Psyc290

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1.  Jasmine takes her 1-year-old son, Randy, to visit a daycare centre where she plans to enrol him. Randy eagerly explores the playroom, and when his mom leaves the room to fill out some forms he shows no signs of concern. When Jasmine returns, Randy shows little interest and continues to play with the toys he has collected. This type of interaction might be observed between a child and a parent who __________ attachment relationship.
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called __________ statistics.
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  Deirdre used to be shy and unwilling to speak out in class. Last semester she was in a class that involved a lot of discussion groups, and she found that her classmates were willing to listen attentively to her ideas, and often asked her for input when the discussion bogged down. Now Deirdre is more outspoken and confident during class discussions. Based on principles of operant conditioning, Deirdre's new outspoken, confident manner is most likely a result of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  Fran applied for admission to a computer science program. One requirement for admission is the completion of a test that measures sequencing skills and abstract reasoning skills. Fran's score on this test will be a major factor in the decision as to whether to admit her to the program. In this case, the test that Fran is scheduled to take would be classified as __________ test.
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  A laboratory rat has had part of its hypothalamus destroyed by lesioning. The rat does not seem to know when to stop eating, and has ballooned to several times its normal size. In this case, it would appear that portions of the __________ hypothalamus have been destroyed.
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Lauren and Tran both spend six hours per week studying for their botany course. Lauren is concerned that if she does not study, she will fail the course; Tran is concerned that if he does not study, he will not earn the highest grade in the class. In this example:
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Which of the following variables would be considered the best predictor of happiness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  Which of the following personality theorists contends that personality is largely determined by a person's genes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  Dr. Underhill is reviewing the records from a patient who has just been referred for treatment. He is carefully considering the symptoms that have been documented, and is attempting to identify the type of psychological disorder the individual is most likely to have. Dr. Underhill is currently focusing on:
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  Much like Freud, Skinner's views on human behaviour were controversial and often criticized. In Freud's case, a major controversy was about __________, while in Skinner's case, a major controversy was related to __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  Weiten and McCann (2007) note that people's experiences of the world are highly subjective (Theme 7). For example, some studies have shown that people tend to see what they expect to see (Kelley, 1950). As our experiences are highly subjective, what can the psychology researcher do (i.e., what approach can he or she take) to ensure that personal subjectivity does not bias the research findings?
12.  Research findings indicate that when changing answers on a multiple-choice test, most people change a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  Currently, a large proportion of the American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks this may be partly due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available, this innate preference would ensure sufficient calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker's views are most consistent with those of the __________ perspective.
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  The impending possibility of a forbidden impulse getting out of control and being expressed in behaviour would be most likely to produce __________ in the person.
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  When groups of subjects of differing ages are compared at a single point in time, the study is called a __________ study.
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  In learning to crawl, children initially depend on their arms to propel them and later shift to using their legs. This motor development sequence is an example of the __________ trend.
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  Two data collection techniques that are most likely to involve direct contact between the researcher and the research participant are __________ and __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  As Erica watched the televised drawing of lottery numbers, she realized she had the winning combination. If her heart starts to race at the same instant that she feels euphoria over winning the lottery, Erica's response pattern would lend support to __________ theory of emotion.
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  The main advantage associated with the experimental method is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  The inability of a child to "undo" something mentally is referred to as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  Which of the following approaches to explaining the origins of homosexuality has received the most empirical support?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  According to Erikson's view of adulthood, finding and making commitments to society and to future generations mark his stage of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  A group of researchers is investigating the effects of gingko biloba on memory. During the first part of the study, the animals learn to run a maze while they are not receiving the supplement. In the second part of the study, the animals learn to run a different maze while they are receiving the supplement. In each case, the researchers count how many trials it takes before the animals can run the maze pattern without making any errors. In this study, the dependent variable is the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  A psychotherapist who participates in complex verbal interactions with clients in order to enhance clients' understanding of themselves and their problems would be classified as __________ therapist.
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  Today, most couples in the empty nest stage of the family life cycle:
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Which of the following statements best represents the approach of a client-centred therapist in treating a chronically anxious client?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  Researchers studying the effects of sleep deprivation tested the physical coordination skills of 25-year-old males who had been sleep deprived for either 24, 36, or 48 hours. In this study, the dependent variable would be the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Which of the following effects has not been supported by research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  Which of the following approaches contends that psychology must study internal mental events (cognitions) to understand behaviour fully?
