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Pathophysiology Practice Exam 1

63 Questions
Pathophysiology Practice Exam 1

Hematology, special senses, introduction

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • A. 

      Fibrous tunic

    • B. 

      Vascular tunic

    • C. 

      Nervous tunic

    • D. 

      Retina

    • E. 

      Macula lutea

  • 2. 
    A neoplasm of mesenchymal origin
    • A. 

      Adenocarcinoma

    • B. 

      Chondroma

    • C. 

      Fibroma

    • D. 

      Glioma

    • E. 

      Sarcoma

  • 3. 
    • A. 

      Necrosis

    • B. 

      Anemia

    • C. 

      Pancytopenia

    • D. 

      Sepsis

    • E. 

      Thrombocytopenia

  • 4. 
    A host and a microbe exist with no harm to either
    • A. 

      Parasitism

    • B. 

      Mutualism

    • C. 

      Commensialism

    • D. 

      Favoritism

  • 5. 
    What is the end product?pluripotent stem cell > myeloid stem cell > erythroblast > reticulocyte > ???
    • A. 

      Eosinophil

    • B. 

      Neutrophil

    • C. 

      Megakaryocyte

    • D. 

      Erythrocyte

    • E. 

      Lymphocyte

  • 6. 
    • A. 

      Presbyopia

    • B. 

      Myopia

    • C. 

      Hyperopia

    • D. 

      Astigmatism

    • E. 

      Cataracts

  • 7. 
    • A. 

      Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    • B. 

      Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    • C. 

      Acute myelogenous leukemia

    • D. 

      Aplastic anemia

  • 8. 
    • A. 

      Ribs

    • B. 

      Humerus

    • C. 

      Sternum

    • D. 

      Pelvis

    • E. 

      Ulna

  • 9. 
    Presence of M cells in serum without findings of multiple myeloma
    • A. 

      Acute myelogenous leukemia

    • B. 

      Chromic myelogenous leukemia

    • C. 

      Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    • D. 

      Acute lymphocytic leukemia

    • E. 

      Terminal blast crisis

  • 10. 
    • A. 

      Staging

    • B. 

      Grading

    • C. 

      TNM system

  • 11. 
    Autosomal deficiency or defect in vWf
    • A. 

      Disseminated intravascular coagulation

    • B. 

      Hemophilia A

    • C. 

      Hemophilia B

    • D. 

      Von Willebrand disease

    • E. 

      Polycythemia vera

  • 12. 
    A factor IX deficiency is involved in this
    • A. 

      Night blindness

    • B. 

      Hemophilia A

    • C. 

      Hemophilia B

    • D. 

      Protein C & S deficiency

    • E. 

      Scurvy

  • 13. 
    Purple areas of bruising
    • A. 

      Petechiae

    • B. 

      Purpura

    • C. 

      Fistulas

    • D. 

      Epyema

    • E. 

      Pyemia

  • 14. 
    A decrease in the absolute number of cells
    • A. 

      Hypertrrophy

    • B. 

      Hypotrophy

    • C. 

      Hyperplasia

    • D. 

      Hypoplasia

    • E. 

      Metaplasia

  • 15. 
    Cellular engulfment, killing and degradation of microorganisms and particulate matter
    • A. 

      Endocytosis

    • B. 

      Exocytosis

    • C. 

      Phagocytosis

    • D. 

      Apoptosis

    • E. 

      Necrosis

  • 16. 
    These are not leukocytes.
    • A. 

      Lymphocytes

    • B. 

      Neutrophils

    • C. 

      Reticulocytes

    • D. 

      Basophils

    • E. 

      Eosinophils

  • 17. 
    Exudate that contains pus and mucus
    • A. 

      Serous

    • B. 

      Mucous

    • C. 

      Purulent

    • D. 

      Mucopurulent

    • E. 

      Seropurulent

  • 18. 
    An abnormal passageway between two endothelium-lined organs or between two blood vessels that don't normally connect
    • A. 

      Pustule

    • B. 

      Fistula

    • C. 

      Epyema

    • D. 

      Pyemia

    • E. 

      Abscess

  • 19. 
    What is the end product?pluripotent stem cell > myeloid stem cell > granulocyte > ???
    • A. 

      Eosinophil

    • B. 

      Reticulocyte

    • C. 

      Neutrophil

    • D. 

      Basophil

    • E. 

      Monocyte

  • 20. 
    • A. 

      Multiple myeloma

    • B. 

      Hodgkin's lymphoma

    • C. 

      Non Hodgkin's lymphoma

    • D. 

      Aplastic anemia

    • E. 

      Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

  • 21. 
    Low frequency hearing loss originated from the middle or external ear
    • A. 

      Presbycusis

    • B. 

      Sensorineural hearing loss

    • C. 

      Meniere's disease

    • D. 

      Conductive hearing loss

    • E. 

