Physio 123

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Physio 123
Quiz for final physio 123. By salina. Over all chapters. Includes quiz questions, chapter review, and tests.

  
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  • 1. 
    The adenoids are found in the:
    • A. 

      Nasopharynx

    • B. 

      Oropharynx

    • C. 

      Larynx


  • 2. 
    The oral cavity is lined with
    • A. 

      Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

    • B. 

      nonciliated stratified squamous epithelium

    • C. 

      Simple cubodial epithelium


  • 3. 
    The area between the base of the tongue and the epiglottis, which is an important anatomic landmark during the insertion of an endotracheal tube into the trachea?  
    • A. 

      Vallecula

    • B. 

      Cricoid cartilage

    • C. 

      Thyroid notch


  • 4. 
    Otits media is a potential hazard associated with nasotracheal intubation due to the opening of the eustachian tubes into which of the following structures?
    • A. 

      Laryngopharynx

    • B. 

      Oropharynx

    • C. 

      Nasopharynx


  • 5. 
    Which of the following is not a primary function of the upper airway?
    • A. 

      Heat

    • B. 

      Humidify

    • C. 

      Conduct air

    • D. 

      Prevent aspiration

    • E. 

      Carry out internal respiration

    • F. 

      Helps with speech and smell


  • 6. 
    Aspiration of food and liquid is prevented by which of the following?
    • A. 

      Valeculla

    • B. 

      Epiglottis

    • C. 

      Vestibule


  • 7. 
    Which is not a function of the nose?
    • A. 

      Filter

    • B. 

      Humidify

    • C. 

      Defense mechanism

    • D. 

      Warm

    • E. 

      Protect against aspiration


  • 8. 
    Where are the canals of Lambert found?
    • A. 

      Terminal bronchioles

    • B. 

      Trachea

    • C. 

      Alveoli


  • 9. 
    Where are the eustain tubes found?
    • A. 

      Nasopharynx

    • B. 

      Oropharynx

    • C. 

      Laryngopharynx


  • 10. 
    The left main stem bronchus branches off from the carina at about...
    • A. 

      20-30 degrees

    • B. 

      40-60 degrees

    • C. 

      10-20 degrees

    • D. 

      35-65 degrees


  • 11. 
    95% of the alveolar surface is composed of which of the following
    • A. 

      Type 1 cells

    • B. 

      Granular pneumocytes

    • C. 

      Type 2 cells

    • D. 

      Squamous pneumocytes


  • 12. 
    Which of the following are released when the parasympathetic nerve fibers are stimulated?
    • A. 

      Atropine

    • B. 

      Epinephrine

    • C. 

      Norepinephrine

    • D. 

      ACH


  • 13. 
    Which of the following are released when the sympathetic nerve fibers are stimulated?
    • A. 

      NE

    • B. 

      Proranolol

    • C. 

      ACH

    • D. 

      Epinephrine


  • 14. 
    Which is lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
    • A. 

      Oropharynx and nasopharynx

    • B. 

      Nasopharynx and oral cavity

    • C. 

      Trachea and larnygopharynx

    • D. 

      Trachea and nasopharynx


  • 15. 
    The horizontal fisure seperates the middle and upper lobes of the right lung?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 16. 
    Which of the following supply the motor innervation of each hemidiaphram?
    • A. 

      Vagus nerve

    • B. 

      Phrenic nerve

    • C. 

      Lower thoracic nerve

    • D. 

      Vagal nerve


  • 17. 
    Which are called resistance vessels?
    • A. 

      Veins

    • B. 

      Venules

    • C. 

      Arteries

    • D. 

      Arterioles


  • 18. 
    Which is responsible for vocal cord movement?
    • A. 

      Criciod cartilage

    • B. 

      Epiglottis

    • C. 

      Thyriod cartilage

    • D. 

      Aryteniod cartilages


  • 19. 
    What point in the tracheobronchial tree reprsents the end of the conducting  zone?
    • A. 

      Repsiratory bronchiole

    • B. 

      Terminal bronchiole

    • C. 

      Alveloar duct


  • 20. 
    Which describe the total alveloar surface area?
    • A. 

