Pyschology

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  • 1. 
    The average IQ score is
    • A. 

      80

    • B. 

      120

    • C. 

      100


  • 2. 
    Each of the following has been shown to interfere with creativity EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Competition

    • B. 

      Mild mood swings

    • C. 

      Rejecting parents


  • 3. 
    According to Binet's test, a child who scores as well as an 8-year-old has the.................... of 8.
    • A. 

      Content validity

    • B. 

      Aptitude

    • C. 

      Mental age


  • 4. 
    Operant conditioning is another term for
    • A. 

      Classical conditioning

    • B. 

      Cognitive restructing

    • C. 

      Instrumental conditioning


  • 5. 
    By pairing the ringing of the bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, the presentation of the meat was the
    • A. 

      Unconditioned response

    • B. 

      Conditioned stimulus

    • C. 

      Unconditioned stimulus


  • 6. 
    Culture-fair tests attempts to measure
    • A. 

      Cultural background

    • B. 

      The effects of culture on people's creative skills

    • C. 

      The intelligence of people coming from outside the culture in which the test was devised


  • 7. 
    Thurstone's theory of intelligence includes
    • A. 

      S factors

    • B. 

      Seven primary mental abilities

    • C. 

      Operations


  • 8. 
    Material stored in short-term memory remains there for about
    • A. 

      1 second

    • B. 

      4 microseconds

    • C. 

      15-20


  • 9. 
    Which individual intelligence test is most often given to adults today?
    • A. 

      MMPI

    • B. 

      Stanford-Binet

    • C. 

      WAIC-R


  • 10. 
    In the United States, the..........................Program is a large nationwide program designed to help educationally disadvantaged children.
    • A. 

      Head Start

    • B. 

      Stanford-Binet

    • C. 

      Westgate


  • 11. 
    Any stimulus that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated is called a
    • A. 

      Cue

    • B. 

      Situational stimulus

    • C. 

      Punishment


  • 12. 
    Any stimulus that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated is called a
    • A. 

      Cue

    • B. 

      Situational stimulus

    • C. 

      Reinforcer


  • 13. 
    Repeating information over and over again to retain it in short-term memory is called
    • A. 

      Deep processing

    • B. 

      Elaborative rehearsal

    • C. 

      Rote rehearsal


  • 14. 
    Food and water are
    • A. 

      Direct reinforcers

    • B. 

      Delayed reinforcers

    • C. 

      Primary reinforcer


  • 15. 
    The process of learning is defined as experience resulting in
    • A. 

      Acquisition of motivation

    • B. 

      Amplification of sensory stimuli

    • C. 

      Relatively permanent behavior change


  • 16. 
    A reinforcer that adds something rewarding is
    • A. 

      Negative reinforcer

    • B. 

      Positive reinforcer

    • C. 

      Secondary reinforcer


  • 17. 
    Operant conditioning is based on the principle that behaviors occur more often when they are
    • A. 

      Punished

    • B. 

      Ignored

    • C. 

      Modeled


  • 18. 
    .......................... tests measure a person's mental ability
    • A. 

      Social competence

    • B. 

      Aptitude

    • C. 

      Intelligence


  • 19. 
    Working memory and..................mean the same thing.
    • A. 

      Eidetic memory

    • B. 

      Flashbulb memory

    • C. 

      Short-term memory


  • 20. 
    A person originally feared only spiders but now also fears other types of insects. These new fears are probably the result of
    • A. 

      Response generalization

    • B. 

      Obedience

    • C. 

      Stimulus generalization


  • 21. 
    The portion of long-term memory that stores general facts and information is called....................memory.
    • A. 

      Eidetic

    • B. 

      Episodic

    • C. 

      Procedural


  • 22. 
    The ability of a test to get similar results when someone is retested is called
    • A. 

      Validity

    • B. 

      Standard deviation

    • C. 

      Reliability


  • 23. 
    Proactive interference of long-term memory means
    • A. 

      Old material has eliminated memories of new material

    • B. 

      New material represses short-term memories

    • C. 

      Old material interferes with remembering new material


  • 24. 
    We use mnemonics to......................
    • A. 

