Psyc290

145 Questions  I  By Anngo on October 30, 2010
To review before the final exam

  

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1.  The __________ component of an emotion refers to the subjective conscious experience of that emotion.
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Researchers studying the effects of sleep deprivation tested the physical coordination skills of 25-year-old males who had been sleep deprived for either 24, 36, or 48 hours. In this study, the dependent variable would be the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Which of the following approaches to explaining the origins of homosexuality has received the most empirical support?
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B.
C.
D.
4.  When we say that stress "lies in the mind of the beholder," we mean that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  Terman's long-term study of gifted people found that they tend to excel in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Two data collection techniques that are most likely to involve direct contact between the researcher and the research participant are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Hannah conceived a baby seven days ago and does not yet know she is pregnant. Hannah's pregnancy is currently in the __________ stage.
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Behaviour therapies appear to be particularly effective in the treatment of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Which of the following would Freud consider to be the most direct means of access to the unconscious mind?
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Jenny conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Jenny is most likely a
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B.
C.
D.
11.  Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called __________ statistics.
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B.
C.
D.
12.  Julio is playing a computer trivia game against some friends. When he wins the first game, Julio attributes his win to his quick reaction time. However, when Julio loses the second game, he attributes his loss to the fact that his signalling button stopped working correctly. Julio's attributions for his performance during the trivia game are consistent with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Indicate whether each of the following illustrations represents an experiment. If it is an experiment, specify the independent variable, the dependent variable, at least one controlled variable. Explain whether it is a between-subjects design or a within-subjects design, or both. Justify each of your answers. 1. Suppose you were testing the effectiveness of mnemonic devices (memory aids) in helping students memorize difficult information (e.g., molecular formulas for important chemical compounds). One group was told to memorize the information any way they can, while the other group was given specific mnemonic devices.
14.  Joel and Kirk both work with a stock brokerage firm. Joel is considered to be extremely handsome, and Kirk is considered to be average in appearance. Based on research that has investigated the effects of physical appearance in person perception, you should predict that
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  According to Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion:
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  When Harvey was a child, the only time he ate turnips was when he was at his grandmother's house for Christmas dinner. Now, as an adult, Harvey loves the taste of turnips because he associates them with Christmas at his grandmother's house. In this example, Harvey's preference for the taste of turnips could best be explained using principles of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Which of the following involves experience seeking, disinhibition, and susceptibility to boredom?
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Conventional thinking in moral development bases morality (right or wrong) on:
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B.
C.
D.
19.  Currently, a large proportion of the American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks this may be partly due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available, this innate preference would ensure sufficient calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker's views are most consistent with those of the __________ perspective.
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  James Marcia termed individuals who were delaying commitment and actively exploring alternative ideologies as being in a state of identity:
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B.
C.
D.
21.  When groups of subjects of differing ages are compared at a single point in time, the study is called a __________ study.
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B.
C.
D.
22.  Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she cannot have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she cannot have the things she wants immediately. According to Freud's view of personality, Cari's personality appears to be dominated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  Compared to low scorers, people who score high in the need for achievement:
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B.
C.
D.
24.  Research findings indicate that when changing answers on a multiple-choice test, most people change a:
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B.
C.
D.
25.  With which of the following statements would a behaviourist agree?
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D.
26.  Dr. Underhill is reviewing the records from a patient who has just been referred for treatment. He is carefully considering the symptoms that have been documented, and is attempting to identify the type of psychological disorder the individual is most likely to have. Dr. Underhill is currently focusing on:
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Which of the following effects has not been supported by research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  An individual's percentile score is the percentage of people who score:
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Dr. Cueto believes that psychological disorders can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured, just like physical illnesses. Dr. Cueto's views reflect the point of view suggested by the __________ model of abnormal behaviour.
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B.
C.
D.
30.  Researchers are most apt to encounter a problem with the social desirability bias when using:
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B.
C.
D.
31.  Which of the following variables would be considered the best predictor of happiness?
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B.
C.
D.
32.  Evolutionary theory would predict that women should place more emphasis than men on all but which of the following partner characteristics?
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B.
C.
D.
33.  Sigmund Freud's theory of personality was influenced to a degree by his reaction to the hostilities of World War I, a fact that illustrates which of the following unifying themes of the textbook?
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B.
C.
D.
34.  The occurrence of so-called copycat crimes, such as when someone hijacks an airliner after seeing a movie about a hijacking, provides anecdotal evidence for which of the following theories?
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B.
C.
D.
35.  Today, most couples in the empty nest stage of the family life cycle:
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  As Erica watched the televised drawing of lottery numbers, she realized she had the winning combination. If her heart starts to race at the same instant that she feels euphoria over winning the lottery, Erica's response pattern would lend support to __________ theory of emotion.