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  By definition, an extraneous variable is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Terman's long-term study of gifted people found that they tend to excel in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  A person who is high in achievement motivation would be expected to show all but which of the following characteristics?
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  Which of the following effects has not been supported by research?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Researchers studying plant growth raised plants in two separate rooms. One room had recorded conversations playing 24/7; the other room was silent. The researchers found that the plants grew better in the room that had the recorded conversations playing. In this study, the type of room (conversation or silence) would be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  Freud concluded that psychological disturbances are largely caused by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Deirdre used to be shy and unwilling to speak out in class. Last semester she was in a class that involved a lot of discussion groups, and she found that her classmates were willing to listen attentively to her ideas, and often asked her for input when the discussion bogged down. Now Deirdre is more outspoken and confident during class discussions. Based on principles of operant conditioning, Deirdre's new outspoken, confident manner is most likely a result of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Which of the following involves experience seeking, disinhibition, and susceptibility to boredom?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Compared to low scorers, people who score high in the need for achievement:
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  Preschoolers generally are not aware that physical quantities remain constant despite changes in their shape or appearance. This is because preschoolers have not mastered:
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Obedience is a form of compliance in which people change their behaviour in response to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  Two data collection techniques that are most likely to involve direct contact between the researcher and the research participant are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she cannot have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she cannot have the things she wants immediately. According to Freud's view of personality, Cari's personality appears to be dominated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  When Harvey was a child, the only time he ate turnips was when he was at his grandmother's house for Christmas dinner. Now, as an adult, Harvey loves the taste of turnips because he associates them with Christmas at his grandmother's house. In this example, Harvey's preference for the taste of turnips could best be explained using principles of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  According to the environmental theory of sexual orientation, the origin of homosexuality might be traced to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  A child on the beach wants to play in the water, but she is afraid of the waves. As a result, she runs back and forth: toward the water as the waves go out, and away from the water as waves come in. What kind of conflict is being described here?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  In an experiment, the variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher is called the __________ variable.
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  In an attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. This technique is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  In the following example, describe which of the four common flaws in research is in operation: sampling bias, distortions in self-report data, experimenter bias, and placebo effect. More than one flaw may apply. Justify your answer. 1. Mr. Fairweather was convinced that memory-enhancing games were needed to improve poor concentration in his Grade 10 math class. He asked 20 of his lowest-scoring students to be involved in his experiment. Ten students agreed to volunteer after he told them what he was trying to prove. Mr. Fairweather personally supervised the use of the memory-enhancing games with these students for two weeks. He then asked each student to rate his or her own improvement in concentration and in math memory. Mr. Fairweather's results showed that memory-enhancing games were an effective way of improving math skills.
49.  According to the reaction range model, children:
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  Full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is produced by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  When we say that stress "lies in the mind of the beholder," we mean that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Dr. Cueto believes that psychological disorders can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured, just like physical illnesses. Dr. Cueto's views reflect the point of view suggested by the __________ model of abnormal behaviour.
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  If you were having problems with depression, which of the following kinds of psychologists would be most helpful to you?
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  The case of Reena Virk, described in Chapter 1 of Weiten and McCann (2007), and information about bullying by females, as presented in the Featured Study (p. 15) on bullying behaviour, are recent pieces of evidence that suggest that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Which of the following would Freud consider to be the most direct means of access to the unconscious mind?
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  The __________ component of an emotion refers to the subjective conscious experience of that emotion.
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  Researchers are most apt to encounter a problem with the social desirability bias when using:
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  Evidence indicating that our upbringing affects our mental ability is provided by which of the following findings?
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  Individuals who alternate between periods of depression and periods of being manic are diagnosed as having a __________ disorder.
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  Indicate whether each of the following illustrations represents an experiment. If it is an experiment, specify the independent variable, the dependent variable, at least one controlled variable. Explain whether it is a between-subjects design or a within-subjects design, or both. Justify each of your answers. 1. Suppose you were testing the effectiveness of mnemonic devices (memory aids) in helping students memorize difficult information (e.g., molecular formulas for important chemical compounds). One group was told to memorize the information any way they can, while the other group was given specific mnemonic devices.
