Psyc290

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  • 1. 
    Indicate whether each of the following illustrations represents an experiment. If it is an experiment, specify the independent variable, the dependent variable, at least one controlled variable. Explain whether it is a between-subjects design or a within-subjects design, or both. Justify each of your answers. 1. Suppose you were testing the effectiveness of mnemonic devices (memory aids) in helping students memorize difficult information (e.g., molecular formulas for important chemical compounds). One group was told to memorize the information any way they can, while the other group was given specific mnemonic devices.

  • 2. 
    Three attributes of the scientific method are curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness. Write the skepticism and open-mindedness attributes in a statement or in question form. For example, the curiosity attribute might be written as: "Why did it happen?"

  • 3. 
    Weiten and McCann (2007) note that people's experiences of the world are highly subjective (Theme 7). For example, some studies have shown that people tend to see what they expect to see (Kelley, 1950). As our experiences are highly subjective, what can the psychology researcher do (i.e., what approach can he or she take) to ensure that personal subjectivity does not bias the research findings?

  • 4. 
    In the following example, describe which of the four common flaws in research is in operation: sampling bias, distortions in self-report data, experimenter bias, and placebo effect. More than one flaw may apply. Justify your answer. 1. Mr. Fairweather was convinced that memory-enhancing games were needed to improve poor concentration in his Grade 10 math class. He asked 20 of his lowest-scoring students to be involved in his experiment. Ten students agreed to volunteer after he told them what he was trying to prove. Mr. Fairweather personally supervised the use of the memory-enhancing games with these students for two weeks. He then asked each student to rate his or her own improvement in concentration and in math memory. Mr. Fairweather's results showed that memory-enhancing games were an effective way of improving math skills.

  • 5. 
    Dr. Smythe believes that in order to understand completely such complex processes as taste, for example, it is necessary to understand the purpose that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. Dr. Smythe's views are most consistent with the __________ approach.
    • A. 

      Behaviourist

    • B. 

      Functionalist

    • C. 

      Structuralist

    • D. 

      Psychoanalytic


  • 6. 
    Dr. Vasquez has found that many Asians feel uncomfortable with the expression of emotions and the disclosure of personal information. As a consequence, Dr. Vasquez has made several suggestions for ways in which psychological counselling might be modified to benefit people from Asian backgrounds. Based on this information, you could infer that Dr. Vasquez investigates:
    • A. 

      The biological determinants of behaviour

    • B. 

      The impact of evolutionary factors in psychological functioning.

    • C. 

      The role of cultural factors in psychological processes

    • D. 

      Psychometrics and cognitive psychology


  • 7. 
    Currently, a large proportion of the American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks this may be partly due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available, this innate preference would ensure sufficient calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker's views are most consistent with those of the __________ perspective.
    • A. 

      Cultural

    • B. 

      Cognitive

    • C. 

      Behavioural

    • D. 

      Evolutionary


  • 8. 
    In conducting a research study, psychologists need to define all the variables clearly and unambiguously so that other researchers can objectively evaluate the results of the research. This aspect of psychology illustrates the underlying theme that:
    • A. 

      Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

    • B. 

      Our experience of the world is highly subjective.

    • C. 

      Psychology is empirical.

    • D. 

      Behaviour is determined by multiple causes.


  • 9. 
    The case of Reena Virk, described in Chapter 1 of Weiten and McCann (2007), and information about bullying by females, as presented in the Featured Study (p. 15) on bullying behaviour, are recent pieces of evidence that suggest that:
    • A. 

      Bullying is mainly a female behaviour, but males tend to get caught more often.

    • B. 

      Violent bullying is only done by males and non-violent bullying is only done by females.

    • C. 

      Although the rate of bullying by females is lower, it is increasing at a faster rate for girls than for boys, and females may use different "styles" of bullying.

    • D. 

      Bullying only refers to minor, non-violent behaviours, and the case of Reena Virk is simply about murder rather than bullying.


  • 10. 
    Which of the following do psychoanalytic theory and behaviourism theory have in common?
    • A. 

      An emphasis on the role of sexuality in behaviour

    • B. 

      A resistance to the use of animal subjects in psychological research

    • C. 

      The notion that unconscious motives have a major influence on behaviour

    • D. 

      The implication that people are not masters of their own destinies


  • 11. 
    Much like Freud, Skinner's views on human behaviour were controversial and often criticized. In Freud's case, a major controversy was about __________, while in Skinner's case, a major controversy was related to __________.
    • A. 

      Freud's focus on conscious processes; Skinner's focus on unconscious processes

    • B. 

      Freud's focus on sexual motivation; Skinner's suggestion that free will was an illusion

    • C. 

      Freud's focus on sexual motivation; Skinner's belief that maladaptive behaviour was biological in origin

    • D. 

      Freud's insensitive treatment of patients; Skinner's violation of existing animal ethics rules


  • 12. 
    Dr. Marqueta believes that "misery loves company." Based on this belief, she predicts that people who have received bad news will seek out other people. Dr. Marqueta's belief is an example of a __________, and her prediction is an example of __________.
    • A. 

      Hypothesis; a theory

    • B. 

      Theory; a hypothesis

    • C. 

      Variable; an application

    • D. 

      Hypothesis; a variable


  • 13. 
    Two data collection techniques that are most likely to involve direct contact between the researcher and the research participant are:
    • A. 

      Participatory observation and interviews.

    • B. 

      Archival research and psychological testing

    • C. 

      Questionnaires and interviews.

    • D. 

      Archival research and questionnaires.


  • 14. 
    A group of researchers is investigating the effects of gingko biloba on memory. During the first part of the study, the animals learn to run a maze while they are not receiving the supplement. In the second part of the study, the animals learn to run a different maze while they are receiving the supplement. In each case, the researchers count how many trials it takes before the animals can run the maze pattern without making any errors. In this study, the dependent variable is the:
    • A. 

      Type of animal the researchers select for the study.

    • B. 

      Presence or absence of the food supplement in the animal's diet.

    • C. 

