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Psych 220 Continued

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  • 1. 
    Physical activities such as sucking, grasping, and walking are examples of...
    • A. 

      Behavioral schemes

    • B. 

      Behavioral adaptations

    • C. 

      Mental schemes

    • D. 

      Mental adaptations

  • 2. 
    Solving a puzzle is an example of a:
    • A. 

      Behavioral scheme

    • B. 

      Mental adaptation

    • C. 

      Mental scheme

    • D. 

      Behavioral adaptation

  • 3. 
    Which of the following is a key criticism of Jean Piaget's theory of sensorimotor cognitive development?
    • A. 

      Infants are more competent than Piaget thought

    • B. 

      Infants are less competent than Piaget thought

    • C. 

      Piaget failed to conduct observations in controlled settings

    • D. 

      Piaget failed to conduct observations in the infant's every day environment

  • 4. 
    A newborn widens her eyes after her mother widens her eyes and mouth and smiles at the baby. Meltzoff would say that this baby is:
    • A. 

      Habituating to the mother's facial expressions

    • B. 

      Exhibiting a reflex

    • C. 

      Engaging in true imitation

    • D. 

      Showing deferred imitation

  • 5. 
    Cases like the wild boy of Aveyron and Genie cause us to wonder whether language is:
    • A. 

      Due more to heredity or to environment

    • B. 

      Infinitely generative

    • C. 

      Based on abstract or concrete symbols

    • D. 

      More a question of phonology or syntax

  • 6. 
    An example of the basic unit of sound in the English language is the sound the letter "m" makes. This sound is called...
    • A. 

      Morpheme

    • B. 

      Phoneme

    • C. 

      Graphene

    • D. 

      Syntax

  • 7. 
    Someone with a vocabulary of only 200 words can recombine the words in different ways to say thousands of different things. This aspect of language is referred to as...
    • A. 

      Phonology

    • B. 

      Syntax

    • C. 

      Morphology

    • D. 

      Infinite generativity

  • 8. 
    In the word "falling," both "fall" and "ing" are considered...
    • A. 

      Phonemes

    • B. 

      Syntax

    • C. 

      Graphemes

    • D. 

      Morphemes

  • 9. 
    If someone says to you, "Wilfred gave a gift to Marsha" you know who gave the gift and who received it because you understand the -- of the sentence. 
    • A. 

      Semantics

    • B. 

      Pragmatics

    • C. 

      Syntax

    • D. 

      Primitive symbols

  • 10. 
    Baby Melissa has developed a sucking scheme. She knows that to get food, she must suck on her mother's breast. Now her mother has begun to introduce solid foods with a spoon. Melissa immediately sucks on the spoon. This is an example of...
    • A. 

      Accommodation

    • B. 

      Assimilation

    • C. 

      Amalgamation

    • D. 

      Application

  • 11. 
    Three-year-old Jesse used to call all moving vehicles "car." He now accurately categorizes moving vehicles into trucks, cars, motorcycles, and buses. Jesse has -- to fit new information into his existing scheme. 
    • A. 

      Applied

    • B. 

      Amalgamated

    • C. 

      Assimilated

    • D. 

      Accommodated

  • 12. 
    Trenton was playing in the sandbox. He was pouring sand from a short, fat container into a tall, skinny container. When he poured the sand into the tall, skinny container, it looked to him as if it had more sand in it. Trenton could not figure out where the extra sand came from, and how it got into his container. As Trenton continues to try to solve this puzzle, he will experience considerable movement between stages of cognitive -- and -- to produce cognitive change. 
    • A. 

      Equilibrium; disequilibrium

    • B. 

      Adaptation; organization

    • C. 

      Classification; modification

    • D. 

      Equilibrium; categorization

  • 13. 
    Josh is three months old. He is in which of Piaget's substages of sensorimotor development?
    • A. 

      Simple reflexes

    • B. 

      First habits and primary circular reactions

    • C. 

      Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

    • D. 

      Secondary circular reactions

  • 14. 
    When first born, Monica showed the typical grasping reflex by closing her fingers around anything that brushed against her palm. After a few weeks, she shows this grasping behavior even when nothing touches her palm. Monica has developed a --, or a scheme based on a reflex that has become completely separated from its eliciting stimulus. 
    • A. 

      Simple reflex

    • B. 

      Primitive symbol

    • C. 

      Habit

    • D. 

      Circular reaction

  • 15. 
    Antonio swings his arms while lying in his crib. One of his arms accidentally hits the mobile hanging above him. This causes the mobile to begin to move. Antonio continues to swing his arms but is unable to strike the mobile above him again. This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Primary circular reaction

    • B. 

      Secondary circular reaction

    • C. 

      Reflex

    • D. 

      Habit

  • 16. 
    Sarah, age seven months, loves banging repeatedly on a toy that lights up and plays music on impact. Sarah is in Piaget's substage of...
    • A. 

      Reflexes

    • B. 

      Tertiary circular reaction

    • C. 

      Primary circular reaction

    • D. 