      70-80 sqaure meters

    • B. 

      50-60 feet

    • C. 

      A tennis court

    • D. 

      Both a and c


  • 21. 
    Where is thyriod cartilage located?
    • A. 

      Trachea

    • B. 

      Pharynx

    • C. 

      Larynx

    • D. 

      Bronchus


  • 22. 
    The alveolar cells that are responsible for ingestion and removal of cellular debris...
    • A. 

      Type 1 cells

    • B. 

      Type 2 cells

    • C. 

      Alveolar macropages

    • D. 

      Type 3 cells


  • 23. 
    THe cartilage that is shaped like a signet ring?
    • A. 

      Thyriod

    • B. 

      Aryteniod

    • C. 

      Criciod


  • 24. 
    Function of the lymphatic vessels in the lung
    • A. 

      Gas exchange

    • B. 

      Fluid removal

    • C. 

      Phagocytosis


  • 25. 
    Length of the trachea
    • A. 

      8-10 cm

    • B. 

      11-13 cm

    • C. 

      14-16 cm


  • 26. 
    WHat structure divides the upper from the lower airway?
    • A. 

      Pharynx

    • B. 

      Trachea

    • C. 

      Vocal cords

    • D. 

      Larynx


  • 27. 
    Mucus is composed of....
    • A. 

      Mucopolysaccharides

    • B. 

      Interferons

    • C. 

      Water

    • D. 

      Trace of DNA

    • E. 

      Lysozomes


  • 28. 
    Pseudostraitified ciliated columnar epithelium provides 2/3 of the lining for tha nasal cavity and the tracheobronchial tree
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 29. 
    Clara cells are belived to be
    • A. 

      Granular pneumocytes

    • B. 

      Able to detoxify inhaled toxins

    • C. 

      Blind passagways

    • D. 

      Contribute to the extra cellular liquid lining on the bronchioles and alvelio.


  • 30. 
    Which mainstem bronchus is more likely to aspirate?
    • A. 

      Right

    • B. 

      Left

    • C. 

      Middle


  • 31. 
    Bronchial circulation or ateries carry  deoxygentaed  blood to the trachobronchial tree
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 32. 
    How many lobes are in the left lung?

  • 33. 
    Small holes in the walls of the nteralveolar septa are called..
    • A. 

      Pores of kohn

    • B. 

      Canals of lambert

    • C. 

      Anastomes


  • 34. 
    Where is the inferior lingula lung segment found?
    • A. 

      Right lung, upper lobe

    • B. 

      Left lung upper division of upper lobe

    • C. 

      Left lung lower division of upper lobe

    • D. 

      Right lung lower lobe


  • 35. 
    What is the preferred site for an emergency tracetomy?
    • A. 

      Inferior attachment of the criciod cartilage

    • B. 

      Cricothyriod membrane

    • C. 

      Criocoid cartilage


  • 36. 
    Canals of lambert are though to function in what  part of the trachobronchial tree?
    • A. 

      Respiratory broncioles

    • B. 

      Alveolar ducts

    • C. 

      Terminal bronchioles


  • 37. 
    Function of Canals of Lambert
    • A. 

      Primary lobule

    • B. 

      Secondary avenues for collateral ventilation

    • C. 

      Componets of pulmonary immune defenses


  • 38. 
    Paired cartilages of the larynx helpful as landmarks for endotracheal intubation include....
    • A. 

      Aryteniod and corniculate

    • B. 

      Criciod and thyriod

    • C. 

      Aryteniod, corniculate, and cuniform

    • D. 

      None of the above


  • 39. 
    Which represents the smallest diameter of the adult airway?
    • A. 

      Thyriod

    • B. 

      Criciod

    • C. 

      Eppiglottis

    • D. 

      Glottis


  • 40. 
    Type 1 cells form about ___% of the alveolar substance?
    • A. 

      80

    • B. 

      85

    • C. 

      90

    • D. 

      95


  • 41. 
    The palatine and lingual tonsils help protect 2 major entrances to the body by mobilizing which of the following?
    • A. 

      Histamines

    • B. 

      Mucins

    • C. 

      Antibodies

    • D. 

      White blood cells

    • E. 

