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1.  Which of the following statements represents a major difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.  Which of the following processes contributes directly to genetic variation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  If an atom has a charge of +1, which of the following must be true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  The allele which is traditionally indicated by an uppercase letter is the:
A.
B.
5.  Which site in the ribosome holds a tRNA attached to the amino acid forming a peptide bond with the amino acid in the previous site?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  Anti-codons are part of _________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  Chromasomes and their homologues align at the equator of the cell during ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  The term phospholipid can be best described by which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  What makes the rough endoplasmic reticulum rough?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Which of the following is NOT synthesized from a DNA template?
A.
B.
C.
D.
11.  During the Krebs cycle:
A.
B.
C.
D.
12.  During DNA synthesis which of the following structures breaks hydrogen bonds between complementary bases?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  What type of bond results when the hydroxyl group on glycerol reacts with the carboxylic group on a fatty acid?
A.
B.
C.
D.
14.  The mitotic spindle is a microtubular structure that is involved in ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
15.  The term 'allele' most accurately refers to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  When the atoms involved in a covalent bond have the same electronegativity, what type of bond results?
A.
B.
C.
D.
17.  The electron transport chain ___________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
18.  Why is it that RNA can catalyze reactions but DNA cannot?
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  In glycolysis, one molecule of glucose containing six carbons is converted to two molecules of _____ containing three carbons each.  This reaction also yields two molecules of _______ and two molecules of ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  Which electron carrier(s) functions in the Krebs cycle?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  What is a major difference between meiosis II and mitosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  A cell's interior is considered isotonic to the surrounding fluid when:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  When the pH of a solution goes from 7 to 11 we know that ___________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  The failure of homologous chromasomes or double stranded chromasomes to separate during meiosis is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  In transcription, the zipper mechanism of the RNA polymerase serves the function of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  In the polymerization of DNA, a phosphodiester bond is formed between a phosphate group of the nucleotide being added and _______ of the last nucleotide in the polymer.
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  A glycosidic linkage is analogous to which of the following in proteins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  The most effective portion(s) of the visible spectrum in driving photosynthesis is/are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  What is the difference between NAD+ and NADP?
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  In photosynthesis, both the first and the second photosystems:
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  A pigment that transmits all wavelengths of visible light appears:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  One turn of the Calvin cycle uses _______ molecules of CO2, _______ molecules of NADPH, and __________ molecules of ATP.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  What is the main purpose of the light-dependant reactions of photosynthesis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  The microtubule-organizing center found in animal cells is an identifiable structure present during all phases of the cell cycle.  Specifically, it is known as which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Once a cell completes mitosis, molecular division triggers must be turned off.  What happens to MPF during mitosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  David Pribnow studied the base sequences of promoters in bacteria and bacterial viruses.  He found two conserved regions in these promoters (the -10 box and the -35 box).  What is the function of these two regions of the promoter?
A.
B.
C.
38.  In initiation of translation, the very first aminoacyl tRNA to attach to the mRNA strand is
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  What will happen to a red blood cell which has an internal ion concentration of about 0.9% if it is placed into a beaker of pure water?
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  Sugar and CO2 are dissolved in water to make carbonated soft drinks.  Which of the following is the solute?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Free earlobes are dominant over attached earlobes.  If two people with attached earlobes have a child, what are the probabilities for the phenotype of their offspring for this trait?
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  When ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP, what happens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Which of the following includes all of the pyrimidines found in RNA and/or DNA?
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Biologically speaking, a pigment:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  How are RNA hairpin turns related to termination?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Which one of the following would you fail to find in a prokaryote?
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Two ATP molecules are expended in the energy investment phase of glycolysis.  Why is this energy needed to begin the process of glucose catabolism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Carotenoids:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  During elongation, which site in the ribosome represents the location where a codon is being read?