      Secondary circular reaction

  • 17. 
    • A. 

      Primary circular reactions

    • B. 

      Coordination of secondary circular reactions

    • C. 

      Tertiary circular reactions

    • D. 

      Secondary circular reactions

  • 18. 
    Heather crawls from her room into the hallway to look for her mother after she leaves. According to Piaget, this shows that she is capable of...
    • A. 

      Telegraphic thinking

    • B. 

      Object permanence

    • C. 

      Symbolic manipulation

    • D. 

      Infinite generativity

  • 19. 
    Six-month-old Jamal understands that when he swings his toy bear at his mobile, the mobile will swing around. This is because Jamal understands...
    • A. 

      Causality

    • B. 

      Object permanence

    • C. 

      Schemas

    • D. 

      Internalized representation

  • 20. 
    Two-year-old Anita has learned the word "dog" to identify the family pet Rover. Now Anita says the word dog when she sees any animal. Anita has -- these animals into her existing scheme. 
    • A. 

      Amalgamated

    • B. 

      Accommodated

    • C. 

      Assimilated

    • D. 

      Applied

  • 21. 
    Farah shows her baby a colorful block several times. The baby looks carefully at the block at first, but then turns her attention to a different toy after seeing the block a few times. The baby is showing...
    • A. 

      Memory

    • B. 

      Dishabituation

    • C. 

      Imitation

    • D. 

      Habituation

  • 22. 
    Andrew, age 8 months, suffered some brain damage at birth. His identical twin, Alex, had no brain damage. Research on habituation would predict that:
    • A. 

      There is no research on infants and habituation

    • B. 

      Andrew will no habituate as well as Alex

    • C. 

      Alex with not habituate as well as Andrew

    • D. 

      Both twins will habituate at the same level

  • 23. 
    When Abraham describes to his friend what he did last summer, he is relying on his -- memory. 
    • A. 

      Explicit

    • B. 

      Implicit

    • C. 

      Procedural

    • D. 

      Semantic

  • 24. 
    Mandy sees a little girl in the grocery store throwing a screaming tantrum to get a toy. The next week at the mall, Mandy begins screaming and crying to get some candy. Many is showing....
    • A. 

      Object permanence

    • B. 

      Dishabituation

    • C. 

      Deferred imitation

    • D. 

      Habituation

  • 25. 
    Charisma is six months old and can vocalize pleasure and displeasure, search for objects out of reach, and approach a mirror that is placed infront of her. According to the Bayley Scales of Infant Developent, Charisma...
    • A. 

      Is developing normally

    • B. 

      Is developmentally delayed

    • C. 

      Has an IQ of 110

    • D. 

      Has an IQ of 85

  • 26. 
    Mathias is given the Bayley Scale of Infant Development and does very well on it. His parents are very excited about this and believe this means Mathias will be a geius when he grows up. To help Mathias' parents understand the results of his test, the psychologist should explain to them that infant intelligence scores based on this measure...
    • A. 

      Are good predictors of scores on both the social skills quotient and intelligence quotient

    • B. 

      Are not highly correlated with IQ scores obtained later in childhood

    • C. 

      Are highly correlated with IQ later in childhood

    • D. 

      Are good predictors of later child IQ, but not good predictors of later child intelligence

  • 27. 
    Jim and Joanna are curious to know if their baby will grow up to be a child with a high IQ. Which of the following tests measuring infant development is highly correlated with measures of intelligence in older children and would best suit the purpose?
    • A. 

      Bayley-III

    • B. 

      Brazleton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

    • C. 

      Gesell Test

    • D. 

      Fagan Test

  • 28. 
    Ben's grandmother gives him a game that she knows he wants. When he opens her gift, he smiles and says, "This is so sick; thanks Gram!" Ben's grandmother does not know if Ben liked the gift or not since she does not understand what he means by "Sick." Obviously, Ben and his grandmother do not share the same ideas about...
    • A. 

      Phonology

    • B. 

      Morphology

    • C. 

      Syntax

    • D. 

      Semantics

  • 29. 
    Kyoko is 13 months old and can understand about 50 words but can say only about 10 words. This demonstrates how Kyoko's -- vocabulary is more developed than her -- vocabulary. 
    • A. 

      Receptive; spoken

    • B. 

      Spoken; expressive

    • C. 

      Spoken; receptive

    • D. 

      Expressive; spoken

  • 30. 
    Two year old Max says the word "bunny" for a large hamster and a white rat. Max's error is known as:
    • A. 

      Aphasia

    • B. 

      Telegraphic speech

    • C. 

      Overextension

    • D. 

      Underextension

  • 31. 
    Two year old Sarai uses the word "doll" to refer to her own Cabbage Patch doll but does not use the word to refer to her sister's Barbie doll. Sarai's error is known as...
    • A. 

      Overextension

    • B. 

      Private speech

    • C. 

      Underextension

    • D. 

      Telegraphic speech

  • 32. 
    Mariah has suffered brain damage to the left frontal lobe of her brain. When she tries to speak, she struggles to produce words and is unable to say them correctly. Mariah has damage to...
    • A. 