      Block out information that is painful

    • B. 

      Block out information that is useless

    • C. 

      Give order to information we want to remember


  • 25. 
    The abilities involved in learning and adaptive behavior are usually labeled as
    • A. 

      Aptitude

    • B. 

      Socialcompetence

    • C. 

      Intelligence


  • 26. 
    Sensory registers
    • A. 

      Retain past information

    • B. 

      Has nothing to do with our attention span

    • C. 

      Recieve sensory information from the external world


  • 27. 
    ..................... results in more material being stored in short-term memory because the information is grouped together.
    • A. 

      Categorizing

    • B. 

      Rehearsal

    • C. 

      Chunking


  • 28. 
    The type of memory that is usually permanent and stores what we know is called
    • A. 

      Primary memory

    • B. 

      Working memory

    • C. 

      Long-term memory


  • 29. 
    The portion of long-term memory that stores specific information that has personal meaning is called........................memory.
    • A. 

      Rehearsal

    • B. 

      Eidetic

    • C. 

      Episodic


  • 30. 
    You have a cat that runs to the sound of the food cabinet opening. The sound of the cabinet is the
    • A. 

      Conditioned response

    • B. 

      Unconditioned sstimulus

    • C. 

      Conditioned stimulus


  • 31. 
    The process by which experience or practice results in relatively permanent change behavior or potential behavior is known as.........................
    • A. 

      Cognition

    • B. 

      Learning

    • C. 

      Imprinting


  • 32. 
    The process of learning to transfer a response from natural stimulus to another, previously neutral stimulus, is called......................
    • A. 

      Desensitization

    • B. 

      Classical conditioning

    • C. 

      Operant conditioning


  • 33. 
    We associate the name....................most closely with classical conditioning.
    • A. 

      Ivan Pavlov

    • B. 

      B.F Skinner

    • C. 

      Albert Bandura


  • 34. 
    An experimenter finds that a certain male subject always has an increased heartbeat when he hears a certain piece of music. The experimeter sounds a buzzer and then plays the peice of music. The experimeter repeats this procedure until the man responds with an increased heartbeat to the sound of the buzzer alone. In this situation, the unconditioned response is...........................
    • A. 

      An increased heartbeat

    • B. 

      The peice of music

    • C. 

      The sound of the buzzer


  • 35. 
    Many children learn to fear lightning because itis often paired with loud thunder( most sudden, loud sounds is naturally firghtening). I n this case, lightning is the............., thunder is the ..........................., and fear is the........................
    • A. 

      US;CS;CR

    • B. 

      US;CS;UR

    • C. 

      CS;US;UR


  • 36. 
    A child learns that whenever he eats all of his dinner he gets a cookie for dessert. This type of learning is BEST explained by..................................
    • A. 

      Classical conditioning

    • B. 

      Operant conditioning

    • C. 

      Biofeedback theory


  • 37. 
    The two researchers most closely associated with operant conditioning are.....................
    • A. 

      Bandura and Ellis

    • B. 

      Skinner and Thorndike

    • C. 

      Freud and Perls


  • 38. 
    A REINFORCER that adds something rewarding to a situation is a.............................. reinforcer.
    • A. 

      Postive

    • B. 

      Additive

    • C. 

      Primary


  • 39. 
    The type of learning that involves a sudden coming together of the elements of a situation so that the solution to a problem is instantly clear is......................
    • A. 

      Insight

    • B. 

      Latent learning

    • C. 

      Cognitive mapping


  • 40. 
    The view of learning that emphasizes the ability to learn by observing a model or recieving instructions, without firsthand experience by the learner, is called..........................theory.
    • A. 

      Social learning

    • B. 

      Cognitive learning

    • C. 

      Contingency


  • 41. 
    If there is one thing that all intelligence tests measure, it is intelligence.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 42. 
    A  visual image held in the sensory register is a...................
    • A. 

      Icon

    • B. 

      Pictograpgh

    • C. 

      Trace


  • 43. 
    The selection of some incoming information for futher processing is called.....................
    • A. 

      Retention

    • B. 

      Cognition

    • C. 

      Attention


  • 44. 
    Working memory is the original name of................. .. memory.
    • A. 