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  You are bored at a lunch meeting and surreptitiously place a raisin in your glass of water.  The raisin swells to twice its original size.  Relative to the water, the raisin must have been:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  What aspects of amino acid structure vary among different amino acids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Put the following events of transcription in chronological order: 1. Sigma binds to the promoter region 2. the double helix of DNA is unwound, breaking hydrogen bonds between complementary strands 3. sigma binds to RNA polymerase 4. sigma is released 5. transcription begins
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  Which of the following is the best explanation for why vegetable oil is a liquid at room temperature while animal fats are solid?
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  Which of these best reflects the following relationship: monosaccharide vs polysaccharide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Peroxisomes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  If the DNA code for a particular amino acid is AGT, then the anticodon on the tRNA would be ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  The functional groups of amino acids ______________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  What scientist first conduced the experiments that led to the discovery of the mechanisms of inheritance?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  Which of these represents a heterozygous genotype?
A.
B.
C.
D.
60.  How do phospholipids interact with water molecules?
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  The primary function of molecular membranes is the transport of ions and molecules in and out of cells--transport is directional and selective.  The moving of molecules from areas of high concetration to that of low concentration is best described as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Which of the following is NOT true of hydrogen bonds?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  A father has type AB blood.  Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
65.  What is the difference between the leading strand and the lagging strand in DNA replication?
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  To absorb large particles, cells engulf them within their plasma membrane in a process called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  In which organelle are lipids synthesized and modified within the eukaryotic cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  How does the simple primary and secondary structure of DNA hold the information needed to code for the many features of multicellular organisms?
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  How are the light-dependant and light-independant reactions of the photosystem related?
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  Which of the following statements about the light reactions of photosynthesis are correct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  After chromasome separation in cell division, cytoplasm is divided between the two daughter cells in a process known as _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
72.  All of the proteins have directionality.  This means that
A.
B.
C.
D.
73.  Which of the following statements concerning chloroplasts is false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  The major role of carbohydrates in animals is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Homologous chromasomes ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
76.  The electrons of photosystem II are excited and transferred to electron carriers.  From which molecule or structure do the photosystem II replacement electrons come?
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  Homologous chromasomes are separated during ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
78.  Prokaryotic organisms lack:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Cellular respiration is the process by which:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  In translation, what signals termination of the process?
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Which of the following is NOT a product of photosynthesis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  Once researchers understood that chromasomes are moved by the spindle microtubules, the next question they wanted to answer is how the microtubules function to bring about this process.  They used fluorescent labels to make the chromasomes and the microtubular structures fluoresce.  When anaphase begain (centromeres split), they photobleached a section of microtubules.  As chromasomes moved toward the poles of the daughter cells, the photobleached sections of the microtubules remained stationary.  This result suggests that _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  Where is most of the water in cellular respiration produced?
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  Water has a high specific heat because of the __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  Under what circumstances does membrane transport always require energy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  How do eukaryotic codons and prokaryotic codons compare?
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  The combination of a tRNA molecule and its properly connected and properly associated amino acid is referred to as the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  The energy of electron transport serves to move protons to the outer mitochondrial compartment.  How does this help the mitochondrion to produce energy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  Nerve cells lose their ability to undergo mitosis.  Instead, they are permanently stuck in _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  How do the alpha and beta forms of glucose differ?
A.
B.
C.
91.  In the process of transcription _________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  The promoter region for transcription in eukaryotic cells is referred to as the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  Within a duplicated chromasome, the chromatids are held together by a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  A primary transcript in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is __________ the functional mRNA, while a primary transcript in a prokaryotic cell is ________ the functional mRNA.
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  A peptide bond __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  Which of the following is not one of the three components that make up a nucleotide?
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Metaphase is characterized by _________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
98.  During elongation, RNA polymerase has three predominant channels, or grooves.  These channels provide sites for all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  The device used in genetics to calculate the genotype and phenotype probabilities for offspring of two particular genotype parents is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  What is the function of the AGU on the loop of the tRNA?
