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Psyc290

145 Questions  I  By Anngo
Psyc290
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1.  Clara is furious at her boss for what she considers to be an unjust criticism, so she takes out her anger on her subordinates. Clara may be using the defense mechanism of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  __________ occurs when a hypothetical, abstract concept is given a name and is then treated as though it were a concrete, tangible object.
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  The full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome is produced by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Evidence indicating that our upbringing affects our mental ability is provided by which of the following findings?
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Deirdre used to be shy and unwilling to speak out in class. Last semester she was in a class that involved a lot of discussion groups, and she found that her classmates were willing to listen attentively to her ideas, and often asked her for input when the discussion bogged down. Now Deirdre is more outspoken and confident during class discussions. Based on principles of operant conditioning, Deirdre's new outspoken, confident manner is most likely a result of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Which of the following effects has not been supported by research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Maya has always preferred individual assignments to group projects because she finds that she can accomplish more when she works on her own. The process that would best explain why Maya accomplishes less when she works as part of a group is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Toby takes the Big Smarts Mental Abilities Test and gets a raw score of 42. How is he to interpret this score?
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Which of the following approaches contends that psychology must study internal mental events (cognitions) to understand behaviour fully?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  The main advantage associated with the experimental method is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Assume that personality researchers have isolated a new trait they called "prajna." If these researchers report that fraternal twins reared together are more similar in this trait than identical twins reared apart, it would indicate that __________ the expression of prajna.
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  Dr. Laury gives a test in her general psychology class and gets a class average of 78%. Her colleague, Dr. Amos, gives the same test to his general psychology class and gets a class average of 92%. Dr. Laury is puzzled and wonders whether Dr. Amos is simply a better psychology instructor, so she talks to him and discovers that Dr. Amos gives his students a 10-minute preview of the test the day before the exam. This situation indicates a problem with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she cannot have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she cannot have the things she wants immediately. According to Freud's view of personality, Cari's personality appears to be dominated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  Gloria is so terrified of fire that she cannot light a match or even enjoy dinner by candlelight. Gloria is most likely suffering from __________ disorder.
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  The inability of a child to "undo" something mentally is referred to as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Which of the following would Freud consider to be the most direct means of access to the unconscious mind?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Negative symptoms in schizophrenia include:
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Since IQ scores are assumed to be normally distributed, an IQ score of 100 would put you:
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  According to Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion:
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  The occurrence of so-called copycat crimes, such as when someone hijacks an airliner after seeing a movie about a hijacking, provides anecdotal evidence for which of the following theories?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Terman's long-term study of gifted people found that they tend to excel in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  Epidemiological studies of psychological disorders suggest that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Mikaela is a quiet infant who does not seem to smile a lot, but who also seldom cries. She seems cautious and wary of changes in her surroundings, but eventually she adapts to the change. Using the temperament categories outlined by Thomas and Chess, Mikaela would most likely be considered to have __________ temperament.
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  According to the James-Lange theory, the conscious experience of emotion __________ physiological arousal; according to the Cannon-Bard theory, the conscious experience of emotion __________ physiological arousal.
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  According to Rogers, the collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behaviour is referred to as one's:
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents the James-Lange theory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Which of the following personality tests was designed to measure the "Big Five" traits?
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  A man who slams doors and sulks when he feels put upon, slighted, or ignored is probably exhibiting the defense mechanism of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  An elementary school child is given a test designed to determine whether she should be placed in a class of "gifted" children. The test is probably __________ test.
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  In conducting a research study, psychologists need to define all the variables clearly and unambiguously so that other researchers can objectively evaluate the results of the research. This aspect of psychology illustrates the underlying theme that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Indicate whether each of the following illustrations represents an experiment. If it is an experiment, specify the independent variable, the dependent variable, at least one controlled variable. Explain whether it is a between-subjects design or a within-subjects design, or both. Justify each of your answers. 1. Suppose you were testing the effectiveness of mnemonic devices (memory aids) in helping students memorize difficult information (e.g., molecular formulas for important chemical compounds). One group was told to memorize the information any way they can, while the other group was given specific mnemonic devices.