      Mucus


  • 42. 
    The bony plates that increase the surface area to rapidly warm and humidify inspired air is....
    • A. 

      Epithelium

    • B. 

      Conchae or turbinates

    • C. 

      Lamina propria


  • 43. 
    IN an infant what point in the airway has the smallest diameter?
    • A. 

      Cricoid

    • B. 

      Thyriod

    • C. 

      Epiglottis


  • 44. 
    How fast is mucus moved up the mucociliary escalator?
    • A. 

      So slowly it cannot be determined

    • B. 

      1-2 feet/sec

    • C. 

      1-2inches/day

    • D. 

      1-2cm/min

    • E. 

      1-2cm/day


  • 45. 
    Each rib attaches to the verterbral column in 2 places
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 46. 
    The medistinum does NOT contain...
    • A. 

      Heart

    • B. 

      Liver

    • C. 

      Trachea

    • D. 

      Portions of the right and left main stem bronchus


  • 47. 
    During normal patient ventilation, exhalation is considered a passive process?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 48. 
    The motion provided to the bony thorax to increase anterior-posterior diameter is called...
    • A. 

      Medial motion

    • B. 

      Pump-handle effect

    • C. 

      Bucket-handle effect


  • 49. 
    Which of the following are airway reflexes?
    • A. 

      Olfactory apnea

    • B. 

      Sneeze

    • C. 

      Gag reflex

    • D. 

      Carinal cough

    • E. 

      Laryngeal cough


  • 50. 
    Bronchioles can be described as...
    • A. 

      Less than 1 mm in diameter

    • B. 

      Kept open by smooth muscle and elastic fiber

    • C. 

      Prone to collapse

    • D. 

      All of the above


  • 51. 
    Each individual has how many alveoli in their lungs as an adult?
    • A. 

      300 million

    • B. 

      3 trillion

    • C. 

      300 billion


  • 52. 
    The bronchial arteries nourish the tracheobronchial tree down to and including....
    • A. 

      Respiratory bronchioles

    • B. 

      Terminal bronchioles

    • C. 

      Segmental bronchioles


  • 53. 
    Which of the following accelerate ciliary activity?
    • A. 

      Local anesthetics

    • B. 

      General anesthetics

    • C. 

      ACH

    • D. 

      Hypoxia

    • E. 

      Sympathomimetics


  • 54. 
    The bifurcation of the trachea is known as the:

  • 55. 
    The tracheobronchial tree divides into how many generations?
    • A. 

      28

    • B. 

      24

    • C. 

      38


  • 56. 
    How many lobes are in the right lung?

  • 57. 
    Which of the following is responsible for vocal cord movement?
    • A. 

      Cuneiform cartilages

    • B. 

      Cricoid cartilage

    • C. 

      Arytenoid cartilages


  • 58. 
    The horizontal fissure separates the...

  • 59. 
    Which main stem bronchus is most likely to aspirate?

  • 60. 
    Pulmonary arteries carry ____ blood to the ___ zones.
    • A. 

      Unoxygenated, respiratory

    • B. 

      Oxygenated, respiratory

    • C. 

      Unoxygenated, conducting

    • D. 

      Oxygenated, conducting


  • 61. 
    Which of the following is responsible for the production and/or release of histamine?
    • A. 

      Type 1 cells

    • B. 

      Type 3 cells

    • C. 

      Mast Cells

    • D. 

      Basal Cells


  • 62. 
    The pleura covering the surface of the lungs is called...
    • A. 

      Visceral pluera

    • B. 

      Parital pluera


  • 63. 
    What 3 parts make up the pharynx?
    • A. 

      Nasopharynx

    • B. 

      Larynx

    • C. 

      Oropharynx

    • D. 

      Laryngopahrynx

    • E. 

      Trachea


  • 64. 
    How many generation does the trachea have?

  • 65. 
    What occurs in the respiratory zone?

  • 66. 
    How many generations does the main stem bronchi have?

  • 67. 
    There are how many cilia per cell?
    • A. 

      100

    • B. 

      200

    • C. 

      1,000

    • D. 

      2,000


  • 68. 
    Adenoids are also known as...
    • A. 