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  Photosystems:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  The first gap in the cell cycle (G1) corresponds to __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
103.  The final electron acceptor(s) associated with photosystem I is/are ___________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  As electrons are passed through the system of electron carriers associated with photosystem II, they lose energy.  What happens to this energy near the end of photosystem II?
A.
B.
C.
D.
105.  For the duration of meiosis I, each chromosome is _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  The most abundant protein in the world is the enzyme that initiates the fixation of carbon in the Calvin cycle.  This enzyme is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
107.  During DNA synthesis which of the following structures is responsible for extending an Okazaki fragment?
A.
B.
C.
D.
108.  At what stage of meiosis does DNA replication take place?
A.
B.
C.
D.
109.  Telomere shortening puts a limit on the number of times a cell can divide.
A.
B.
110.  What molecule serves as a link between the information-containing macromolecule DNA and protein synthesis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  What is the difference between an aldose sugar and a ketose sugar?
A.
B.
C.
D.
112.  Why are there several structurally different pigments in the reaction centers of photosynthesis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  How are phospholipid molecules that make up the surface membrane of a cell organized?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  Given that a cell's structure reflects its function, what would you predict that the function ofa cell with a large Golgi apparatus would be?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  Why do chemical reactions tend to speed up when the concentration of the reactants is increased?
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  Word descriptions of a trait such as "brown", "wavy-haired", "round", "wrinkled", or "green" represent:
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  Most of the CO2 from the oxidation of glucose is released during __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
118.  Which of the following cellular components contains hydrolytic enzymes associated with the digestion of macromolecules?
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  Traits controlled by alleles on the sex chromasome (X or Y) are said to be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  DNA is synthesized through a process known as semiconservative replication.  What is the template?
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  What does it mean when we say the genetic code is redundant?
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  A man and woman are both of normal pigmentation and have one child out of three who is albino (without pigmentation).  Albinism is an autosomal recessive trait.  What are the genotypes of the albino's parents?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  Somatic cells of roundworms have four chromasomes  How many chromasomes would you find in an ovum (egg) from a roundworm?
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  A beta-pleated sheet in a protein is an example of a:
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  When one trait is governed by two ore more pairs of alleles instead of controlled by only one pair of alleles, this is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Carbon is an important element for biology because ___________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
127.  What is a telomere?
A.
B.
C.
D.
128.  Which of the following events takes place in the electron transport chain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
129.  The passive transport of water across a membrane from a solution of lower solute concetrate to a solution of higher solute concetration is best described as:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  Color blindness is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder. A father is color blind.  The mother has a homozygous genotype for normal vision.  Choose the correct result regarding children of these parents.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  What would happen if MPF (mitosis-promoting factor) is introduced into immature frog oocytes that are arrested in G2?
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  Which of the following does not occur in post-transcriptional modifications occurring in eukaryotic mRNAs?
A.
B.
C.
D.
133.  Ribosomes can attach to prokaryotic messenger RNA ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Put the following steps of DNA replication in chronological order: 1. single stranded binding proteins (SSBPs) attach to DNA strands 2. hydrogen bonds between base pairs of antiparallel strands are broken 3. Primase binds to the site of origin 4. DNA polymerase binds to the template strand 5. an RNA primer is created
A.
B.
C.
D.
135.  Early investigators thought the oxygen produced by photosynthetic plants came from carbon dioxide.  In fact, it comes from ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
136.  When nucleotides polymerize to form a nucleic acid __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  Which one of the following organelles is NOT found in both plant and animal cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
138.  Where are cell membrane components synthesized?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  Proteins in biological systems ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
140.  Which of the following is a difference between RNA and DNA?
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  How might a single base deletion in the sequence of a gene affect the amino acid sequence of a protein encoded by the gene and why?
A.
B.
C.
142.  Which of the following does NOT occur as a direct result of a photon hitting a chlorophyll molecule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  What is the function of the group of amino acids on the RNA polymerase, called the rudder?
