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Based on biological capabilities.
Known to have a direct relationship between words and meaning
Known to have a partially direct relationship between words and meaning.
Arbitrary in the relationship between words and meaning.
Quantitative abilities of the speaker.
Quantitative abilities of the listener.
Reasoning abilities of the speaker.
Reasoning abilities of the listener.
Children learn to comprehend new words before they say them.
Children cannot learn to comprehend new words before they say them.
Deaf people cannot learn language.
Any chimpanzee can be taught to spell its name with its tail.
Hand-signaling to communicate.
Infrequent grunting sounds and finger-pointing to communicate.
The phonemes of the native language of his or her mother.
The phonemes of the native language of his or her caregiver.
Regression and meaning
Aggression and mating
Aggression and meaning
Regression and mating
Stimulus and response
Introversion and extroversion
Acquisition and recall
Thinking and communication
Of exceptional intelligence to be specially trained for important careers
Most likely to develop anti-social behaviors
In need of special educational assistance
Exactly average so that all tests could be benchmarked from them
Sir Francis Galton
The less the brain volume is, the higher the intelligence test scores.
The higher the brain volume is, the higher the intelligence test scores.
There is no correlation between brain size and intelligence.
Ability to memorize
Amount of knowledge
Speed of information processing
Amount of information processing
Identical twins, nor fraternal twins, have similar IQ’s.
Identical twins have very similar IQ’s while fraternal twins do not.
Fraternal twins have very similar IQ’s while identical twins do not.
Identical twins and fraternal twins have very similar IQ’s.
That you will do poorly in a test if you believe you will do poorly
Racial differences in IQ likely reflect societal disadvantages between groups
Is a fear that we may confirm a negative stereotype
All of the above
Culture of upbringing
I can’t do that because it’s against the rules.
I would like to do that, but I can wait for later.
If it feels good, then do it.
If she did it, I can too.
Source of base emotions
Judge of morality
Providing reasonable-sounding explanations for unreasonable behaviors or failures.
Providing fantastic-sounding explanations for unreasonable behaviors or failures.
Providing reasonable-sounding explanations for reasonable behaviors or successes.
Providing fantastic-sounding explanations for reasonable behaviors or successes.
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital (OAPLG)
Anal, oral, phallic, latency, genital (AOPLG)
Oral, anal, latency, phallic, genital (OALPG)
Oral, anal, latency, genital, phallic (OALGP)
Excessive farting as a baby
Poo-smearing as a child
Bowel control during bathing
Sir Francis Galton
Reliability and consistency
Recognition and validity
Reliability and validity
Tester and test-taker
Severe mental retardation
Symptoms of mental disorders
The organizational effort of testing so many different subjects.
The varying places where research must be conducted.
The time involved in completing the study.
The effect of destroying the subjects being tested.
Mixed method designs
Most researchers believe that genes and environment interact to influence behavior.
Most researchers believe that genes primarily influence behavior.
Most researchers believe that environment primarily influences behavior.
Most researchers believe that neither genes nor environment influence behavior.
Both groups often have to work backwards to identify the source of the problem.
Both groups study objects that are harmful to humans.
Both groups are employed by public companies rather than private companies.
Both groups smoke cigarettes and eat donuts.
Assimilation and accommodation
Assimilation and approximation
Apprehension and accommodation
Acquisition and accommodation
Hide and seek
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations (SPCF)
Preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operations, formal operations (PSCF)
Sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operations, concrete operations(SPFC)
Preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor (PCFS)
Zone of primary development
Zone of acquisition
Zone of actual development
Zone of proximal development
Talk to the child
Observe the child
Give a test to the child
Allow the child to interact with his environment
Theory of mind
Theory of self
Theory of sympathy
Theory of empathy
Asking her to compare the number of jelly beans to the number of raisins.
Asking her to compare the number of quarters to the number of pennies.
Asking her to compare the number of shoes to the number of dresses.
Asking her to compare the number of cars to the number of trucks.
Almost identical across cultures
Different across cultures
The same in North American cultures as in Asian cultures, only
The same in European cultures as in Asian cultures, only
A young child’s behavior is influenced by peer pressure.
Young geese imitate the behavior of older siblings.
Young geese demonstrate an attachment to a round ball.
Young geese scatter away in fear when a ball approaches them.
Read to the infant
Hold the infant
Play with the infant
Talk to the infant
Easy babies provide better feedback to their caregivers.
Difficult babies provide better feedback to their caregivers.
Easy babies are negative at first but quickly warm up.
Difficult babies are negative at first but quickly warm up.
Easy, difficult, or slow to warm up.
Easy, difficult, or fast to warm up.
Easy, difficult, or slightly picky.
Easy, difficult, or picky.
As early as 1 day old or less
Exactly at 1 year old or less
After 1 year
As early as 1 year old or less
Hate versus love
Trust versus mistrust
Anxiety versus empathy
Self versus community
Occur more frequently in wealthy countries
Occur less frequently in wealthy countries
Are culturally related
As stimuli, introspection, and a response
As stimuli, a transaction with the environment, introspection
As stimuli, a transaction with the environment, and a response
As stimuli, internalization, and a response
Close ties to the community
Both A and B
The immediate family
The extended family
People, groups, and the larger community.
Positive emotions that stem from stressful events
Negative emotions that stem from stressful events
Negative emotions that stem from all events
Positive emotions that stem from all events
Sharing with friends
Crisis debriefing involves discussing and processing negative emotions, listing symptoms, and discouraging early discontinuation.
The risk of PTSD increases with crisis debriefing.
Both A and B are true.
None of the above are true.
Hardiness, optimism, and spirituality
Hardiness, pessimism, and spirituality
Hardiness, optimism, and religion
Hardiness, pessimism, and religion
Have a better job
Do both A and C
Curbing alcohol consumption
Achieving a healthy weight
Elicit mild sedative effects
Result in diminished fatigue with a sense of well-being
Create alterations in perception and mood
Bring about a strong rush of pleasure
Emphasize the prevention of illness
Disregard the prevention of illness
Focus solely on the prevention of illness
Working the late shift
All of the above
Sleep stage 1
Sleep stage 2
Sleep stage 3
Drink warm milk to try to get to sleep.
Consume caffeine if planning to stay up late.
Try to sleep only when tired.
Use an alarm clock to wake up in the morning.
Sleep stages 1 and 2
Sleep stages 2 and 3
Sleep stages 3 and 4