      Wernike's area

    • B. 

      Broca's area

    • C. 

      Ocam's area

    • D. 

      Morton's area

  • 33. 
    • A. 

      Broca's area

    • B. 

      Morton's area

    • C. 

      Wernike's area

    • D. 

      Ocam's area

  • 34. 
    When Alice speaks to her six month old niece, her voice takes on a higher pitch, her speech becomes slower, and she begins using simplistc words and phrases. This change in Aunt Allie's language behavior provides an example of:
    • A. 

      Child-directed speech

    • B. 

      Morphology

    • C. 

      Echoing

    • D. 

      Recasting

  • 35. 
    As he is rolling his truck up and down the sides of the couch, Nezzy points to his truck and says "My truck." His father responds with, "what's the truck doing?" this is an example of:
    • A. 

      Echoing

    • B. 

      Infant-directed speech

    • C. 

      Morphology

    • D. 

      Recasting

  • 36. 
    As they walk in the park together, Damon's dad points out various objects to him -- flowers, birds, butterflies, slides, swings, vehicles, and so on -- and helps Damon name each of them. Damon's dad is using -- to help his son learn language. 
    • A. 

      Echoing

    • B. 

      Encoding

    • C. 

      Labeling

    • D. 

      Listing

  • 37. 
    When ocne uses polite language in formal situations and a personal, informal language in intimate conversations, one is demonstrating the knowledge of --, or the appropriate use of language in different contexts. 
    • A. 

      Semantics

    • B. 

      Syntax

    • C. 

      Morphology

    • D. 

      Pragmatics

  • 38. 
    Which of the following is most likely to be a child's first word?
    • A. 

      Dog

    • B. 

      Soft

    • C. 

      Pretty

    • D. 

      Fast

  • 39. 
    Which of the following is least likely to be a child's first word?
    • A. 

      Sticky

    • B. 

      Doll

    • C. 

      Car

    • D. 

      Mom

  • 40. 
    A child's expansive vocabulary is directly correlated with his or her parents'
    • A. 

      IQ

    • B. 

      Age

    • C. 

      Verbal interactions with the child

    • D. 

      Emotional bonding

  • 41. 
    A study of young children living in low income families found that -- when predicting the vocabulary development of children. 
    • A. 

      The amount of maternal talk was more important than the amount of paternal talk

    • B. 

      The amount of maternal talk was less important than maternal literary skills

    • C. 

      Nutrition and SES were more important than the amount of maternal talk or maternal literacy skills

    • D. 

      Attending preschool or Head Start was more important than paternal talk but less important than maternal talk.

  • 42. 
    Which of the following has NOT been associated with childrens' vocabulary development
    • A. 

      How much mothers speak to their children

    • B. 

      Maternal language and literacy skills

    • C. 

      Use of diverse language

    • D. 

      The presence of older siblings

  • 43. 
    As discussed in chapter 4, the infant's ability to regulate emotions is tied to...
    • A. 

      Parental history of emotional control

    • B. 

      The pace of myelination in the parietal lobe

    • C. 

      The gradual maturation of the frontal regions of the cerebral cortex

    • D. 

      The growth of the cerebellum in the initial four months after birth

  • 44. 
    Which of the following statements about emotions is FALSE?
    • A. 

      Social relationships provide the setting for the development of a rich variety of emotions

    • B. 

      Embeddedness in relationships prevents diversity in emotional experiences

    • C. 

      Emotions are the first language which parents and infants communicate

    • D. 

      Biological evolution has endowed human beings to be emotional

  • 45. 
    Which of the following is NOT  primary emotion?
    • A. 

      Pride

    • B. 

      Fear

    • C. 

      Anger

    • D. 

      Joy

  • 46. 
    Which of the following is an "other-conscious" emotion
    • A. 

      Fear

    • B. 

      Interest

    • C. 

      Pride

    • D. 

      Disgust

  • 47. 
    Which of the following terms is used to describe the exchange of emotions between the infant and parents, when all is going well?
    • A. 

      Other-conscious

    • B. 

      Innate

    • C. 

      Synchronus

    • D. 

      Regulated

  • 48. 
    Which of the following statements is NOT true of crying?
    • A. 

      It is the most important mechanism newborns have for communicating with their world

    • B. 

      Newborns respond with positive facial expressions when they hear other newborns cry

    • C. 

      It provides information about the health of the newborn's CNS

    • D. 

      The first cry verifies that the baby's lungs have filled with air.

  • 49. 
    Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
    • A. 

      The anger cry

    • B. 

      The hunger cry

    • C. 

      The pain cry

    • D. 

      The basic cry

  • 50. 
    Two month old Trey is crying loudly. His cry starts with a piercing shrill sound. Then there is a long period where Trey holds his breath, and then the next crying sound comes out. This type of cry indicates that Trey is..
    • A. 

      Very angry

    • B. 

      Very tired

    • C. 