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  Given the DNA template TTTTT, which of the following bases would you find in a complementary RNA strand and where would it be synthesized?
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  What event accompanies energy absorbion by chlorophyll?
A.
B.
C.
D.
146.  A man who carries an allele of an X-linked gene will pass it on to ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
147.  The first CO2 that is released during aerobic cellular respiration is _________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
148.  If you were going to develop a new antibiotic against bacteria, you would probably need to become an expert on which of these carbohydrates?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
149.  Which of the following is NOT a function of the plant vacuole?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
150.  Which of the following is the outermost feature on the surface of the plant cell?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
151.  What is the final result of mitosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
152.  If RNA polymerase is missing __________ then transcription would not begin.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
153.  Which of the following does NOT occur during the Calvin cycle?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
154.  Both parents have a heterozygous genotype for a particular trait. What are the chances that an offspring will display the recessive phenotype for that trait?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
155.  If an X-linked trait, such as color blindness, is present in a family, the disease will occur more often in male offspring than in female offspring.
A.
B.
156.  Which of the following molecules must move across the nuclear membrane after being synthesized from a DNA sequence and is then translated by a ribosome (in eukaryotes)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
157.  Which of the following molecules is not required for translation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
158.  Which statement best summarizes the essence of chemical evolution?
A.
B.
C.
D.
159.  When are atoms most stable?
A.
B.
C.
D.
160.  Energy used in cellular respiration can originate from:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
161.  Sigma plus the core enzyme of RNA polymerase is called the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
162.  Different steps in cellular respiration occur in different locations in the mitochondria.  Which of the following properly matches a step of respiration to its proper location?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
163.  If a human inherits two X chromasomes (one from each parent), the person will be:
A.
B.
C.
164.  What most distinguishes lipids from other biomolecules is ___________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
165.  The functional group (-OH) is called a __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
166.  In cells, the activity of enzymes is often regulated by other molecules.  Why is this necessary?
A.
B.
C.
D.
167.  An atom has six electrons in its valence shell.  How many single covalent bonds would you expect it to form in most circumstances?
A.
B.
C.
D.
168.  Nucleic acids are polymers made up of which of the following monomers?
A.
B.
C.
D.
169.  Which of the following is an important difference between the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
A.
B.
C.
D.
170.  What is the major difference between eukaryotic DNA replication and prokaryotic DNA replication?
A.
B.
C.
D.
171.  Polymerization of monomers often occurs by removing a hydrogen from one monomer and hydroxyl from the other to remove a water molecule as the monomers join.  This type of reaction is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
172.  In meiosis, centromeres split and sister chromasomes migrate to opposite poles in ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
173.  Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in initiation of translation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
174.  Put the following events of elongation in prokaryotic translation in chronological order: 1. binding of mRNA with small ribosomal subunit 2. recognition of initiation codon 3. complementary base pairing between initiator codon and anticodon of initator tRNA 4. base pairing of the mRNA codon following the initator codon with its complementary tRNA 5. attachment of the large subunit
A.
B.
C.
D.
175.  Which of the following is part of a DNA molecule?
A.
B.
C.
D.
176.  When a heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype between that of either homozygote, it is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
177.  In human and many other eukaryotic species' cells, the nuclear membrane has to disappear in order for what to take place?
A.
B.
C.
D.
178.  What is the main function of the nucleolus?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
179.  Which of the following is an incorrect matching of organelle/cell part with its function?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
180.  Nucleic acids have a definite polarity, or directionality.  Stated another way, one end of the molecule is different from the other end.  How are these ends described?
A.
B.
C.
D.
181.  Crossover, the exchange of segments of homologous chromasomes, takes place during which of the following processes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
182.  The lock-and-key analogy for enzymes applies to the ___________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
183.  During DNA synthesis, which structure is responsible for stabilizing DNA in its single-stranded form?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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