32.  Researchers are most apt to encounter a problem with the social desirability bias when using:
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  What is the median of the following data? 1, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6, 9
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had:
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Dr. Vasquez has found that many Asians feel uncomfortable with the expression of emotions and the disclosure of personal information. As a consequence, Dr. Vasquez has made several suggestions for ways in which psychological counselling might be modified to benefit people from Asian backgrounds. Based on this information, you could infer that Dr. Vasquez investigates:
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  With respect to cognitive abilities, evolutionary theorists:
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she cannot have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she cannot have the things she wants immediately. According to Freud's view of the personality, Cari's personality appears to be dominated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Preschoolers generally are not aware that physical quantities remain constant despite changes in their shape or appearance. This is because preschoolers have not mastered:
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  Today, most couples in the empty nest stage of the family life cycle:
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  A child on the beach wants to play in the water, but she is afraid of the waves. As a result, she runs back and forth: toward the water as the waves go out, and away from the water as waves come in. What kind of conflict is being described here?
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  A person who is social, outgoing, impulsive, overly energetic, and in some cases amoral is likely to score high on which of the following clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Gerard watched as a researcher placed five toy station wagons and three toy convertibles on a table. The researcher asked Gerard if there were more station wagons or more cars, and Gerard correctly answered that there were more cars. Gerard's answer indicates that he has mastered:
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Comparisons of men and women in their adjustments to marriage have found all of the following, except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  By definition, an extraneous variable is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  James Marcia termed individuals who were delaying commitment and actively exploring alternative ideologies as being in a state of identity:
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  The hindsight bias is also known as the __________ effect.
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  As Erica watched the televised drawing of lottery numbers, she realized she had the winning combination. If her heart starts to race at the same instant that she feels euphoria over winning the lottery, Erica's response pattern would lend support to __________ theory of emotion.
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  The __________ component of an emotion refers to the subjective conscious experience of that emotion.
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  With which of the following statements would a behaviourist agree?
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Hannah conceived a baby seven days ago and does not yet know she is pregnant. Hannah's pregnancy is currently in the __________ stage.
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  What does the research indicate about the general effect of everyday problems and the minor nuisances of life?
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  If you were having problems with depression, which of the following kinds of psychologists would be most helpful to you?
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  Freud concluded that psychological disturbances are largely caused by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Evolutionary theories of emotion assume all but which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  The impending possibility of a forbidden impulse getting out of control and being expressed in behaviour would be most likely to produce __________ in the person.
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Which of the following was least likely to be the focus of study for the functionalists?
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Experimenter bias occurs when:
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Currently, a large proportion of the North American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks this may be partly due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available this innate preference would ensure enough calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker's views are most consistent with those of the __________ perspective.
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  A group of researchers is investigating the effects of gingko biloba on memory. During the first part of the study, the animals learn to run a maze while they are not receiving the supplement. In the second part of the study, the animals learn to run a different maze while they are receiving the supplement. In each case, the researchers count how many trials it takes before the animals can run the maze pattern without making any errors. In this study, the dependent variable is the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  Compared to low scorers, people who score high in the need for achievement:
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  Rather than having a few "best friends," Peter tends to select companions based on the event he plans to attend or the activity in which he plans to engage. Peter seems to be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  In learning to crawl, children initially depend on their arms to propel them and later shift to using their legs. This motor development sequence is an example of the __________ trend.
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  A person who is high in achievement motivation would be expected to show all but which of the following characteristics?
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Which of the following statements best represents the approach of a client-centred therapist in treating a chronically anxious client?
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  Which of the following variables would be considered the best predictor of happiness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  The case of Reena Virk, described at the beginning of Chapter 1, and information about bullying by females, as presented in the Featured Study (p. 15) on bullying behaviour, are recent pieces of evidence suggesting that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  Which of the following personality theorists contends that personality is largely determined by a person's genes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Fran applied for admission to a computer science program. One requirement for admission is the completion of a test that measures sequencing skills and abstract reasoning skills. Fran's score on this test will be a major factor in the decision as to whether to admit her to the program. In this case, the test that Fran is scheduled to take would be classified as __________ test.
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  When groups of subjects of differing ages are compared at a single point in time, the study is called a __________ study.
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Research findings indicate that when changing answers on a multiple-choice test, most people change a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Which of the following statements about the influence of culture on the use of IQ tests is most accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  __________ implants itself into the uterine wall and becomes __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  In an experiment, the variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher is called the __________ variable.
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  Dr. Vasquez has found that many Asian people feel uncomfortable with the expression of emotions and the disclosure of personal information. As a consequence, Dr. Vasquez has made several suggestions for ways in which psychological counselling might be modified to benefit people from Asian backgrounds. Based on this information, you could infer that Dr. Vasquez investigates:
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  Which of the following involves experience seeking, disinhibition, and susceptibility to boredom?