      Lingual tonsils

    • B. 

      Eustachian tubes

    • C. 

      Pharyngeal tonsils


  • 69. 
    Diameter of an adult trachea
    • A. 

      11-13 cm

    • B. 

      1.5cm-2.5cm

    • C. 

      15-25cm


  • 70. 
    How many alveoli are in the adult male lung?
    • A. 

      3 million

    • B. 

      30 million

    • C. 

      300 million


  • 71. 
    How many lobules in the lung?
    • A. 

      2,000

    • B. 

      13,000

    • C. 

      130,000


  • 72. 
    Type 2 cells form 95% of total alveolar space
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 73. 
    The oblique fissure seperate what in the left lung?
    • A. 

      Upper from lower

    • B. 

      Upper from middle

    • C. 

      Middle from lower

    • D. 

      Upper, middle, and lower


  • 74. 
    The oblique fissure seperates what in the right lung?
    • A. 

      Upper from lower

    • B. 

      Upper from middle

    • C. 

      Middle from lower

    • D. 

      Upper, middle, and lower


  • 75. 
    The horizontal fissure seperates what in the right lung?
    • A. 

      Lower from upper

    • B. 

      Lower from middle

    • C. 

      Upper from middle


  • 76. 
    What is the normal I:E ratio?

  • 77. 
    When airway resistance increases, the patient commonly manifests a / an...
    • A. 

      Increased tidal volume

    • B. 

      Increased respiratory rate

    • C. 

      Decreased tidal volume

    • D. 

      Decreased respiratory rate


  • 78. 
    The avg lung compliance  for each breath is about...
    • A. 

      0.1L/cm H2O

    • B. 

      0.1L/mmHg

    • C. 

      1.34L/cm H2O

    • D. 

      1.34L/mmHg


  • 79. 
    Which of the following is the most effective in increasing an individual's alveolar ventilation
    • A. 

      Increased repiratory rate

    • B. 

      Reduced respiratory rate

    • C. 

      Increased depth of breathing


  • 80. 
    Which of the following is/are not a cause of pulmonary surfactant deficiency
    • A. 

      Hypoxia

    • B. 

      Atelecatsis

    • C. 

      Pneumonia

    • D. 

      Hyperoxia

    • E. 

      Drowning

    • F. 

      Pnuemothorax


  • 81. 
    Poiseuille's Law states that flow is ____ proportinate to pressure and ____ proportional to the length and radius of the tube.
    • A. 

      Inversely, directly

    • B. 

      Directly, inversely

    • C. 

      Directly, directly


  • 82. 
    Decreasing the radius of a tube by one-half reduces the gas flow by ____ of its original flow.

  • 83. 
    A patient's ventilatory rate commonly increases in response to a decreased lung compliance
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 84. 
    Which of the following is used to describe short, rapid breathing episodes interrrupted by 10 to 30 second pauses?
    • A. 

      Cheyne-Stokes breathing

    • B. 

      Biots breathing

    • C. 

      Kussmaul's breathing


  • 85. 
    Which of the following is used to describe, 10-30 seconds of apnea followed by a gradual increase in volume and frequency of breathing until another episode of apnea?
    • A. 

      Cheyne-Stokes Breathing

    • B. 

      Biots Breathing

    • C. 

      Kussmaul's breathing


  • 86. 
    Which of the following is used to describe, a increase in both  depth and rate of breathing
    • A. 

      Cheyne-Stokes Breathing

    • B. 

      Kussmaul's Breathing

    • C. 

      Hyperpnea

    • D. 

      Biots Breathing


  • 87. 
    Normal tidal volume is 3-4...
    • A. 

      Lpm

    • B. 

      ML/kg

    • C. 

      ML/lb


  • 88. 
    The amount the myocardial fiber stretches during diastole is called:
    • A. 

      Preload

    • B. 

      Afterload

    • C. 

      Compliance

    • D. 

      Cardiac output


  • 89. 
    Normal diastolic pressure

  • 90. 
    What % of blood is in  pulmonary circulation
    • A. 

      5%

    • B. 

      10%

    • C. 

      20%

    • D. 