      Number of trials it takes to run the maze without making any errors.

    • D. 

      Age of the animals in the study.


  • 15. 
    Fran applied for admission to a computer science program. One requirement for admission is the completion of a test that measures sequencing skills and abstract reasoning skills. Fran's score on this test will be a major factor in the decision as to whether to admit her to the program. In this case, the test that Fran is scheduled to take would be classified as __________ test.
    • A. 

      An achievement

    • B. 

      A projective

    • C. 

      A normative

    • D. 

      An aptitude


  • 16. 
    Dr. Iverson has had 25 students who have repeated her Advanced Economics class over the past five years. Each time, the students' grades for the second attempt in her course were nearly identical to the grades received on the first attempt. This leads Dr. Iverson to conclude that her testing procedures:
    • A. 

      Provide valid measures of student ability

    • B. 

      Are well standardized.

    • C. 

      Provide reliable measures of student ability.

    • D. 

      Successfully measure abstract reasoning skills


  • 17. 
    Since IQ scores are assumed to be normally distributed, an IQ score of 100 would put you:
    • A. 

      To the left of the centre of the normal curve.

    • B. 

      At the centre of the normal curve.

    • C. 

      To the right of the centre of the normal curve.

    • D. 

      Somewhere on the curve, with your exact location depending on the performance of others taking the test with you.


  • 18. 
    Which of the following statements about the influence of culture on the use of IQ tests is most accurate?
    • A. 

      IQ tests are widely used in virtually all cultures.

    • B. 

      Different cultures have different conceptions of what intelligence is.

    • C. 

      It is generally accepted across all cultures that it is possible to measure and quantify intellectual ability.

    • D. 

      Western IQ tests generally translate well into the language and cognitive framework of non-Western cultures.


  • 19. 
    Everyone likes to have Sheri working on their committees because she seems to have the unique ability to consider a variety of options and quickly narrow the list of options down to the one or two best alternatives. In other words, Sheri is skilled in:
    • A. 

      Divergent thinking.

    • B. 

      Transformational logic.

    • C. 

      Convergent thinking.

    • D. 

      Field dependence.


  • 20. 
    When Harvey was a child, the only time he ate turnips was when he was at his grandmother's house for Christmas dinner. Now, as an adult, Harvey loves the taste of turnips because he associates them with Christmas at his grandmother's house. In this example, Harvey's preference for the taste of turnips could best be explained using principles of:
    • A. 

      Observational learning.

    • B. 

      Classical conditioning.

    • C. 

      Homeostatic conditioning.

    • D. 

      Genetic predispositions.


  • 21. 
    Which of the following effects has not been supported by research?
    • A. 

      Viewing erotic materials tends to cause sex crimes.

    • B. 

      Viewing erotic materials changes one's attitudes to become more liberal about sexual practices.

    • C. 

      Viewing erotic materials may make some people dissatisfied with their own sexual interactions.

    • D. 

      Viewing erotic materials elevates the likelihood of overt sexual activity for a few hours immediately after the exposure.


  • 22. 
    Lauren and Tran both spend six hours per week studying for their botany course. Lauren is concerned that if she does not study, she will fail the course; Tran is concerned that if he does not study, he will not earn the highest grade in the class. In this example:
    • A. 

      Lauren is motivated by a fear of failure, and Tran is motivated by a need for achievement.

    • B. 

      Both students are motivated by a fear of failure.

    • C. 

      Tran is motivated by a fear of failure, and Lauren is motivated by a need for achievement.

    • D. 

      Both students are motivated by a need for achievement.


  • 23. 
    Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents the James-Lange theory?
    • A. 

      "I'm shaking because I'm afraid."

    • B. 

      "I'm afraid because I'm shaking."

    • C. 

      "My shaking must be due to fear, since my house is on fire."

    • D. 

      "My fear is a built-in, primary reaction to a dangerous situation."


  • 24. 
    As Erica watched the televised drawing of lottery numbers, she realized she had the winning combination. If her heart starts to race at the same instant that she feels euphoria over winning the lottery, Erica's response pattern would lend support to __________ theory of emotion.
    • A. 

      The Cannon-Bard

    • B. 

      The James-Lange

    • C. 

      Izard's evolutionary

    • D. 

      Schachter's two-factor


  • 25. 
    The full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome is produced by:
    • A. 

      Heavy drinking during the first three months of pregnancy.

    • B. 

      Heavy drinking during the final three months of pregnancy.

    • C. 

      One drunken binge at any time during pregnancy.

    • D. 

      Heavy drinking throughout pregnancy.


  • 26. 
    Mikaela is a quiet infant who does not seem to smile a lot, but who also seldom cries. She seems cautious and wary of changes in her surroundings, but eventually she adapts to the change. Using the temperament categories outlined by Thomas and Chess, Mikaela would most likely be considered to have __________ temperament.
    • A. 

      A difficult

    • B. 

      A slow-to-warm-up

    • C. 

      An easy

    • D. 

      An uninhibited


  • 27. 
    Jasmine takes her 1-year-old son, Randy, to visit a daycare centre where she plans to enrol him. Randy eagerly explores the playroom, and when his mom leaves the room to fill out some forms he shows no signs of concern. When Jasmine returns, Randy shows little interest and continues to play with the toys he has collected. This type of interaction might be observed between a child and a parent who __________ attachment relationship.
    • A. 

      Share an anxious-ambivalent

    • B. 

      Share a secure

    • C. 

      Have not yet developed an

    • D. 

      Share an avoidant


  • 28. 
    The inability of a child to "undo" something mentally is referred to as:
    • A. 

      Assimilation.

    • B. 

      Object permanence.

    • C. 

      Egocentrism.

    • D. 

      Irreversibility.


  • 29. 
    James Marcia termed individuals who were delaying commitment and actively exploring alternative ideologies as being in a state of identity:
    • A. 

      Postponement.

    • B. 

      Diffusion.

    • C. 

      Foreclosure.

    • D. 

      Moratorium.