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  The term that Albert Bandura uses to refer to the assumption that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behaviour all influence each other is
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  Researchers studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had recorded conversations playing 24/7; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room that had the recorded conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  In an attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. This technique is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Wyatt is an active infant who always seems to be happy. He has a regular schedule and his parents know that he will sleep through the night without waking, even when he stays overnight with his grandparents. Using the temperament categories outlined by Thomas and Chess, Wyatt would most likely be considered to have __________ temperament.
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  A laboratory rat has had part of its hypothalamus destroyed by lesioning. The rat does not seem to know when to stop eating, and has ballooned to several times its normal size. In this case, it would appear that portions of the __________ hypothalamus have been destroyed.
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  According to John Watson, behaviour is governed primarily by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  Jenny conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Jenny is most likely a
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Lauren and Tran both spend six hours per week studying for their botany course. Lauren is concerned that if she does not study, she will fail the course; Tran is concerned that if he does not study, he will not earn the highest grade in the class. In this example:
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  John worries about his tendency toward abusing animals, so he joins the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). John's behaviour can be viewed as an example of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  Two data collection techniques that are most likely to involve direct contact between the researcher and the research participant are __________ and __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Dr. Underhill is reviewing the records from a patient who has just been referred for treatment. He is carefully considering the symptoms that have been documented, and is attempting to identify the type of psychological disorder the individual is most likely to have. Dr. Underhill is currently focusing on:
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Two data collection techniques that are most likely to involve direct contact between the researcher and the research participant are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  When Harvey was a child, the only time he ate turnips was when he was at his grandmother's house for Christmas dinner. Now, as an adult, Harvey loves the taste of turnips because he associates them with Christmas at his grandmother's house. In this example, Harvey's preference for the taste of turnips could best be explained using principles of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Conventional thinking in moral development bases morality (right or wrong) on:
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  Which of the following approaches to explaining the origins of homosexuality has received the most empirical support?
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  The extent to which a test measures some abstract personal quality, such as creativity or intelligence, is a matter of __________ validity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  Which of the following statements has been shown to be true of creative people?
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Individuals who alternate between periods of depression and periods of being manic are diagnosed as having a __________ disorder.
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  The mode in a group of scores describes the __________ for that group of scores.
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  The physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for action is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  The first phase of prenatal development is the __________ stage.
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Joel and Kirk both work with a stock brokerage firm. Joel is considered to be extremely handsome, and Kirk is considered to be average in appearance. Based on research that has investigated the effects of physical appearance in person perception, you should predict that
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  If a test yields almost identical scores when it is retaken after a two-month interval, we can say that the test is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  According to the evidence on twin studies, identical twins--who share 100% of their genes--still show less than a perfect correlation in their intelligence scores. This means that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  A psychotherapist who participates in complex verbal interactions with clients in order to enhance clients' understanding of themselves and their problems would be classified as __________ therapist.
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  The case of Reena Virk, described in Chapter 1 of Weiten and McCann (2007), and information about bullying by females, as presented in the Featured Study (p. 15) on bullying behaviour, are recent pieces of evidence that suggest that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  Dr. Iverson has had 25 students who have repeated her Advanced Economics class over the past five years. Each time, the students' grades for the second attempt in her course were nearly identical to the grades received on the first attempt. This leads Dr. Iverson to conclude that her testing procedures:
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  A researcher is measuring the heart rate of subjects as an index of anxiety. In this study, heart rate is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  Which of the following statements regarding the difference between a clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist is accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  Researchers studying the effects of sleep deprivation tested the physical coordination skills of 25-year-old males who had been sleep deprived for either 24, 36, or 48 hours. In this study, the dependent variable would be the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  Jasmine takes her 1-year-old son, Randy, to visit a daycare centre where she plans to enrol him. Randy eagerly explores the playroom, and when his mom leaves the room to fill out some forms he shows no signs of concern. When Jasmine returns, Randy shows little interest and continues to play with the toys he has collected. This type of interaction might be observed between a child and a parent who __________ attachment relationship.
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  Deirdre used to be shy and unwilling to speak out in class. Last semester she was in a class that involved a lot of discussion groups, and she found that her classmates were willing to listen attentively to her ideas, and often asked her for input when the discussion bogged down. Now Deirdre is more outspoken and confident during class discussions. Based on principles of operant conditioning, Deirdre's new outspoken, confident manner is most likely a result of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  When we say that stress "lies in the mind of the beholder," we mean that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  According to the environmental theory of sexual orientation, the origin of homosexuality might be traced to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Jake's father suggests that Jake's low marks in school are due to his laziness. Jake's father has made __________ attribution.
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  Which of the following do psychoanalytic theory and behaviourism theory have in common?