      60%


  • 91. 
    Barometric pressure at sea level
    • A. 

      750mmHg

    • B. 

      760mmHg

    • C. 

      780mmHg


  • 92. 
    The barometric pressure ______ with an increase in altitude
    • A. 

      Increases

    • B. 

      Decreases


  • 93. 
    AMount of nitrogen in the atmosphere
    • A. 

      21%

    • B. 

      40%

    • C. 

      56%

    • D. 

      78%


  • 94. 
    Alveolar gas is ____% himdified (saturated) at body temp.
    • A. 

      100

    • B. 

      70

    • C. 

      50

    • D. 

      30


  • 95. 
    Alveolar gas is at absolute himidity at
    • A. 

      44mmHg

    • B. 

      47mmHg

    • C. 

      54mmHg


  • 96. 
    Thickness of the alveolar capillary membrane, which a gas molecule must pass through
    • A. 

      1-3 um

    • B. 

      0.5-1.3 um

    • C. 

      0.36-2.5um


  • 97. 
    Under normal resting conditions, the total transit time for blood to move through the alveolar-capillary membrane is about ____ second

  • 98. 
    Diffusion on CO2 and O2 across the AC membrane can happen as quickly as ____second

  • 99. 
    CO2 difuses ___times faster than oxygen

  • 100. 
    Perfusion limited means that the transfer of gas acorss the alveolar wall is a function of the amount of blood that flows past the alveoli.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 101. 
    Under normal conditions the difusion of oxygen is....
    • A. 

      Perfusion unlimited

    • B. 

      Perfusion limited

    • C. 

      Diffusion Limited

    • D. 

      Diffusion unlimited


  • 102. 
    CO2 gas an affinity for hemoglobin that is about ____times greater than that of O2
    • A. 

      210

    • B. 

      250

    • C. 

      310


  • 103. 
    The DLCO (diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide) test evaulates the lung's ability  to diffuse gas
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 104. 
    Factors tha affect the DLCO test
    • A. 

      Lung volume

    • B. 

      Exercise

    • C. 

      Body Size

    • D. 

      Hb concentration

    • E. 

      Carboxyhemoglobin

    • F. 

      Methemboglobin


  • 105. 
    THe volume of air hat moves in and out of the lungs in one quiet breath
    • A. 

      Tidal Volume

    • B. 

      Inspiratory Capacity

    • C. 

      Functional Residual Volume


  • 106. 
    The max amount of air that the lungs can hold
    • A. 

      Inspiratory Reserve Volume

    • B. 

      Residual Volume

    • C. 

      Functional Residual Volume

    • D. 

      Total Lung Capacity


  • 107. 
    The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal exhale
    • A. 

      Expiratory reserve volume

    • B. 

      Residual volume

    • C. 

      Functioanl residual capacity


  • 108. 
    The max volume of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal volume  inhale
    • A. 

      Inspiratory reserve volume

    • B. 

      Inspiratory capacity


  • 109. 
    A healthy adult man has about ____ RBC in each cubic mm of blood. A healthy woman has about ____RBC/mm3
    • A. 

      4 million, 5 million

    • B. 

      6 million, 3 million

    • C. 

      5 million, 4 million


  • 110. 
    The hemocrit level for an adult male is ____% adult female is_____%
    • A. 

      50, 40

    • B. 

      50, 45

    • C. 

      45, 42

    • D. 

      45,45


  • 111. 
    RBC have a ____ shape
    • A. 

      Biconcave

    • B. 

      Concave


  • 112. 
    Which are the most numerous?
    • A. 

      Leukocytes

    • B. 

      Monocytes

    • C. 

      Neutrophils

    • D. 

      Lymphocytes

    • E. 

      Basophils


  • 113. 
    Phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes during allergic reaction
    • A. 

      Monocytes

    • B. 

      Eosinphil

    • C. 

      Neutrophil

    • D. 

      Basophils


  • 114. 
    Which make antibodies?
    • A. 

      T cells

    • B. 

      B cells


  • 115. 
    The right side of the heart pumps ____ blood to the lungs. The left side of the heart pups ____blood into systemic circulation
    • A. 

      Deoxygenated, oxygenated

    • B. 