  • 30. 
    Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she cannot have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she cannot have the things she wants immediately. According to Freud's view of the personality, Cari's personality appears to be dominated by:
    • A. 

      Her ego.

    • B. 

      Her id.

    • C. 

      Reaction formation.

    • D. 

      Her superego.


  • 31. 
    The impending possibility of a forbidden impulse getting out of control and being expressed in behaviour would be most likely to produce __________ in the person.
    • A. 

      Anxiety

    • B. 

      Impulse gratification

    • C. 

      Secondary gain

    • D. 

      Depression


  • 32. 
    Deirdre used to be shy and unwilling to speak out in class. Last semester she was in a class that involved a lot of discussion groups, and she found that her classmates were willing to listen attentively to her ideas, and often asked her for input when the discussion bogged down. Now Deirdre is more outspoken and confident during class discussions. Based on principles of operant conditioning, Deirdre's new outspoken, confident manner is most likely a result of:
    • A. 

      Extinction

    • B. 

      Negative reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Punishment.

    • D. 

      Positive reinforcement.


  • 33. 
    Assume that personality researchers have isolated a new trait they called "prajna." If these researchers report that fraternal twins reared together are more similar in this trait than identical twins reared apart, it would indicate that __________ the expression of prajna.
    • A. 

      Genetics has a larger influence than environment in

    • B. 

      Neither genetics nor environment influences

    • C. 

      Environment has a larger influence than genetics in

    • D. 

      Genetics and environment exert equivalent influences in


  • 34. 
    The hindsight bias is also known as the __________ effect.
    • A. 

      "I knew it all along."

    • B. 

      "No pain, no gain."

    • C. 

      "Opposites attract."

    • D. 

      "Everyone else is crazy."


  • 35. 
    What does the research indicate about the general effect of everyday problems and the minor nuisances of life?
    • A. 

      Minor stresses produce minor effects.

    • B. 

      Minor stresses have negative effects only when coupled with major stresses.

    • C. 

      Minor stresses may have significant harmful effects on both physical and mental health.

    • D. 

      Minor stresses often have significant harmful effects on mental health, but they do not affect physical health.


  • 36. 
    When we say that stress "lies in the mind of the beholder," we mean that:
    • A. 

      Our appraisals of stressful events are basically objective.

    • B. 

      . the autonomic nervous system triggers a fight-or-flight response, which then sends messages of stress to the brain.

    • C. 

      Strong-minded persons are better able to handle stressful events than weak-minded ones.

    • D. 

      Our appraisals of stressful events are highly subjective.


  • 37. 
    The physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for action is called:
    • A. 

      Catharsis

    • B. 

      Primary appraisal.

    • C. 

      The fight-or-flight response.

    • D. 

      Resistance


  • 38. 
    Dr. Cueto believes that psychological disorders can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured, just like physical illnesses. Dr. Cueto's views reflect the point of view suggested by the __________ model of abnormal behaviour.
    • A. 

      Medical

    • B. 

      Behavioural

    • C. 

      Deviance

    • D. 

      Psychodynamic


  • 39. 
    Dr. Underhill is reviewing the records from a patient who has just been referred for treatment. He is carefully considering the symptoms that have been documented, and is attempting to identify the type of psychological disorder the individual is most likely to have. Dr. Underhill is currently focusing on:
    • A. 

      Etiology

    • B. 

      Prognosis

    • C. 

      Diagnosis

    • D. 

      Histology


  • 40. 
    Epidemiological studies of psychological disorders suggest that:
    • A. 

      Nearly everyone who needs treatment for psychological disorders receives it.

    • B. 

      Epidemics involving psychological disorders are common.

    • C. 

      Psychological disorders are more common than many people realize.

    • D. 

      Prevalence rates of mental illness have seen a significant decrease in Canada in recent years.


  • 41. 
    Gloria is so terrified of fire that she cannot light a match or even enjoy dinner by candlelight. Gloria is most likely suffering from __________ disorder.
    • A. 

      Generalized anxiety

    • B. 

      Panic

    • C. 

      Obsessive-compulsive

    • D. 

      Phobic


  • 42. 
    A physical ailment characterized by physiological changes that originate, at least in part, from psychological factors is referred to as:
    • A. 

      A somatoform disorder.

    • B. 

      A psychosomatic disease.

    • C. 

      An anxiety disorder.

    • D. 

      Malingering.


  • 43. 
    Individuals who alternate between periods of depression and periods of being manic are diagnosed as having a __________ disorder.
    • A. 

      Multiple-personality

    • B. 

      Conversion

    • C. 

      Bipolar

    • D. 

      Dissociative


  • 44. 
    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia include:
    • A. 

      Behavioural deficits, such as flattened emotion, apathy, and poverty of speech.

    • B. 

      Behavioural excesses, such as hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behaviour.

    • C. 

      Antisocial behaviours, such as violence and rage reactions.

    • D. 

      Dissociative behaviours and the emergence of multiple personalities.


  • 45. 
    A psychotherapist who participates in complex verbal interactions with clients in order to enhance clients' understanding of themselves and their problems would be classified as __________ therapist.
    • A. 

      An insight

    • B. 

      A behaviour

    • C. 

      A biomedical

    • D. 

      A homeopathic


  • 46. 
    Which of the following would Freud consider to be the most direct means of access to the unconscious mind?
    • A. 

      Transference

    • B. 

      The content of dreams

    • C. 

      The client's feelings toward the therapist

    • D. 

      The client's attempts to hinder the progress of therapy


  • 47. 
    Which of the following statements best represents the approach of a client-centred therapist in treating a chronically anxious client?
    • A. 

      "Let's look for ways in which you might actually be benefiting from your anxiety."

    • B. 

      "So, you feel that your world is a very scary place to be."

    • C. 

      "Let's see if we can identify the irrational beliefs that are producing your anxiety."

    • D. 

      "Do you feel that your mother adequately met your need for emotional support when you were a child?"


  • 48. 
    Behaviour therapies appear to be particularly effective in the treatment of:
    • A. 

      Major depression.