      Very hungry

    • D. 

      In pain

  • 51. 
    Little Katie runs up to her mother and says "Me scared." Katie is at least:
    • A. 

      1 year old

    • B. 

      18 months old

    • C. 

      2 years old

    • D. 

      3 years old

  • 52. 
    Elias puts his infant daughter in her crib for a nap, and a few minutes later she begins to cry. According to John Watson, one of the founders of Behaviorism, Elias should:
    • A. 

      Ignore her so that her crying will not be reinforced

    • B. 

      Go immediately to his daughter to soothe her crying

    • C. 

      Wait 2 minutes, then go to his daughter to soothe her crying

    • D. 

      Go immediately to his daughter if it is a pain or basic cry, but not if it is an anger cry

  • 53. 
    Dante puts his infant daughter in her crib for a nap, and a few minutes later she begins to cry. According to ethologists such as John Bowlby, Dante should:
    • A. 

      Wait 2 minutes, then go to his daughter to soothe her crying

    • B. 

      Go immediately to his daughter if it is a pain or basic cry, but not if it is an anger cry

    • C. 

      Go immediately to his daughter to soothe her crying

    • D. 

      Ignore her so that her crying will not be reinforced.

  • 54. 
    Which of the following occurs FIRST in development?
    • A. 

      Trust smiling

    • B. 

      Social smiling

    • C. 

      Attachment smiling

    • D. 

      Reflexive smiling

  • 55. 
    Janie impatiently grabs the door handle from her toddler daughter, quickly opens the door, and hurries the little girl through. Erik Erikson would say that Janine's daughter:
    • A. 

      Will develop a sense of shame and doubt if this type of interaction occurs consistently

    • B. 

      Will develop a healthy sense of autonomy by resisting interactions like this

    • C. 

      Will not develop shame and doubt if this type of interaction occurs consistently

    • D. 

      Has already developed a sense of shame and doubt due to her mother's behavior in this instance

  • 56. 
    Which of the following observations about social orientation of infants is FALSE?
    • A. 

      As early as 2 to 3 months of age, infants show more negative emotions when their caregivers are still and unresponsive

    • B. 

      Infants' affect-displays during the still-face paradigm are not linked to secure attachment during infancy

    • C. 

      The frequency of face-to-face play decreases after 7 months of age as infants become more mobile

    • D. 

      At 2 to 3 months of age, most infants expect people to react positively when the infants initiate positive behavior

  • 57. 
    Which concept, discussed in chapter 5, helps the infant to understand that other people have intentions? 
    • A. 

      Habituation

    • B. 

      The A-not-B error

    • C. 

      Core knowledge approach

    • D. 

      Joint attention

  • 58. 
    When put on the floor, Elaine cries as if she wants to be held. When her mother picks her up though, Elaine pushes away with both arms and turns her head away. Mary Ainsworth would say that Elaine is...
    • A. 

      Insecure avoidant

    • B. 

      Insecure organized

    • C. 

      Insecure resistant

    • D. 

      Securely attached

  • 59. 
    In the Strange Situation, Jermaine used his mother as "secure base" as he actively explored the playroom. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Jermaine as...
    • A. 

      Solidly attached

    • B. 

      Agape-love attached

    • C. 

      Trusting attached

    • D. 

      Securely attached

  • 60. 
    In the Strange Situation, Cameron did not explore the playroom, clung to his mother when she was in the room, and was very upset when she left the room. When she returned, he appeared to be ambivalent -- both wanting to be comforted by his mother, but pushing her away when she attempted to do so. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Cameron as:
    • A. 

      Securely attached

    • B. 

      Insecure avoidant

    • C. 

      Insecure resistant

    • D. 

      Insecure disorganized

  • 61. 
    Jeremy is a securely attached infant; Jason is classified as an insecure infant. Which of the following statements about later functioning for these chilren is TRUE?
    • A. 

      There will be no difference in their social functioning by age 8

    • B. 

      Jason is more likely than Jeremy to have cognitive difficulty in elementary school

    • C. 

      Jeremy is likely to be more shy and withdrawn than Jason

    • D. 

      Jeremy is more likely than Jason to develop low self-confidence

  • 62. 
    Recent studies found that a disorganized attachment style developed in infancy only when infants had the short version of the serotonin transporter gene -- 5-HTTLPR. This gene-environment interaction only occurred when:
    • A. 

      The infants' other-conscious is poorly developed in the first six months after birth.

    • B. 

      Mothers showed a low level of responsiveness toward their infants

    • C. 

      Maternal nutrition was deficient during the prenatal period

    • D. 

      The infants were temperamentally inclined toward negative affectivity

  • 63. 
    Blanca rarely holds her baby Joey and tends to respond to his needs in an angry, irritable fashion. It is most likely that Joey will develop a(n) -- with his mother. 
    • A. 

      Secure attachment

    • B. 

      Insecure resistant attachment

    • C. 

      Insecure avoidant attachment

    • D. 