      Oxygenated. deoxygenated


  • 116. 
    The right side of the heart pumps unoxygenated blood to  ____. The left side pumps oxygenated blood to ____
    • A. 

      Systemic circulation, lungs

    • B. 

      Lungs, systemic circulation


  • 117. 
    Double-layerd dac that encloses the heart
    • A. 

      Epicardium

    • B. 

      Myocardium

    • C. 

      Pericardium


  • 118. 
    Left atrium and left ventricle are seperated by
    • A. 

      Tricuspid valve

    • B. 

      Bicuspid valve

    • C. 

      Pulmonary trunk


  • 119. 
    Normal systemic pressure  systolic____ and diastole___
    • A. 

      80, 120

    • B. 

      120,80

    • C. 

      25, 8


  • 120. 
    Normal pulmonary pressure systolic___ diastole____
    • A. 

      120, 80

    • B. 

      80,120

    • C. 

      25,8

    • D. 

      8,25


  • 121. 
    Normal stroke volume is ___-___mL

  • 122. 
    The lung is divided into the 3 zones. Which is the most gravity dependent for blood flow?
    • A. 

      Zone 1

    • B. 

      Zone 2

    • C. 

      Zone 3


  • 123. 
    Increase in myocardial contractility
    • A. 

      Positive chronotropism

    • B. 

      Positive inotropism


  • 124. 
    A pulmonary shunt is the part of the cardiac output that moves from the right side of the heart to the left after being exposed to alveolar oxygen
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 125. 
    Which of the following will shift the oxygen dissociation curve to the left?
    • A. 

      Alkalosis

    • B. 

      Decreased temp

    • C. 

      Increased H+

    • D. 

      Increased PACO2


  • 126. 
    Oxygen is carried in the blood in two forms.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 127. 
    The pH is a measurement of the hydrogen ion concentration.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 128. 
    Under normal conditions the P50 is about?
    • A. 

      120 mmHg

    • B. 

      80 mmHg

    • C. 

      45 mmHg

    • D. 

      27 mmHg


  • 129. 
    The globin portion of a hemoglobin molecule consist of:
    • A. 

      4 heme chains

    • B. 

      2 alpha chains

    • C. 

      2 beta chains

    • D. 

      Iron


  • 130. 
    What are the two main causes of circulatory hypoxia?
    • A. 

      Stagnant hypoxia

    • B. 

      Diffusion defects

    • C. 

      High altitudes

    • D. 

      Atrial-venous shuntiing


  • 131. 
    When the oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right, the:
    • A. 

      P50 decreases

    • B. 

      Affinity of Hb for O2 increases

    • C. 

      P 50 increases

    • D. 

      Affinity of Hb for O2 decreases


  • 132. 
    When the oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right, the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen increases
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 133. 
    How much oxygen can dissolve in 100 mL of plasma at body temperature for every 1 mm Hg PO2
    • A. 

      1.34mL

    • B. 

      0.003mL


  • 134. 
    What percentage of shunting is normal in a healthy lung?
    • A. 

      >10%

    • B. 

      <10%


  • 135. 
    The normal anatomic shunting is about ___% of cardiac output

  • 136. 
    Types of pulmonary shunting
    • A. 

      Absolute

    • B. 

      Partial

    • C. 

      Relative

    • D. 

      Relative


  • 137. 
    Types of absolute shunts
    • A. 

      Physiologic

    • B. 

      True

    • C. 

      Anatomic

    • D. 

      Capillary

    • E. 

      Relative


  • 138. 
    Which of the following will shift the oxygen dissociation curve to the right?
    • A. 

      Increased temp

    • B. 

      Increased PACO2

    • C. 

      Increased H+

    • D. 

      Acidosis

    • E. 

      Alkalosis

    • F. 

      Decreased temp


  • 139. 
    What is normal oxygen consumption?
    • A. 

      150mL O2/min

    • B. 

      250mL O2/min

    • C. 

      350mL O2/min


  • 140. 
    What is normal (CaO2 - CvO2)?
    • A. 

      10vol%

    • B. 

      20vol%

    • C. 