    • B. 

      Antisocial personality disorder.

    • C. 

      Phobias.

    • D. 

      Multiple-personality disorders.


  • 49. 
    Dr. Agawa often treats individuals who have symptoms of major depression. During the initial treatment, Dr. Agawa often prescribes antidepressants, but during the course of therapy he also encourages patients to recognize and change negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs. He believes that drug treatment can be effective in reducing the symptoms of depression, but only by understanding the causes of their depression will individuals be able to prevent relapses. Dr. Agawa's approach to therapy could best be described as __________ approach.
    • A. 

      A humanistic

    • B. 

      A behavioural

    • C. 

      A deinstitutional

    • D. 

      An eclectic


  • 50. 
    Joel and Kirk both work with a stock brokerage firm. Joel is considered to be extremely handsome, and Kirk is considered to be average in appearance. Based on research that has investigated the effects of physical appearance in person perception, you should predict that
    • A. 

      Joel will tend to receive better performance evaluations than Kirk, for equivalent work.

    • B. 

      Kirk will tend to receive better performance evaluations than Joel, for equivalent work

    • C. 

      Joel will be perceived as having greater integrity and being more honest.

    • D. 

      Kirk will be perceived as being more submissive and naïve


  • 51. 
    Jake's father suggests that Jake's low marks in school are due to his laziness. Jake's father has made __________ attribution.
    • A. 

      An external

    • B. 

      A distinctive

    • C. 

      An internal

    • D. 

      A situational


  • 52. 
    Julio is playing a computer trivia game against some friends. When he wins the first game, Julio attributes his win to his quick reaction time. However, when Julio loses the second game, he attributes his loss to the fact that his signalling button stopped working correctly. Julio's attributions for his performance during the trivia game are consistent with:
    • A. 

      Fundamental attribution error.

    • B. 

      Actor-observer bias.

    • C. 

      Self-serving bias.

    • D. 

      Matching hypothesis.


  • 53. 
    Obedience is a form of compliance in which people change their behaviour in response to:
    • A. 

      Direct commands.

    • B. 

      Implied pressure.

    • C. 

      Requests from others.

    • D. 

      Persuasive communications.


  • 54. 
    Maya has always preferred individual assignments to group projects because she finds that she can accomplish more when she works on her own. The process that would best explain why Maya accomplishes less when she works as part of a group is:
    • A. 

      Social loafing.

    • B. 

      Bystander effect.

    • C. 

      Social interference.

    • D. 

      Social dissonance.


  • 55. 
    In an attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. This technique is called:
    • A. 

      Introspection

    • B. 

      Retrospection

    • C. 

      Empiricism

    • D. 

      Psychoanalysis


  • 56. 
    Which of the following was least likely to be the focus of study for the functionalists?
    • A. 

      Mental testing

    • B. 

      Development in children

    • C. 

      Sensation and perception

    • D. 

      The effectiveness of educational practices


  • 57. 
    With which of the following statements would a behaviourist agree?
    • A. 

      Conscious experiences can be studied in an objective, precise way.

    • B. 

      To understand behaviour, one must understand the motive behind the behaviour.

    • C. 

      Behaviour can only be explained in terms of phenomenology; that is, an individual's interpretation of experience.

    • D. 

      Psychology should be the science of behaviour that can be observed by others


  • 58. 
    According to John Watson, behaviour is governed primarily by:
    • A. 

      Heredity

    • B. 

      Personal motives.

    • C. 

      The environment.

    • D. 

      Unconscious desires.


  • 59. 
    Which of the following statements regarding the difference between a clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist is accurate?
    • A. 

      Psychiatrists cannot prescribe drugs.

    • B. 

      A clinical psychologist has a medical degree.

    • C. 

      Both clinical psychologists and psychiatrists receive medical training.

    • D. 

      Clinical psychologists tend to take a non-medical approach to the treatment of psychological disorders.


  • 60. 
    The idea that psychology is empirical suggests that:
    • A. 

      Reason and logic are primary to psychology.

    • B. 

      Conclusions should be guided by theories.

    • C. 

      Conclusions should be based on direct observation.

    • D. 

      Research should focus on underlying, internal events.


  • 61. 
    Research findings indicate that when changing answers on a multiple-choice test, most people change a:
    • A. 

      Right answer to a wrong answer.

    • B. 

      Wrong answer to a right answer.

    • C. 

      Wrong answer to another wrong answer.

    • D. 

      Right answer to a wrong answer and back again to the right answer.


  • 62. 
    Jenny conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Jenny is most likely a
    • A. 

      Cognitive psychologist.

    • B. 

      Gestalt psychologist.

    • C. 

      Behaviourist

    • D. 

      Functionalist.


  • 63. 
    Freud concluded that psychological disturbances are largely caused by:
    • A. 

      Unrealistic demands from family and friends.

    • B. 

      Personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level.

    • C. 

      Genetic predispositions to behave in a particular way.

    • D. 

      Conflicts between conscious desires and environmental constraints


  • 64. 
    Which of the following approaches contends that psychology must study internal mental events (cognitions) to understand behaviour fully?
    • A. 

      Behaviourism

    • B. 

      Cognitive psychology

    • C. 

      Stimulus-response psychology

    • D. 

      Psychophysics


  • 65. 
    If you were having problems with depression, which of the following kinds of psychologists would be most helpful to you?
    • A. 

      Developmental psychologist

    • B. 

      Social psychologist

    • C. 

      Clinical psychologist

    • D. 

      Experimental psychologist


  • 66. 
    Dr. Vasquez has found that many Asian people feel uncomfortable with the expression of emotions and the disclosure of personal information. As a consequence, Dr. Vasquez has made several suggestions for ways in which psychological counselling might be modified to benefit people from Asian backgrounds. Based on this information, you could infer that Dr. Vasquez investigates:
    • A. 

      The biological determinants of behaviour.

    • B. 

      The impact of evolutionary factors in psychological functioning.

    • C. 

      The role of cultural factors in psychological processes.

    • D. 