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B.
C.
D.
37.  The physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for action is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Individuals who alternate between periods of depression and periods of being manic are diagnosed as having a __________ disorder.
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B.
C.
D.
39.  Mikaela is a quiet infant who does not seem to smile a lot, but who also seldom cries. She seems cautious and wary of changes in her surroundings, but eventually she adapts to the change. Using the temperament categories outlined by Thomas and Chess, Mikaela would most likely be considered to have __________ temperament.
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B.
C.
D.
40.  According to John Watson, behaviour is governed primarily by:
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C.
D.
41.  Epidemiological studies of psychological disorders suggest that:
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B.
C.
D.
42.  John worries about his tendency toward abusing animals, so he joins the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). John's behaviour can be viewed as an example of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she cannot have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she cannot have the things she wants immediately. According to Freud's view of the personality, Cari's personality appears to be dominated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  The main advantage associated with the experimental method is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Deirdre used to be shy and unwilling to speak out in class. Last semester she was in a class that involved a lot of discussion groups, and she found that her classmates were willing to listen attentively to her ideas, and often asked her for input when the discussion bogged down. Now Deirdre is more outspoken and confident during class discussions. Based on principles of operant conditioning, Deirdre's new outspoken, confident manner is most likely a result of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  A person who is social, outgoing, impulsive, overly energetic, and in some cases amoral is likely to score high on which of the following clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Wyatt is an active infant who always seems to be happy. He has a regular schedule and his parents know that he will sleep through the night without waking, even when he stays overnight with his grandparents. Using the temperament categories outlined by Thomas and Chess, Wyatt would most likely be considered to have __________ temperament.
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B.
C.
D.
48.  The ability to infer a cause-and-effect relationship is associated only with the __________ research method.
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B.
C.
D.
49.  Obedience is a form of compliance in which people change their behaviour in response to:
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D.
50.  A laboratory rat has had part of its hypothalamus destroyed by lesioning. The rat does not seem to know when to stop eating, and has ballooned to several times its normal size. In this case, it would appear that portions of the __________ hypothalamus have been destroyed.
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B.
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D.
51.  According to Erikson's view of adulthood, finding and making commitments to society and to future generations mark his stage of:
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C.
D.
52.  Jake's father suggests that Jake's low marks in school are due to his laziness. Jake's father has made __________ attribution.
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B.
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D.
53.  Dr. Marqueta believes that "misery loves company." Based on this belief, she predicts that people who have received bad news will seek out other people. Dr. Marqueta's belief is an example of a __________, and her prediction is an example of __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  A child on the beach wants to play in the water, but she is afraid of the waves. As a result, she runs back and forth: toward the water as the waves go out, and away from the water as waves come in. What kind of conflict is being described here?
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B.
C.
D.
55.  Which of the following was least likely to be the focus of study for the functionalists?
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B.
C.
D.
56.  Researchers studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had recorded conversations playing 24/7; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room that had the recorded conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had:
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B.
C.
D.
58.  Maya has always preferred individual assignments to group projects because she finds that she can accomplish more when she works on her own. The process that would best explain why Maya accomplishes less when she works as part of a group is:
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B.
C.
D.
59.  The full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome is produced by:
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B.
C.
D.
60.  According to the James-Lange theory, the conscious experience of emotion __________ physiological arousal; according to the Cannon-Bard theory, the conscious experience of emotion __________ physiological arousal.
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C.
D.
61.  __________ occurs when a hypothetical, abstract concept is given a name and is then treated as though it were a concrete, tangible object.
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B.
C.
D.
62.  Everyone likes to have Sheri working on their committees because she seems to have the unique ability to consider a variety of options and quickly narrow the list of options down to the one or two best alternatives. In other words, Sheri is skilled in:
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B.
C.
D.
63.  Charles understands that the mind creatively constructs and uniquely interprets reality. Lalonde and Chandler call this the:
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B.
C.
D.
64.  Which of the following statements best represents the approach of a client-centred therapist in treating a chronically anxious client?
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B.
C.
D.
65.  Which of the following personality tests was designed to measure the "Big Five" traits?
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B.
C.
D.
66.  Fran applied for admission to a computer science program. One requirement for admission is the completion of a test that measures sequencing skills and abstract reasoning skills. Fran's score on this test will be a major factor in the decision as to whether to admit her to the program. In this case, the test that Fran is scheduled to take would be classified as __________ test.