      5vol%


  • 141. 
    What kind of hypoxia does this indicate? PaO2=40-60
    • A. 

      Normal

    • B. 

      Mild

    • C. 

      Moderate

    • D. 

      Severe


  • 142. 
    What kind of hypoxia is described? inadequate oxygen at the tissue cells caused by low arterial oxygen tension. (PaO2)
    • A. 

      Hypoxic hypoxia

    • B. 

      Anemic hypoxia

    • C. 

      Circulatory hypoxia (stagnant)

    • D. 

      Histotoxic hypoxia


  • 143. 
    Normal PaCO2 for ABG

  • 144. 
    Normal bicarbonate for ABG

  • 145. 
    Solve this ABG pH 7.52 PaCO2 45 HCO3- 34
    • A. 

      Acidosis

    • B. 

      Alkalosis

    • C. 

      Metabolic

    • D. 

      Respiratory

    • E. 

      Fully compensated

    • F. 

      Partially compensated

    • G. 

      Uncompensated


  • 146. 
    Solve this ABG pH 7.48 PaCO2 29 HCO3 23
    • A. 

      Acidosis

    • B. 

      Alkalosis

    • C. 

      Metabolic

    • D. 

      Respiratory

    • E. 

      Fully compensated

    • F. 

      Partially compensated

    • G. 

      Uncompensated


  • 147. 
    In an upright lung, which part of the lung has the highest V/Q ratio?
    • A. 

      Lower part

    • B. 

      Middle part

    • C. 

      Upper part


  • 148. 
    How many ways can carbon dioxide be transported?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      5


  • 149. 
    In comparison to the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, the overall shape of the CO2 dissociation curve is:
    • A. 

      More S shaped

    • B. 

      More linear

    • C. 

      Steeper


  • 150. 
    At rest, how much carbon dioxide does the tissues produce per minute?
    • A. 

      100 mL

    • B. 

      100 L

    • C. 

      200mL

    • D. 

      200 L


  • 151. 
    How is most carbon dioxide transported? about 63%
    • A. 

      Bound to a protein

    • B. 

      Dissolved in Plasma

    • C. 

      As a Bicarbonate


  • 152. 
    What is the Hendersin-Hasselbach equation is used to find?
    • A. 

      Pk

    • B. 

      QT

    • C. 

      PH

    • D. 

      Vt


  • 153. 
    What is the normal bicarbonate to carbonic acid ratio in the blood plasma?
    • A. 

      1:2

    • B. 

      2:1

    • C. 

      1:20

    • D. 

      2:50


  • 154. 
    What is the gas exchange occurring between the pulmonary capillaries and the alveoli called?
    • A. 

      External respiration

    • B. 

      Internal respiration

    • C. 

      Ventilation

    • D. 

      Aleolar induction respiration


  • 155. 
    The fact that deoxygenated blood enhances the loading of CO2 is called the?
    • A. 

      Haldane Effect

    • B. 

      Hamburger Phenomenon

    • C. 

      H-H


  • 156. 
    How many different ways is carbon dioxide transported from the tissue cells to the lungs?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      6


  • 157. 
    Which of the following disturbances can cause a metabolic acidosis?
    • A. 

      Acute ventilatory failure

    • B. 

      Acute alveolar hypoventilation

    • C. 

      Ketacidosis

    • D. 

      Lactic acidosis


  • 158. 
    THe chemical buffer system responds to change in ____. By inactivatig H+ions and liberating HCO3 ions in response to  acidosis.  or makes more H+ions to decrease HCO3 concentration in alkalosis
    • A. 

      Ph

    • B. 

      Pk

    • C. 

      Hormones

    • D. 

      Hypoxia


  • 159. 
    Under normal conditions, what systems regulate the H+ and HCO3- ion concentrations in the blood?
    • A. 

      The hepatic system

    • B. 

      Chemical buffer system

    • C. 

      Respiratory system

    • D. 

      Renal system


  • 160. 
    Causes of wasred or dead space space ventilation
    • A. 

      Pulmonary emboli

    • B. 

      Hypoxia

    • C. 

      Partial/complete obstruction in pulmonary arteries

    • D. 

      Decreased cardiac output


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