      Psychometrics and cognitive psychology.


  • 67. 
    Currently, a large proportion of the North American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks this may be partly due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available this innate preference would ensure enough calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker's views are most consistent with those of the __________ perspective.
    • A. 

      Cultural

    • B. 

      Cognitive

    • C. 

      Behavioural

    • D. 

      Evolutionary


  • 68. 
    The case of Reena Virk, described at the beginning of Chapter 1, and information about bullying by females, as presented in the Featured Study (p. 15) on bullying behaviour, are recent pieces of evidence suggesting that:
    • A. 

      Bullying is mainly a female behaviour, but males tend to get caught more often.

    • B. 

      Violent bullying is only done by males and non-violent bullying is only done by females.

    • C. 

      Although the rate of bullying by females is lower, it is increasing at a faster rate for girls than for boys, and females may use different "styles" of bullying.

    • D. 

      Bullying only refers to minor, non-violent behaviours, and the case of Reena Virk is simply about murder rather than bullying.


  • 69. 
    Much like Freud, Skinner's views on human behaviour were controversial and often criticized. In Freud's case, a major controversy was about his __________, while in Skinner's case a major controversy was related to his __________.
    • A. 

      Focus on conscious processes; focus on unconscious processes

    • B. 

      Focus on sexual motivation; suggestion that free will was an illusion

    • C. 

      Focus on sexual motivation; belief that maladaptive behaviour was biological in origin

    • D. 

      Insensitive treatment of patients; violation of existing animal ethics rules


  • 70. 
    A researcher is measuring the heart rate of subjects as an index of anxiety. In this study, heart rate is:
    • A. 

      A confounded variable.

    • B. 

      Negatively correlated with anxiety.

    • C. 

      An independent variable.

    • D. 

      An operational definition of anxiety.


  • 71. 
    In an experiment, the variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher is called the __________ variable.
    • A. 

      Dependent

    • B. 

      Independent

    • C. 

      Control

    • D. 

      Stimulus


  • 72. 
    By definition, an extraneous variable is:
    • A. 

      A variable that affects the control group but not the experimental group.

    • B. 

      The same thing as a dependent variable.

    • C. 

      A variable that is completely irrelevant to both the independent and dependent variables.

    • D. 

      A variable, other than the independent variable, that may influence the dependent variable


  • 73. 
    The main advantage associated with the experimental method is:
    • A. 

      Its precise control.

    • B. 

      Its ability to duplicate real life in the laboratory.

    • C. 

      That it can be used to explore just about everything.

    • D. 

      That participants usually enjoy taking part in the study.


  • 74. 
    Researchers studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had recorded conversations playing 24/7; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room that had the recorded conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be:
    • A. 

      The dependent variable.

    • B. 

      An extraneous variable

    • C. 

      A placebo

    • D. 

      The independent variable.


  • 75. 
    Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had:
    • A. 

      The longest hair.

    • B. 

      Mid-length hair.

    • C. 

      The shortest hair.

    • D. 

      Either extremely long or extremely short hair.


  • 76. 
    Researchers studying the effects of sleep deprivation tested the physical coordination skills of 25-year-old males who had been sleep deprived for either 24, 36, or 48 hours. In this study, the dependent variable would be the:
    • A. 

      Age of the research participants.

    • B. 

      Physical coordination skills of the men in the study.

    • C. 

      Length of time participants had been sleep deprived.

    • D. 

      Type of physical coordination task the researchers used.


  • 77. 
    The ability to infer a cause-and-effect relationship is associated only with the __________ research method.
    • A. 

      Correlational

    • B. 

      Case history

    • C. 

      Experimental

    • D. 

      Empirical


  • 78. 
    A survey is:
    • A. 

      A structured questionnaire or interview designed to elicit information about specific aspects of a subject's behaviour

    • B. 

      The same thing as a psychological test.

    • C. 

      The observation of a subject's behaviour in his or her typical, natural environment.

    • D. 

      An in-depth investigation of an individual subject.


  • 79. 
    Experimenter bias occurs when:
    • A. 

      Experimenters explicitly instruct the subjects to behave in a way that will be consistent with the hypothesis.

    • B. 

      Experimenters' beliefs in their own hypotheses affect either the subjects' behaviour or their observations of the subjects.

    • C. 

      Experimenters desire to make a favourable impression on their subjects.

    • D. 

      Experimenters conduct their studies in a completely objective manner.


  • 80. 
    Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called __________ statistics.
    • A. 

      Descriptive

    • B. 

      Numerical

    • C. 

      Inferential

    • D. 

      Computational


  • 81. 
    The mode in a group of scores describes the __________ for that group of scores.
    • A. 

      Central tendency

    • B. 

      Association with another group of scores

    • C. 

      Halfway point

    • D. 

      The most frequently occurring score


  • 82. 
    Researchers are most apt to encounter a problem with the social desirability bias when using:
    • A. 

      Self-reports.

    • B. 

      Case studies.

    • C. 

      Naturalistic observations.

    • D. 

      The experimental method.


  • 83. 
    What is the median of the following data? 1, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6, 9
    • A. 

      3

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      4.67

    • D. 

      6


  • 84. 
    Two data collection techniques that are most likely to involve direct contact between the researcher and the research participant are __________ and __________.
    • A. 

      Direct/participatory observation; interviews.

    • B. 

      Archival research; psychological testing

    • C. 

      Questionnaires; interviews

    • D. 

      Archival research; questionnaires


  • 85. 
    Toby takes the Big Smarts Mental Abilities Test and gets a raw score of 42. How is he to interpret this score?
    • A. 

      The significance of the score depends on how Toby compares to others who take the test.

    • B. 

      It is difficult to interpret this score without knowing what the test norms are.

    • C. 

      Toby cannot tell how good the score is until the raw score is converted into something like a percentile score.

    • D. 

      All of the above.


  • 86. 
    If a test yields almost identical scores when it is retaken after a two-month interval, we can say that the test is:
    • A. 

      Reliable.

    • B. 

      Valid.