      Disorganized resistant infant attachment

  • 64. 
    Carrie is a 19-year-old single mother. She often feels overwhelmed and depressed about her situation and frequently neglects her 8-month-old son and his needs. On several occasions, she has slapped his hand when he reaches for her cell phone. Carrie's baby is MOST likely to develop:
    • A. 

      An insecure resistant

    • B. 

      A secure attachment

    • C. 

      An insecure avoidant attachment

    • D. 

      A disorganized attachment

  • 65. 
    Which of the following statements about child-care and socioeconomic status is TRUE?
    • A. 

      Children are more likely to experience poor quality child care if their parents have few resources

    • B. 

      High quality child care is available only to those children whose parents are wealthy

    • C. 

      Children staying in day care for longer than 40 hours/week tend to experience depression regardless of the quality of the care

    • D. 

      There is not enough research on child care and socioeconomic status to make any correlations

  • 66. 
    What is the Duchenne marker?
    • A. 

      Grading system for recording the frequency of smiles

    • B. 

      The first social smile of the newborn infant

    • C. 

      Eye constrictions during smiling

    • D. 

      Mouth opening during enjoyable interactions

  • 67. 
    Which of the following is true of social smiling?
    • A. 

      It does not occur in response to external stimuli

    • B. 

      The external stimulus is typically a face, in the case of young infants

    • C. 

      It appears during the first month after birth

    • D. 

      It usually appears during sleep

  • 68. 
    The fear of strangers peaks...
    • A. 

      In the first 3 months after birth

    • B. 

      Toward the end of the first year

    • C. 

      Toward the middle of the second year of life

    • D. 

      In the first 6 months after birth

  • 69. 
    Researchers have found that infant fear is linked to all of the following at 6 to 7 years of age EXCEPT
    • A. 

      High aggression

    • B. 

      Guilt

    • C. 

      Empathy

    • D. 

      Low aggression

  • 70. 
    At what age does separation protest peak?
    • A. 

      6 months

    • B. 

      9 months

    • C. 

      15 months

    • D. 

      12 months

  • 71. 
    According to Thompson, Meyers, and Jochem, caregivers' attempts to help infants soothe their emotions influence:
    • A. 

      Facial displays of basic emotions

    • B. 

      The timing of the appearance of self-conscious emotions

    • C. 

      Childrens' ability to use their caregivers as a social reference later in life

    • D. 

      Neurobiological regulation of emotions

  • 72. 
    When Josh was dropped off at preschool on the very first day of class, he was quite upset. He cried for a long time and would not play with the other children. What type of temperament does Josh have?
    • A. 

      Easy

    • B. 

      Difficult

    • C. 

      Slow to warm up

    • D. 

      Inflexible

  • 73. 
    Children with low activity levels and somewhat negative attitudes are classified as...
    • A. 

      Slow-to-warm-up children

    • B. 

      Slow children

    • C. 

      Difficult children

    • D. 

      Easy children

  • 74. 
    Betty and Allen's child, Cara, is usually in a pleasant mood. She has a regular routine but can adapt to changes with ease. Cara would be classified as a(n)...
    • A. 

      Passive child

    • B. 

      Easy child

    • C. 

      Slow to warm up child

    • D. 

      Inhibited child

  • 75. 
    Mary Rothbart and John Bates believe that infant temperament falls into which of the following categories?
    • A. 

      Emotionality, social ability, and activity level

    • B. 

      Easy, difficult, and slow to warm up

    • C. 

      Extraversion, introversion, and emotionality

    • D. 

      Extraversion/surgency, negative affectivity, effortful control

  • 76. 
    According to Rothbart and Bates' new classificatins of temperament, in which category would Kagan's uninhibited children fit into?
    • A. 

      Extraversion/surgency

    • B. 

      Self-regulation

    • C. 

      Negative affectivity

    • D. 

      Effortful control

  • 77. 
    In the US, parents tend to prefer children with an -- temperament, whereas in China, an -- temperament is more highly valued.
    • A. 

      Active; uninhibited

    • B. 

      Inhibited; active

    • C. 

      Inner focused; outward focused

    • D. 

      Outward focused; inner focused

  • 78. 
    According to Jerome Kagan, temperament:
    • A. 

      Is the result of inherited physiological characteristics and cannot be modified by the environment

    • B. 

      Is the result of inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment

    • C. 

      Is minimally influenced by inherited physiological characteristics but is primarily the result of environmental input

    • D. 

      Results completely from environmental factors such as parenting styles

  • 79. 
    Monsena is an independent and adventurous child who likes to explore new places in her environment. However, her mother is overly controlling and rigid. Developmental psychologists would say that a discussion of his discrepancy concerns:
    • A. 

      Goodness of fit

    • B. 

      Nonreciprocal interactions

    • C. 

      Social dysfunction

    • D. 

      Insecure attachment

  • 80. 
    What is the main problem with labeling children as difficult?
    • A. 

      All children exhibit difficult behaviors at various stages

    • B. 

      No child is truly difficult; some parents simply have unreasonably high expectations

    • C. 