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  Dr. Laury gives a test in her general psychology class and gets a class average of 78%. Her colleague, Dr. Amos, gives the same test to his general psychology class and gets a class average of 92%. Dr. Laury is puzzled and wonders whether Dr. Amos is simply a better psychology instructor, so she talks to him and discovers that Dr. Amos gives his students a 10-minute preview of the test the day before the exam. This situation indicates a problem with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Dr. Vasquez has found that many Asians feel uncomfortable with the expression of emotions and the disclosure of personal information. As a consequence, Dr. Vasquez has made several suggestions for ways in which psychological counselling might be modified to benefit people from Asian backgrounds. Based on this information, you could infer that Dr. Vasquez investigates:
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  __________ theory asserts that a species' mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest--in terms of time, energy, and survival risk--to maximize the transmission of its genes to the next generation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  The term that Albert Bandura uses to refer to the assumption that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behaviour all influence each other is
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Which of the following traits has not been linked to creativity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  If a test yields almost identical scores when it is retaken after a two-month interval, we can say that the test is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  According to the evidence on twin studies, identical twins--who share 100% of their genes--still show less than a perfect correlation in their intelligence scores. This means that:
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B.
C.
D.
74.  In the following example, describe which of the four common flaws in research is in operation: sampling bias, distortions in self-report data, experimenter bias, and placebo effect. More than one flaw may apply. Justify your answer. 1. Mr. Fairweather was convinced that memory-enhancing games were needed to improve poor concentration in his Grade 10 math class. He asked 20 of his lowest-scoring students to be involved in his experiment. Ten students agreed to volunteer after he told them what he was trying to prove. Mr. Fairweather personally supervised the use of the memory-enhancing games with these students for two weeks. He then asked each student to rate his or her own improvement in concentration and in math memory. Mr. Fairweather's results showed that memory-enhancing games were an effective way of improving math skills.
75.  Sarah is torn between the need to study for an exam and her desire to go out with her friends. She decides to go out later only if she completes her studying. This realistic decision reflects the functioning of Sarah's:
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  Which of the following approaches contends that psychology must study internal mental events (cognitions) to understand behaviour fully?
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  Negative symptoms in schizophrenia include:
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Experimenter bias occurs when:
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B.
C.
D.
79.  Which of the following statements has been shown to be true of creative people?
A.
B.
C.
D.
80.  If you were having problems with depression, which of the following kinds of psychologists would be most helpful to you?
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Currently, a large proportion of the North American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks this may be partly due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available this innate preference would ensure enough calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker's views are most consistent with those of the __________ perspective.
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  The hindsight bias is also known as the __________ effect.
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  In an experiment, the variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher is called the __________ variable.
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  Toby takes the Big Smarts Mental Abilities Test and gets a raw score of 42. How is he to interpret this score?
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  A physical ailment characterized by physiological changes that originate, at least in part, from psychological factors is referred to as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Why is it that IQ scores do not routinely increase as we get older?
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Which of the following effects has not been supported by research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents the James-Lange theory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  What is the median of the following data? 1, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6, 9
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  An elementary school child is given a test designed to determine whether she should be placed in a class of "gifted" children. The test is probably __________ test.
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  According to the environmental theory of sexual orientation, the origin of homosexuality might be traced to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  Full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is produced by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Which of the following statements regarding the difference between a clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist is accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  Comparisons of men and women in their adjustments to marriage have found all of the following, except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  In learning to crawl, children initially depend on their arms to propel them and later shift to using their legs. This motor development sequence is an example of the __________ trend.
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Which of the following personality theorists contends that personality is largely determined by a person's genes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Clara is furious at her boss for what she considers to be an unjust criticism, so she takes out her anger on her subordinates. Clara may be using the defense mechanism of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  Dr. Vasquez has found that many Asian people feel uncomfortable with the expression of emotions and the disclosure of personal information. As a consequence, Dr. Vasquez has made several suggestions for ways in which psychological counselling might be modified to benefit people from Asian backgrounds. Based on this information, you could infer that Dr. Vasquez investigates:
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  Weiten and McCann (2007) note that people's experiences of the world are highly subjective (Theme 7). For example, some studies have shown that people tend to see what they expect to see (Kelley, 1950). As our experiences are highly subjective, what can the psychology researcher do (i.e., what approach can he or she take) to ensure that personal subjectivity does not bias the research findings?
100.  A person who is high in achievement motivation would be expected to show all but which of the following characteristics?
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  Since IQ scores are assumed to be normally distributed, an IQ score of 100 would put you:
A.
B.
C.
D.
102.  The case of Reena Virk, described at the beginning of Chapter 1, and information about bullying by females, as presented in the Featured Study (p. 15) on bullying behaviour, are recent pieces of evidence suggesting that:
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B.
C.
D.
103.  According to the reaction range model, children:
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B.
C.
D.