    • C. 

      Statistically significant.

    • D. 

      Normative.


  • 87. 
    Evidence indicating that our upbringing affects our mental ability is provided by which of the following findings?
    • A. 

      Identical twins are more similar in IQ than are fraternal twins.

    • B. 

      There is more than a chance similarity between adopted children and their biological parents.

    • C. 

      Siblings reared together are more similar in IQ than are siblings reared apart.

    • D. 

      Identical twins reared apart are more similar in IQ than are siblings reared together.


  • 88. 
    An elementary school child is given a test designed to determine whether she should be placed in a class of "gifted" children. The test is probably __________ test.
    • A. 

      An intelligence

    • B. 

      An achievement

    • C. 

      A personality

    • D. 

      A vocabulary


  • 89. 
    An individual's percentile score is the percentage of people who score:
    • A. 

      Above his or her score.

    • B. 

      At or below his or her score.

    • C. 

      Above the mean on his or her score.

    • D. 

      Below the mean on a standardized test.


  • 90. 
    Terman's long-term study of gifted people found that they tend to excel in:
    • A. 

      Physical development.

    • B. 

      Social development.

    • C. 

      Emotional development.

    • D. 

      All three areas indicated above.


  • 91. 
    Why is it that IQ scores do not routinely increase as we get older?
    • A. 

      An IQ score is indicative of our relative standing in our particular age group.

    • B. 

      We do not accumulate that much more information as we get older.

    • C. 

      The tests are not designed to measure an increase in knowledge as we get older.

    • D. 

      The tests for adults are not comparable to the tests for children.


  • 92. 
    At the end of her calculus course, Mary takes a test to determine how well she has mastered the material. The calculus test is primarily:
    • A. 

      An achievement test.

    • B. 

      An intelligence test.

    • C. 

      An aptitude test.

    • D. 

      A test of her math potential.


  • 93. 
    Dr. Laury gives a test in her general psychology class and gets a class average of 78%. Her colleague, Dr. Amos, gives the same test to his general psychology class and gets a class average of 92%. Dr. Laury is puzzled and wonders whether Dr. Amos is simply a better psychology instructor, so she talks to him and discovers that Dr. Amos gives his students a 10-minute preview of the test the day before the exam. This situation indicates a problem with:
    • A. 

      Norms.

    • B. 

      Standardization.

    • C. 

      Test-retest reliability.

    • D. 

      Content validity.


  • 94. 
    The extent to which a test measures some abstract personal quality, such as creativity or intelligence, is a matter of __________ validity.
    • A. 

      Criterion-related

    • B. 

      Content

    • C. 

      Construct

    • D. 

      Face


  • 95. 
    According to the evidence on twin studies, identical twins--who share 100% of their genes--still show less than a perfect correlation in their intelligence scores. This means that:
    • A. 

      Genes are not the only factor in determining intelligence.

    • B. 

      The genes of twins may not be as identical as we had thought.

    • C. 

      Family relationships are not correlated with intelligence.

    • D. 

      Mental abilities are purely environmental in nature


  • 96. 
    Which of the following statements has been shown to be true of creative people?
    • A. 

      They usually excel in a single area in which they have devoted a lot of time and effort.

    • B. 

      They tend to be creative in any field they attempt to master.

    • C. 

      They solve more of their problems through insight than less creative people do.

    • D. 

      They tend to be far above average in a single area and well below average on everything else.


  • 97. 
    According to the reaction range model, children:
    • A. 

      With average IQ scores will not have very wide reaction ranges.

    • B. 

      With average IQ scores are being raised in average-quality environments.

    • C. 

      Raised in high-quality environments should score near the top of their reaction range.

    • D. 

      Raised in high-quality environments will always have higher IQ scores than children in poor-quality environments.


  • 98. 
    Which of the following traits has not been linked to creativity?
    • A. 

      Nonconformity

    • B. 

      Independence

    • C. 

      Submissiveness

    • D. 

      Impulsiveness


  • 99. 
    __________ occurs when a hypothetical, abstract concept is given a name and is then treated as though it were a concrete, tangible object.
    • A. 

      Correlation

    • B. 

      Reification

    • C. 

      Standardization

    • D. 

      Crystallization


  • 100. 
    According to the James-Lange theory, the conscious experience of emotion __________ physiological arousal; according to the Cannon-Bard theory, the conscious experience of emotion __________ physiological arousal.
    • A. 

      Precedes; follows

    • B. 

      Coincides with; precedes

    • C. 

      Follows; coincides with

    • D. 

      Follows; precedes


  • 101. 
    __________ theory asserts that a species' mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest--in terms of time, energy, and survival risk--to maximize the transmission of its genes to the next generation.
    • A. 

      Drive

    • B. 

      Inclusive Fitness

    • C. 

      Parental investment

    • D. 

      Physiological equilibrium


  • 102. 
    Which of the following approaches to explaining the origins of homosexuality has received the most empirical support?
    • A. 

      Biological

    • B. 

      Psychoanalytic

    • C. 

      Operant conditioning

    • D. 

      Classical conditioning


  • 103. 
    A person who is high in achievement motivation would be expected to show all but which of the following characteristics?
    • A. 

      Tendency toward greater persistence on tasks

    • B. 

      Tendency to seek immediate gratification

    • C. 

      Tendency to choose competitive occupations

    • D. 

      Tendency to choose tasks of intermediate difficulty


  • 104. 
    The __________ component of an emotion refers to the subjective conscious experience of that emotion.
    • A. 

      Cognitive

    • B. 

      Physiological

    • C. 

      Affective

    • D. 

      Behavioural


  • 105. 
    Compared to low scorers, people who score high in the need for achievement:
    • A. 

      Tend to work harder and more persistently on tasks.

    • B. 

      Are less likely to delay gratification to pursue long-term goals.

    • C. 

      Typically avoid competitive professions, preferring to compete only with themselves.

    • D. 

      Generally tackle the most challenging tasks when given a choice of tasks having varying degrees of difficulty.


  • 106. 
    According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion,
    • A. 