      It does not take into consideration the environment in which children are being raised

    • D. 

      It can become a self-fulfilling prophecy

  • 81. 
    Which of the following would Erikson MOST likely recommend about soothing a crying infant?
    • A. 

      Do not soothe the baby, because he or she will be spoiled.

    • B. 

      Pick up the baby and soothe him or her so that a healthy sense of trust develops

    • C. 

      Arrange the environment to meet all the baby's needs, so that he or she does not need to cry

    • D. 

      Soothe the baby about every other time, so that he or she does not become dependent on external factors.

  • 82. 
    Nine month old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Tyler will MOST likely:
    • A. 

      Touch his own nose to wipe off the spot

    • B. 

      Crawl away from the mirror, because he does not recognize himself with the spot on his nose

    • C. 

      Touch the spot on the mirror, because he wants to wipe the spot off his own nose

    • D. 

      Touch the spot on the mirror because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose

  • 83. 
    Twenty month old Misha is placed infront of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Misha will MOST likely...
    • A. 

      Crawl away from the mirror, because he does not recognize himself with the spot on his nose

    • B. 

      Touch the spot on the mirror, because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose

    • C. 

      Touch the spot on the mirror, because he wants to wipe the spot off his own nose

    • D. 

      Touch his own nose to wipe off the spot

  • 84. 
    What types of behaviors in caregivers create a sense of shame and doubt in children?
    • A. 

      Patience and tolerance

    • B. 

      Enmeshment and fear

    • C. 

      Neglectfulness and indifference

    • D. 

      Overprotectiveness and criticism

  • 85. 
    Researchers are discovering that infants are more socially sophisticated and insightful at a younger age than previously envisioned. In which aspect is this sophistication and insight reflected?
    • A. 

      In infants' perceptions of others' actions as intentionally motivated and goal-directed

    • B. 

      In infants' awareness of the self as an independent entity

    • C. 

      In infants' ability to imitate certain behaviors and engage in reciprocal interactions

    • D. 

      In infants' ability to participate in joint attention

  • 86. 
    Quimby, age 15 months, looks to her mother to see if she should be afraid of the stranger who has come to her home. Quimby relaxes when she sees her mother smiling and speaking to the stranger in a calm voice. Quimby is engaging in...
    • A. 

      Social checking

    • B. 

      Social referencing

    • C. 

      Social validation

    • D. 

      Social scoping

  • 87. 
    What is the significant finding of Harlow's experiments on monkeys reared by surrogate mothers?
    • A. 

      Contact comfort is not the crucial element in the attachment process

    • B. 

      Contact comfort is the crucial element in the attachment process

    • C. 

      Feeding is the crucial element in the attachment process

    • D. 

      Feeding and contact comfort are equally important in the attachment process

  • 88. 
    According to Erikson, -- are the keys to establishing a basic trust in infants
    • A. 

      Contact comfort and feeding

    • B. 

      Feeding and physical comfort

    • C. 

      Physical comfort and sensitive care

    • D. 

      Oral satisfaction and physical comfort

  • 89. 
    Which of the following statements would attachment theorists AGREE on?
    • A. 

      Sensitive responsiveness on the part of caregivers will help infants develop secure attachments

    • B. 

      A child's temperament is more important than secure attachment for healthy social development

    • C. 

      Secure attachment to a single primary caregiver is essential for healthy social development

    • D. 

      A critical period for attachment in humans exists during the first 2 months of life.

  • 90. 
    Daniel and Guadalupe are angry with one another because of differences in their spending habits. Guadalupe snaps at their daughter and sends her to her room even thought the little girl is not misbehaving. According to Jay Belsky's description of family interactions, this situation is an example of...
    • A. 

      An indirect influence of the marital relationship on the child

    • B. 

      An indirect influence of child development on the marital relationship

    • C. 

      A direct influence of the marital relationship on the child

    • D. 

      A direct influence of the parent on the child

  • 91. 
    Marcus and Debra used to go out quite often. Since their baby's birth, they have preferred spending time at home playing with the baby or going to places where they can stroll with the baby leisurely and window-shop. This change in Marcus and Debra's behavior is an example of...
    • A. 

      Social learning

    • B. 

      Attachment

    • C. 

      Scaffolding

    • D. 

      Reciprocal socialization

  • 92. 
    The behaviors of mothers and infants involve substantial interconnection, mutual regulatin, and synchronization. This temporal coordination of social behavior is termed...
    • A. 

      Reflexive temporal nurturing

    • B. 

      Parsonian Functionalism

    • C. 

      Dyadic development

    • D. 

      Parent infant synchrony

  • 93. 
    Which of the following is the best description of scaffolding?
    • A. 

      The caregiver and infant focus on the same object or event

    • B. 

      Parents time interactions in such a way that the infant experiences turn-taking with the parents

    • C. 

      Mothers and their infants interact in a dance-like pattern of closely coordinated actions

    • D. 

      The child is presented with a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with the caregiver.