      Tertiary

    • B. 

      Sensory

    • C. 

      Short-term


  • 45. 
    Information is grouped for storage in short-term memory through the process of ..........................
    • A. 

      Chunking

    • B. 

      Categorizing

    • C. 

      Rote rehearsal


  • 46. 
    According to.............................theory, memories deteriorate because of the passage of time.
    • A. 

      Interference

    • B. 

      Amnesia

    • C. 

      Decay


  • 47. 
    When Rip Van Winkle returns to his native village after 20 years of sleeping in the mountains, he goes immediately to the location of his former house and asks for his wife and children by name. The kind of memory he is exhibiting by remembering his home's location and the names of his wife and children is........................memory.
    • A. 

      Procedural

    • B. 

      Semantic

    • C. 

      Episodic


  • 48. 
    Randy is recovering from an autmible accident in which he injured his head. The only noticeable psychological symptom of his injury is that he cannot remember what happened immediately prior to the accident, Rany's symptoms are typical of ................................
    • A. 

      Organic amnesia

    • B. 

      Retrograde amnesia

    • C. 

      Psychugenic amnesia


  • 49. 
    Today, many psychologists view how memory operates as being similar to how a computer stores and retrieves data.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 50. 
    Information disappears most quickly from...........................
    • A. 

      Working memory

    • B. 

      STM

    • C. 

      The sensory registers


  • 51. 
    Cogniton is a synonym for
    • A. 

      Learning

    • B. 

      Thinking

    • C. 

      Perception


  • 52. 
    Thurstone proposed...........................distinct mental abilities.
    • A. 

      Three

    • B. 

      Five

    • C. 

      Seven


  • 53. 
    Charles Spearmean believed that..............................
    • A. 

      People who are intelligent in math are often not intelligent in verbal skills

    • B. 

      People who are intelligent in one area are usaully intelligent in other area, too

    • C. 

      Intelligence and creativity seldom go together


  • 54. 
    Gardner and his associates are known for proposing the.......................................
    • A. 

      Generalized theory of intelligence

    • B. 

      Triarchic theory of intelligence

    • C. 

      Theory of multiple intelligences


  • 55. 
    The first test of intelligence was the........................
    • A. 

      Stanford-Binet scale

    • B. 

      Binet-Simon scale

    • C. 

      WISC-III


  • 56. 
    Terman introduced the concept of ...............................
    • A. 

      IQ

    • B. 

      Mental age

    • C. 

      Basal age


  • 57. 
    The ability of a test to measure what it sets out to measure is
    • A. 

      Reliability

    • B. 

      Standard deviation

    • C. 

      Validity


  • 58. 
    A person with average intelligence should get an IQ score of about 100.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 59. 
    Culture-fair tests attempt to measure......................
    • A. 

      The intelligence of people coming from outside the culture in which the test was devised

    • B. 

      Cultural background

    • C. 

      The effects of culture on people's intellectual and creative skills


  • 60. 
    The ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned is known as..........................
    • A. 

      Memory

    • B. 

      Intelligence

    • C. 

      Acquistion


  • 61. 
    Expllain the difference between postive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment, giving examples.

  • 62. 
    Explain problems involved in punishment that were discussed in class.

  • 63. 
    Explain the factors that can produce differencea in IQ scores.

  • 64. 
    Considering the memory devises and techniques we discuss in class, explain how you used one or more of the devises or techniques to study for this test.

  • 65. 
    Explain the reasons for forgetting, including the biological reasons.

  • 66. 
    According to the text, what is the difference between explict and implicit memory?

  • 67. 
    Explain the two major problems experts have concerning the concept of intelligence that was discussed in class.

  • 68. 
    A diagram explaining how our memory works was ysed on the computer and also handed out in class. Explain in detail that diagram.

  • 69. 
    We talk about the keys to memory in class-1) pay attention,2) Visualization, 3) Association, & 4) Imagination. If you were asked on a test, "What are the keys to memory and discuss the keys," explain how you would learn and remember the keys to memory using one of the memory devises we talked about in class other than memorization, and then discuss the meaning of each key.

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