      The experience of emotion depends on autonomic arousal and on one's cognitive interpretation of that arousal.

    • B. 

      Different patterns of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions.

    • C. 

      Emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and to the autonomic nervous system.

    • D. 

      Emotions develop because of their adaptive value


  • 107. 
    A laboratory rat has had part of its hypothalamus destroyed by lesioning. The rat does not seem to know when to stop eating, and has ballooned to several times its normal size. In this case, it would appear that portions of the __________ hypothalamus have been destroyed.
    • A. 

      Ventromedial

    • B. 

      Lateral

    • C. 

      Parvocellular

    • D. 

      Manocellular


  • 108. 
    Evolutionary theory would predict that women should place more emphasis than men on all but which of the following partner characteristics?
    • A. 

      Ambition

    • B. 

      Intelligance

    • C. 

      Socail status

    • D. 

      Physical attractiveness


  • 109. 
    According to the environmental theory of sexual orientation, the origin of homosexuality might be traced to:
    • A. 

      Learned denial.

    • B. 

      Hormonal differences.

    • C. 

      Detached role models.

    • D. 

      Need for affiliation


  • 110. 
    According to Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion:
    • A. 

      The experience of emotion depends on autonomic arousal and on one's cognitive interpretation of that arousal.

    • B. 

      Different patterns of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions.

    • C. 

      Emotions occur when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and to the autonomic nervous system.

    • D. 

      Emotions develop because of their adaptive value.


  • 111. 
    Evolutionary theories of emotion assume all but which of the following?
    • A. 

      Emotions are largely innate

    • B. 

      Emotions followed thought in the evolutionary process.

    • C. 

      Emotions originate in the subcortical parts of the brain.

    • D. 

      Humans have a relatively small number of innate emotions with adaptive value.


  • 112. 
    Which of the following variables would be considered the best predictor of happiness?
    • A. 

      Health

    • B. 

      Money

    • C. 

      Parenthood

    • D. 

      Intelligence


  • 113. 
    Which of the following effects has not been supported by research?
    • A. 

      Viewing erotic materials tends to cause sex crimes.

    • B. 

      Viewing erotic materials changes one's attitudes to become more liberal about sexual practices.

    • C. 

      Viewing erotic materials may make some people dissatisfied with their own sexual interactions.

    • D. 

      Viewing erotic materials elevates the likelihood of overt sexual activity for a few hours immediately after the exposure.


  • 114. 
    Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents the James-Lange theory?
    • A. 

      "I'm shaking because I'm afraid."

    • B. 

      "I'm afraid because I'm shaking."

    • C. 

      "My shaking must be due to fear, since my house is on fire."

    • D. 

      "My fear is a built-in, primary reaction to a dangerous situation."


  • 115. 
    In learning to crawl, children initially depend on their arms to propel them and later shift to using their legs. This motor development sequence is an example of the __________ trend.
    • A. 

      Cephalocaudal

    • B. 

      Proximodistal

    • C. 

      Cephalopedal

    • D. 

      Manualpedal


  • 116. 
    Hannah conceived a baby seven days ago and does not yet know she is pregnant. Hannah's pregnancy is currently in the __________ stage.
    • A. 

      Germinal

    • B. 

      Embryonic

    • C. 

      Fetal

    • D. 

      Placental


  • 117. 
    When groups of subjects of differing ages are compared at a single point in time, the study is called a __________ study.
    • A. 

      Cross-sectional

    • B. 

      Longitudinal

    • C. 

      Cross-cultural

    • D. 

      Sequential


  • 118. 
    With respect to cognitive abilities, evolutionary theorists:
    • A. 

      Suggest that infants attend more to novel events because these events require more time for perceptual processing.

    • B. 

      Assert that abilities that are prewired will be less prone to habituation or dishabituation.

    • C. 

      Strive to understand the adaptive significance of abilities that appear to be prewired.

    • D. 

      Attempt to find out which abilities are prewired, without making any assumptions about why these abilities might be innate.


  • 119. 
    Charles understands that the mind creatively constructs and uniquely interprets reality. Lalonde and Chandler call this the:
    • A. 

      Concept of false belief.

    • B. 

      Copy view of the mind.

    • C. 

      Interpretive theory of mind.

    • D. 

      Mature theory of mind.


  • 120. 
    Conventional thinking in moral development bases morality (right or wrong) on:
    • A. 

      The risk of punishment.

    • B. 

      Society's laws.

    • C. 

      Personal principles.

    • D. 

      The potential rewards.


  • 121. 
    Today, most couples in the empty nest stage of the family life cycle:
    • A. 

      Experience an increase in marital satisfaction.

    • B. 

      Experience post-parental depression.

    • C. 

      Drift apart and develop separate interests outside the home.

    • D. 

      Are eager to start a new family and look forward to parenting.


  • 122. 
    The first phase of prenatal development is the __________ stage.
    • A. 

      Embryonic

    • B. 

      Germinal

    • C. 

      Fetal

    • D. 

      Postnatal


  • 123. 
    Preschoolers generally are not aware that physical quantities remain constant despite changes in their shape or appearance. This is because preschoolers have not mastered:
    • A. 

      Conservation.

    • B. 

      Animism

    • C. 

      Egocentrism

    • D. 

      Centration


  • 124. 
    __________ implants itself into the uterine wall and becomes __________.
    • A. 

      A fetus; a zygote

    • B. 

      A sperm; an egg

    • C. 

      A zygote; an embryo

    • D. 

      An embryo; a fetus


  • 125. 
    Wyatt is an active infant who always seems to be happy. He has a regular schedule and his parents know that he will sleep through the night without waking, even when he stays overnight with his grandparents. Using the temperament categories outlined by Thomas and Chess, Wyatt would most likely be considered to have __________ temperament.
    • A. 

      A difficult

    • B. 

      A slow-to-warm-up

    • C. 

      An uninhibited

    • D. 