61.  Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents the James-Lange theory?
A.
B.
C.
D.
62.  A man who slams doors and sulks when he feels put upon, slighted, or ignored is probably exhibiting the defense mechanism of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  According to the James-Lange theory, the conscious experience of emotion __________ physiological arousal; according to the Cannon-Bard theory, the conscious experience of emotion __________ physiological arousal.
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  __________ implants itself into the uterine wall and becomes __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  If a test yields almost identical scores when it is retaken after a two-month interval, we can say that the test is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  A survey is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  Epidemiological studies of psychological disorders suggest that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  Conventional thinking in moral development bases morality (right or wrong) on:
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  Sigmund Freud's theory of personality was influenced to a degree by his reaction to the hostilities of World War I, a fact that illustrates which of the following unifying themes of the textbook?
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had:
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Experimenter bias occurs when:
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  Why is it that IQ scores do not routinely increase as we get older?
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Dr. Iverson has had 25 students who have repeated her Advanced Economics class over the past five years. Each time, the students' grades for the second attempt in her course were nearly identical to the grades received on the first attempt. This leads Dr. Iverson to conclude that her testing procedures:
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  The term that Albert Bandura uses to refer to the assumption that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behaviour all influence each other is
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  According to the evidence on twin studies, identical twins--who share 100% of their genes--still show less than a perfect correlation in their intelligence scores. This means that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  The first phase of prenatal development is the __________ stage.
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  Jenny conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Jenny is most likely a
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Maya has always preferred individual assignments to group projects because she finds that she can accomplish more when she works on her own. The process that would best explain why Maya accomplishes less when she works as part of a group is:
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  Three attributes of the scientific method are curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness. Write the skepticism and open-mindedness attributes in a statement or in question form. For example, the curiosity attribute might be written as: "Why did it happen?"
80.  An elementary school child is given a test designed to determine whether she should be placed in a class of "gifted" children. The test is probably __________ test.
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion,
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  Jake's father suggests that Jake's low marks in school are due to his laziness. Jake's father has made __________ attribution.
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Which of the following traits has not been linked to creativity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  Julio is playing a computer trivia game against some friends. When he wins the first game, Julio attributes his win to his quick reaction time. However, when Julio loses the second game, he attributes his loss to the fact that his signalling button stopped working correctly. Julio's attributions for his performance during the trivia game are consistent with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  Toby takes the Big Smarts Mental Abilities Test and gets a raw score of 42. How is he to interpret this score?
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Everyone likes to have Sheri working on their committees because she seems to have the unique ability to consider a variety of options and quickly narrow the list of options down to the one or two best alternatives. In other words, Sheri is skilled in:
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  What is the median of the following data? 1, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6, 9
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  What does the research indicate about the general effect of everyday problems and the minor nuisances of life?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  The occurrence of so-called copycat crimes, such as when someone hijacks an airliner after seeing a movie about a hijacking, provides anecdotal evidence for which of the following theories?
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  Charles understands that the mind creatively constructs and uniquely interprets reality. Lalonde and Chandler call this the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  Which of the following statements has been shown to be true of creative people?
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  According to Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion:
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Which of the following statements about the influence of culture on the use of IQ tests is most accurate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  Comparisons of men and women in their adjustments to marriage have found all of the following, except:
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  Dr. Vasquez has found that many Asian people feel uncomfortable with the expression of emotions and the disclosure of personal information. As a consequence, Dr. Vasquez has made several suggestions for ways in which psychological counselling might be modified to benefit people from Asian backgrounds. Based on this information, you could infer that Dr. Vasquez investigates:
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  With respect to cognitive abilities, evolutionary theorists:
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she cannot have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she cannot have the things she wants immediately. According to Freud's view of the personality, Cari's personality appears to be dominated by:
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  Wyatt is an active infant who always seems to be happy. He has a regular schedule and his parents know that he will sleep through the night without waking, even when he stays overnight with his grandparents. Using the temperament categories outlined by Thomas and Chess, Wyatt would most likely be considered to have __________ temperament.
A.
B.
C.
D.