  • 21. 
    Which of the following statements reflects current scientific opinion regarding the effects of diagnostic levels of ionizing radiation?
    • A. 

      It is carcinogenic after a certain number of examinations have been performed

    • B. 

      Spontaneous abortion will occur if the patient is pregnant

    • C. 

      Depression of the white blood cell count is followed by acute gastrointstinal distress

    • D. 

      Ther is increased risk of cancer, leukemia, birth defects, and cataracts.

  • 22. 
    The EDE limit for whole-body dose of occupational radiation exposure for nonpregnant workers older thatn age 18 who are involved in radiation use is:
    • A. 

      1.25 rem per year

    • B. 

      5.0 mrem per year

    • C. 

      0.5 rem per year

    • D. 

      5.0 rem per year

  • 23. 
    Which of the following are considered "low-dose techniques"?
    1. using optimum kVp
    2. using fast screens and fast film
    3. Using a minimum SID of 40 inches
    • A. 

      1 and 2 only

    • B. 

      1 and 3 only

    • C. 

      2 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1,2, and 3

  • 24. 
    Which of the following changes decrease patient dose?
    1. using faster screens
    2. increasing the kVp using the 15% rule
    3. increasing the grid ratio to a 16:1 ratio
    • A. 

      1 and 2 only

    • B. 

      1 and 3 only

    • C. 

      2 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, and 3

  • 25. 
    When radiation exposure occurs during pregnancy, the greatest risk of birth defects occurs when the exposure:
    1. to the uterus exceeds r rad
    2. occures within the first trimester of pregnancy
    3. occurs within the third trimester of pregnancy
    • A. 

      1 and 2 only

    • B. 

      1 and 3 only

    • C. 

      2 and 3 only

    • D. 

      1, 2, and 3

  • 26. 
    One of the earliste changes seen in the body as a result of exposure to radiation is blood changes.  At what radiation dose is this seen?
    • A. 

      25 rem (0.25 Sv)

    • B. 

      150 rem (1.5 Sv)

    • C. 

      200 rem (2.0 Sv)

    • D. 

      600 rem (6.0 Sv)

  • 27. 
    Death occurs if the body recieves a whole-body exposure of how much radiation?
    • A. 

      150 rem (1.5 Sv)

    • B. 

      200 rem (2.0 Sv)

    • C. 

      300 rem (3.0 Sv)

    • D. 

      600 rem (6.0 Sv)

  • 28. 
    Which radiographic examination gives the fetus the highest "fetal dose"?
    • A. 

      Chest

    • B. 

      Cervical spine

    • C. 

      Lumbar spine

    • D. 

      Pelvis

  • 29. 
    Which of the following are nonstochastic radiation effects?
    1. sauzyres followed by coma
    2. erythema
    3. radiation sickness
    • A. 

      1 and 2

    • B. 

      1 and 3

    • C. 

      2 and 3

    • D. 

      1,2, and 3

  • 30. 
    The reduction of a limited operator's exposure to ionizing radiation can be accomplished by:
    1. decreasing the time in the radiation field
    2. increasing the distance from the radiation field
    3. using low kVp exposure techniques
    • A. 

      1 and 2

    • B. 

      1 and 3

    • C. 

      2 and 3

    • D. 

      1,2, and 3

  • 31. 
    Which of the following are considered low-dose techniques?
    1. increasing kVp, decreasing mAs
    2. Using slow intensifying screens
    3. Using a minumum source-image distance of 40 inches
    • A. 

      1 and 2

    • B. 

      1 and 3

    • C. 

      2 and 3

    • D. 

      1,2, and 3

  • 32. 
    Which of the following changes will decrease patient dose?
    • A. 

      Using a slower screen

    • B. 

      Decreasing the filtration

    • C. 

      Using high kVp techniques

    • D. 

      Using a 36-inch SID