      An easy


  • 126. 
    Gerard watched as a researcher placed five toy station wagons and three toy convertibles on a table. The researcher asked Gerard if there were more station wagons or more cars, and Gerard correctly answered that there were more cars. Gerard's answer indicates that he has mastered:
    • A. 

      Conservation of number

    • B. 

      Object permanence.

    • C. 

      Preaccommodation

    • D. 

      Hierarchical classification problems.


  • 127. 
    According to Erikson's view of adulthood, finding and making commitments to society and to future generations mark his stage of:
    • A. 

      Integrity versus despair.

    • B. 

      Identity versus role confusion.

    • C. 

      Intimacy versus isolation.

    • D. 

      Generativity versus self-absorption.


  • 128. 
    Comparisons of men and women in their adjustments to marriage have found all of the following, except:
    • A. 

      Men's career development takes lower priority over their wives' vocational ambitions.

    • B. 

      Women are aspiring to demanding careers

    • C. 

      Men maintain traditional role expectations about child care.

    • D. 

      Women do the bulk of household chores.


  • 129. 
    Full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is produced by:
    • A. 

      Heavy drinking during the first three months of pregnancy.

    • B. 

      Heavy drinking during the final three months of pregnancy.

    • C. 

      One drunken binge at any time during pregnancy.

    • D. 

      Heavy drinking throughout pregnancy.


  • 130. 
    Sarah is torn between the need to study for an exam and her desire to go out with her friends. She decides to go out later only if she completes her studying. This realistic decision reflects the functioning of Sarah's:
    • A. 

      Id.

    • B. 

      Ego

    • C. 

      Superego

    • D. 

      Unconscious


  • 131. 
    Clara is furious at her boss for what she considers to be an unjust criticism, so she takes out her anger on her subordinates. Clara may be using the defense mechanism of:
    • A. 

      Displacement

    • B. 

      Reaction formation.

    • C. 

      Identification

    • D. 

      Replacement


  • 132. 
    The occurrence of so-called copycat crimes, such as when someone hijacks an airliner after seeing a movie about a hijacking, provides anecdotal evidence for which of the following theories?
    • A. 

      Adler's individual psychology

    • B. 

      Skinner's operant conditioning theory

    • C. 

      Freud's psychoanalytic theory

    • D. 

      Bandura's social cognitive theory


  • 133. 
    John worries about his tendency toward abusing animals, so he joins the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). John's behaviour can be viewed as an example of:
    • A. 

      Reaction formation.

    • B. 

      Projection

    • C. 

      Regression

    • D. 

      Rationalization


  • 134. 
    Rather than having a few "best friends," Peter tends to select companions based on the event he plans to attend or the activity in which he plans to engage. Peter seems to be:
    • A. 

      High in self-monitoring.

    • B. 

      Someone with an external locus of control.

    • C. 

      A sensation seeker.

    • D. 

      An extravert.


  • 135. 
    A person who is social, outgoing, impulsive, overly energetic, and in some cases amoral is likely to score high on which of the following clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)?
    • A. 

      Hysteria

    • B. 

      Paranoia

    • C. 

      Hypomania

    • D. 

      Social introversion


  • 136. 
    Which of the following personality tests was designed to measure the "Big Five" traits?
    • A. 

      NEO

    • B. 

      TAT

    • C. 

      MMPI

    • D. 

      16PF


  • 137. 
    A man who slams doors and sulks when he feels put upon, slighted, or ignored is probably exhibiting the defense mechanism of:
    • A. 

      Reaction formation.

    • B. 

      Identification

    • C. 

      Regression

    • D. 

      Displacement


  • 138. 
    Which of the following personality theorists contends that personality is largely determined by a person's genes?
    • A. 

      B. F. Skinner

    • B. 

      Hans Eysenck

    • C. 

      Abraham Maslow

    • D. 

      Sigmund Freud


  • 139. 
    The term that Albert Bandura uses to refer to the assumption that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behaviour all influence each other is
    • A. 

      Reciprocal determinism.

    • B. 

      Mutual dependency.

    • C. 

      Psychic determinism.

    • D. 

      Reciprocal relativism


  • 140. 
    According to Rogers, the collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behaviour is referred to as one's:
    • A. 

      Self-concept.

    • B. 

      Phenomenology

    • C. 

      State of incongruence.

    • D. 

      Level of self-actualization.


  • 141. 
    Which of the following involves experience seeking, disinhibition, and susceptibility to boredom?
    • A. 

      Neuroticism

    • B. 

      Extraversion

    • C. 

      Agreeableness

    • D. 

      Sensation seeking


  • 142. 
    Sigmund Freud's theory of personality was influenced to a degree by his reaction to the hostilities of World War I, a fact that illustrates which of the following unifying themes of the textbook?
    • A. 

      Psychology is empirical.

    • B. 

      Psychology is theoretically diverse.

    • C. 

      Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

    • D. 

      Psychology is the study of subjective experience.


  • 143. 
    Deirdre used to be shy and unwilling to speak out in class. Last semester she was in a class that involved a lot of discussion groups, and she found that her classmates were willing to listen attentively to her ideas, and often asked her for input when the discussion bogged down. Now Deirdre is more outspoken and confident during class discussions. Based on principles of operant conditioning, Deirdre's new outspoken, confident manner is most likely a result of:
    • A. 

      Extinction

    • B. 

      Negative reinforcement.

    • C. 

      Punishment

    • D. 

      Positive reinforcement.


  • 144. 
    Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she cannot have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she cannot have the things she wants immediately. According to Freud's view of personality, Cari's personality appears to be dominated by:
    • A. 

      Her ego.

    • B. 

      Her id.

    • C. 

      Reaction formation.

    • D. 

      Her superego.


  • 145. 
    A child on the beach wants to play in the water, but she is afraid of the waves. As a result, she runs back and forth: toward the water as the waves go out, and away from the water as waves come in. What kind of conflict is being described here?
    • A. 

      Pressure-frustration conflict

    • B. 

      Approach-approach conflict

    • C. 

      Avoidance-avoidance conflict

    • D. 

      Approach-avoidance conflict


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