  • 94. 
    Of the following, which would be a good example of scaffolding?
    • A. 

      Infant-directed speech

    • B. 

      Strange situation

    • C. 

      A game of peek-a-boo

    • D. 

      Social referencing

  • 95. 
    When parents select and attend to certain behaviors, initially demonstrating them for their child, then gradually turning over more of the responsibility for the behavior to the child, the parents are engaging in:
    • A. 

      Reciprocal association

    • B. 

      Indirect interactions

    • C. 

      Scaffolding

    • D. 

      Attachment

  • 96. 
    Tim and Laurie Talbot are the parents of Tyler, age 3. Tim stays home and cared for Tyler full-time, while Laurie works as a lawyer. Which of the following statements regarding the Talbots' domestic situation is most likely to be FALSE?
    • A. 

      Tim misses the routine of outside work at times

    • B. 

      Time and Tyler are not likely to attend a neighborhood play group

    • C. 

      The Talbots are more likely to be dissatisfied with their marriage than couples where the man is the primary wage earner

    • D. 

      Tim and Tyler are likely to be ostracized when they go to the playground

  • 97. 
    Which of the following statements regarding paternal caregiving is FALSE?
    • A. 

      Paternal interactions usually center on child-care activities -- feeding, changing diapers, bathing

    • B. 

      Fathers have the ability to act as sensitively and responsively as mothers with their infants

    • C. 

      They tend to be ostracized when the took their children to playgrounds

    • D. 

      Stay-at-home fathers were as satisfied with their marriage as traditional parents

  • 98. 
    The research on fathers as caregivers indicates that fathers:
    • A. 

      Are less able to be nurturing than mothers

    • B. 

      Interact with their babies in a different way than mothers do, regardless of which parent is the primary caregiver.

    • C. 

      Are biologically more suited for a nurturing caregiver role than are mothers

    • D. 

      Interact with their babies in different ways depending on whether they are the primary caregiver

  • 99. 
    The longitudinal study conducted by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development concluded that:
    • A. 

      Income alone predicts whether children will become securely attached

    • B. 

      A child in child care, regardless of the quality, will be more socially incompetent

    • C. 

      The home environment is the most important predictor of attachment to caregivers

    • D. 

      High-quality child care increases cognitive ability

  • 100. 
    The results of the large National Longitudinal Study of Child Care indicate that"
    • A. 

      Extensive use of day care hurts parent-child relationships

    • B. 

      A majority of the child care in the first three years of life was of high quality

    • C. 

      Child-care quality was linked to attachment security at 36 months of age

    • D. 

      The influence of families and parenting is not weakened by extensive use of day care.

  • 101. 
    When looking at the heights and weights of preschool children, we know that:
    • A. 

      There are no ethnic differences

    • B. 

      There are ethnic differences

    • C. 

      There are ethnic differences in average weight but not in average height

    • D. 

      Environmental factors are more important than genetic factors

  • 102. 
    Who among the following 5-year-olds is most likely to be the tallest?
    • A. 

      Tyrone, African American boy, urban, middle-class, and firstborn

    • B. 

      Tina, white girl, urban, middle class, firstborn

    • C. 

      Timothy, white boy, urban, middle class, later born

    • D. 

      Tucker, African American, rural, low-class, later born

  • 103. 
    Which of the following statements about brain development and early childhood is true?
    • A. 

      By the time a child is 3 years of age, the brain is 25% of its adult size

    • B. 

      By age 6, the brain has reached about 95% of its adult size

    • C. 

      The development that occurs inside the brain ends at the onset of adolescents

    • D. 

      The brain grows more rapidly in early childhood than it did in infancy

  • 104. 
    Myelination is important:
    • A. 

      In how the brain grows anatomically during childhood

    • B. 

      Because the pituitary does not function until the brain is almost completely myelinated

    • C. 

      In the development of a number of children's abilities

    • D. 

      In developing the height and weight of children

  • 105. 
    When 4 and 5-year-olds scramble over jungle gyms and race their friends, they are demonstrating their:
    • A. 

      Gross motor skills

    • B. 

      Reflexive skills

    • C. 

      Cognitive skills

    • D. 

      Fine motor skills

  • 106. 
    Gross motor skills are to fine motor skills as -- is to --
    • A. 

      Balancing; jumping

    • B. 

      Hopping; writing

    • C. 

      Writing; hopping

    • D. 

      Jumping; balancing

  • 107. 
    A recent national study revealed all of the following about the eating habits of children today except:
    • A. 

      45% of children's meals exceed recommendations for saturated and trans fat

    • B. 

      One third of children's daily intake comes from restaurants

    • C. 

      Most choices at a fast food chain exceed the recommended daily calorie intake for 8 year olds

    • D. 

      Children eat out half as less today than they did in the 1980s

  • 108. 
    Which of the following is NOT a factor in increasing the physical activity of preschool children?
    • A. 

      Family members engaging in sports together

    • B. 

      Parents' perception that it is safe for their children to play outside

    • C. 

      Participating in sedentary outdoor play

    • D. 