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  Currently, a large proportion of the American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks this may be partly due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available, this innate preference would ensure sufficient calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker's views are most consistent with those of the __________ perspective.
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  Dr. Smythe believes that in order to understand completely such complex processes as taste, for example, it is necessary to understand the purpose that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. Dr. Smythe's views are most consistent with the __________ approach.
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Dr. Marqueta believes that "misery loves company." Based on this belief, she predicts that people who have received bad news will seek out other people. Dr. Marqueta's belief is an example of a __________, and her prediction is an example of __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  Behaviour therapies appear to be particularly effective in the treatment of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  Dr. Agawa often treats individuals who have symptoms of major depression. During the initial treatment, Dr. Agawa often prescribes antidepressants, but during the course of therapy he also encourages patients to recognize and change negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs. He believes that drug treatment can be effective in reducing the symptoms of depression, but only by understanding the causes of their depression will individuals be able to prevent relapses. Dr. Agawa's approach to therapy could best be described as __________ approach.
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  The ability to infer a cause-and-effect relationship is associated only with the __________ research method.
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  __________ theory asserts that a species' mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest--in terms of time, energy, and survival risk--to maximize the transmission of its genes to the next generation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  Much like Freud, Skinner's views on human behaviour were controversial and often criticized. In Freud's case, a major controversy was about __________, while in Skinner's case, a major controversy was related to __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  According to Erikson's view of adulthood, finding and making commitments to society and to future generations mark his stage of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  Julio is playing a computer trivia game against some friends. When he wins the first game, Julio attributes his win to his quick reaction time. However, when Julio loses the second game, he attributes his loss to the fact that his signalling button stopped working correctly. Julio's attributions for his performance during the trivia game are consistent with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  Sigmund Freud's theory of personality was influenced to a degree by his reaction to the hostilities of World War I, a fact that illustrates which of the following unifying themes of the textbook?
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  In the following example, describe which of the four common flaws in research is in operation: sampling bias, distortions in self-report data, experimenter bias, and placebo effect. More than one flaw may apply. Justify your answer. 1. Mr. Fairweather was convinced that memory-enhancing games were needed to improve poor concentration in his Grade 10 math class. He asked 20 of his lowest-scoring students to be involved in his experiment. Ten students agreed to volunteer after he told them what he was trying to prove. Mr. Fairweather personally supervised the use of the memory-enhancing games with these students for two weeks. He then asked each student to rate his or her own improvement in concentration and in math memory. Mr. Fairweather's results showed that memory-enhancing games were an effective way of improving math skills.
124.  Which of the following effects has not been supported by research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  Charles understands that the mind creatively constructs and uniquely interprets reality. Lalonde and Chandler call this the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  Evolutionary theory would predict that women should place more emphasis than men on all but which of the following partner characteristics?
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  Dr. Cueto believes that psychological disorders can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured, just like physical illnesses. Dr. Cueto's views reflect the point of view suggested by the __________ model of abnormal behaviour.
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  Why is it that IQ scores do not routinely increase as we get older?
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents the James-Lange theory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  Three attributes of the scientific method are curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness. Write the skepticism and open-mindedness attributes in a statement or in question form. For example, the curiosity attribute might be written as: "Why did it happen?"
131.  Obedience is a form of compliance in which people change their behaviour in response to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  Weiten and McCann (2007) note that people's experiences of the world are highly subjective (Theme 7). For example, some studies have shown that people tend to see what they expect to see (Kelley, 1950). As our experiences are highly subjective, what can the psychology researcher do (i.e., what approach can he or she take) to ensure that personal subjectivity does not bias the research findings?
133.  The idea that psychology is empirical suggests that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion,
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called __________ statistics.
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  At the end of her calculus course, Mary takes a test to determine how well she has mastered the material. The calculus test is primarily:
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  According to the reaction range model, children:
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  An individual's percentile score is the percentage of people who score:
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  A survey is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  A physical ailment characterized by physiological changes that originate, at least in part, from psychological factors is referred to as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  Which of the following traits has not been linked to creativity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  Full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is produced by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
143.  Everyone likes to have Sheri working on their committees because she seems to have the unique ability to consider a variety of options and quickly narrow the list of options down to the one or two best alternatives. In other words, Sheri is skilled in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Sarah is torn between the need to study for an exam and her desire to go out with her friends. She decides to go out later only if she completes her studying. This realistic decision reflects the functioning of Sarah's:
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Much like Freud, Skinner's views on human behaviour were controversial and often criticized. In Freud's case, a major controversy was about his __________, while in Skinner's case a major controversy was related to his __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
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