      Incorporation of a "move and learn" physical activity curriculum

  • 109. 
    Which of the following statements regarding parental smoking is true?
    • A. 

      Children are at risk for health problems when they live in homes in which a parent smokes

    • B. 

      Most children and adolescents in the US are exposed to tobacco smoke in the home

    • C. 

      Children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home are no more likely to develop asthma than children in nonsmoking homes

    • D. 

      Parental smoking is the leading cause for death in young children in the US

  • 110. 
    Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called prepreparational thought, so named because he believed that...
    • A. 

      Children at this age do not yet perform reversible mental actions

    • B. 

      Children cannot yet form stable concepts at this age

    • C. 

      Childrens' ability to reason is not yet operational this stage

    • D. 

      Children at this age are not yet able to represent the world in words and images

  • 111. 
    Piaget called the second substage in preoperational thought "intuitive" because of the absence of the use of -- in children in that stage. 
    • A. 

      Symbolic reasoning

    • B. 

      Rational thinking

    • C. 

      Centration

    • D. 

      Intuitive thought

  • 112. 
    Centration inhibits the ability to categorize items because it prevents one from:
    • A. 

      Distinguishing between animate and inanimate objects

    • B. 

      Taking a perspective that is different from one's own

    • C. 

      Focusing only on one feature

    • D. 

      Considering combinations of features

  • 113. 
    In Piaget's theory, failing the conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates:
    • A. 

      Centration

    • B. 

      Rational thought

    • C. 

      That the child is still at the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development

    • D. 

      The child is unable to think symbolically

  • 114. 
    The zone of proximal development is Vygotsky's term for:
    • A. 

      The cognitive development achieved by discovering which answers will lead to rewards

    • B. 

      How the environment and genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical period

    • C. 

      The range of tasks that a child should be able to do with ease at his or her stage of cognitive development

    • D. 

      The range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but than can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children

  • 115. 
    A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development is:
    • A. 

      The toddler has mastered all the skills necessary

    • B. 

      Parents or teachers do not interfere

    • C. 

      The task is more difficult than the child can do alone

    • D. 

      The toddler needs little or no help from a parent or teacher

  • 116. 
    When adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instruction, and other support to help the children succeed. As the children demonstrate they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withraw these supports. This shows the adults' involvement in the children's:
    • A. 

      Ability to use operations in their thinking

    • B. 

      Level of attentional functioning and memory capacity

    • C. 

      Level of intuitive reasoning

    • D. 

      Zone of proximal development

  • 117. 
    In the development of language and thought:
    • A. 

      External speech precedes internal speech

    • B. 

      External speech develops at 3 years of age

    • C. 

      Internal speech precedes external speech

    • D. 

      Internal and external speech are developed at the same time

  • 118. 
    Which of the following educational strategies would Vygotsky say should be incorporated into the classroom?
    • A. 

      Making each child responsible for his or her work, without relying on peers or teachers for support

    • B. 

      Offering just enough assistance to the child to accomplish the task

    • C. 

      Offering abstract presentations of material

    • D. 

      Discouraging distractions like self-talk, or private talk

  • 119. 
    In moving from Piaget to Vygotsky, the conceptual shift is one from:
    • A. 

      Socializing to operational thought

    • B. 

      Construction to discovery

    • C. 

      Social interaction to sociocultural activity

    • D. 

      The individual collaboration

  • 120. 
    By age 7, children begin to recognize all of the following EXCEPT that:
    • A. 

      There can be more than one correct opinions on an issue

    • B. 

      Peoples' behaviors do not necessarily reflect their thoughts and feelings

    • C. 

      People have different interpretations of the same event

    • D. 

      People can have ambivalent feelings

  • 121. 
    Which of the following statements regarding autism is true?
    • A. 

      Autistic children's difficulty in understanding the emotions of others is due solely to theory of mind deficits.

    • B. 

      Children with autism are a homogenous group

    • C. 

      Deficits in social interactions in autistic children are generally greater than deficits in children of the same mental age with mental retardation.

    • D. 

      Children with autism usually perform well on false belief tasks

  • 122. 
    Her pediatrician has just told Karly that her 4 year old son has gained 6 lbs in the last year. Karly should:
    • A. 

      Be alarmed, because this is too much weight gain

    • B. 

      Understand that this is normal weight gain

    • C. 

      Be alarmed, because this is too little weight gain

    • D. 

      Change his diet

  • 123. 
    Brendan is 3 years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping on things. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he still fidgets, bounces, and wiggles around. It is especially frustrating when Brendan will not sit still thru dinner. Given what we know about child development, we would advise Brendan's parents to:
    • A. 

      Recognize that there is no abnormality in Brendan's behavior as such activity is a source of considerable pride and accomplishment for a 3 year old

    • B. 

      Provide structured, cognitively challenging for Brendan to build his attention span

    • C. 

      Start Brendan on a behavior modification program to substitute productive behaviors for the running and jumping

    • D. 

      Have Brendan tested for ADHD

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