      Acoustic neuroma

  • 22. 
    Involves debris collecting between the retina and the choroid
    • A. 

      Cataracts

    • B. 

      Glaucoma

    • C. 

      Dry macular degeneration

    • D. 

      Wet macular degeneration

    • E. 

      Strabismus

  • 23. 
    Microvascular disease characterized by- widespread platelet thrombi- thrombocytopenia- fragmentation of erythrocytes causing hemolytic anemia and jaundice
    • A. 

      Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    • B. 

      Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    • C. 

      Von Willebrand disease

    • D. 

      Hemophilia A

    • E. 

      Hemophilia B

  • 24. 
    Established by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, this is based on size and spread, involvement of lymph nodes, and the extent of metastasis
    • A. 

      Staging

    • B. 

      Grading

    • C. 

      TNM system

  • 25. 
    Labile cells exist here
    • A. 

      Brain

    • B. 

      Liver

    • C. 

      Heart

    • D. 

      GI tract

    • E. 

      Blood

  • 26. 
    Monocytes in connective tissue
    • A. 

      Monocytes

    • B. 

      Macrophages

    • C. 

      Histiocytes

    • D. 

      Neutrophils

    • E. 

      Megakaryotes

  • 27. 
    This disorder can manifest as a primary condition with signs of hypercoagulability or as a secondary contion associated with systemic lupus erythematosus
    • A. 

      Disseminated intravascular coagulation disorder

    • B. 

      Hemophilia

    • C. 

      Polycythemia vera

    • D. 

      Antiphospholipid syndrome

    • E. 

      Thrombocytopenic purpuras

  • 28. 
    Presenting symptoms of bone pain, weight loss and weakness
    • A. 

      Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    • B. 

      Acute lymphocytic leukemia

    • C. 

      Multiple myeloma

    • D. 

      Hodgkin lymphoma

    • E. 

      Non Hodgkin lymphoma

  • 29. 
    An X-linked recessive disorder that affects the factor VIII gene
    • A. 

      Von Willebrand disease

    • B. 

      Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    • C. 

      Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    • D. 

      Hemophilia A

    • E. 

      Hemophilia B

  • 30. 
    Splenomegaly during the accelerated phase causes abdominal fullness and discomfort.
    • A. 

      Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    • B. 

      Multiple myeloma

    • C. 

      Chronic myelogenous leukemia

    • D. 

      Acute lymphocytic leukemia

    • E. 

      Acute myelogenous leukemia

  • 31. 
    An autoimmune disorder that results in platelet antibody formation and excess platelet destruction
    • A. 

      Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    • B. 

      Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    • C. 

      Polycythemia vera

    • D. 

      Hemophilia

    • E. 

      Telangiectasia

  • 32. 
    Activation of disseminated intravascular coagulation disorder may be initiated the folloqing ways through the extrinsic pathway.
    • A. 

      Blood vessel damage

    • B. 

      Obstetric complications

    • C. 

      Burns

    • D. 

      Bacterial sepsis

    • E. 

      Trauma

  • 33. 
    Next step? pluripotent stem cell > lymphoid stem cell > ???
    • A. 

      B cell progenitor

    • B. 

      Plasma cell

    • C. 

      Thymus

    • D. 

      T cell progenitor

    • E. 

      Helper T cell

  • 34. 
    Activation of disseminated intravascular coagulation disorder through the intrinsic pathway can occur these ways
    • A. 

      Burns

    • B. 

      Obstetric complications

    • C. 

      Bacterial sepsis

    • D. 

      Temperature extremes

    • E. 

      Endothelia damage by viruses and bacteria

  • 35. 
    Ciliary muscle relaxes.  Tension on the suspensory ligaments increases, tightening the lens and making it more concave.  This is a sympathetic reaction.
    • A. 

      Pupillary constriction

    • B. 

      Pupillary dilation

    • C. 

      Near vision accommodation

    • D. 

      Far vision accommodation

  • 36. 
    Abnormal growth of tissue from a mucous membrane
    • A. 

      Polyp

    • B. 

      Pyemia

    • C. 

      Epyema

    • D. 

      Fistula

    • E. 

      Abscess

  • 37. 
    A type of septicemia that leads to widespread abscesses of a metastatic nature
    • A. 

      Epyema

    • B. 

      Pyemia

    • C. 

      Fistula

    • D. 

      Pyrexia

    • E. 

      Hyperpyrexia

  • 38. 
    Evolution to acute leukemia from the accelerated phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia
    • A. 

      Chronic phase

    • B. 

      Accelerated phase

    • C. 

      Exocytosis

    • D. 

      Termial blast crisis

    • E. 

      Endocytosis

  • 39. 
    Type of gangrene caused by clostridium bacteria
    • A. 

      Dry gangrene

    • B. 

      Wet gangrene

    • C. 

      Gas gangrene

    • D. 

      Loquacious gangrene

    • E. 

      Amorous gangrene

  • 40. 
    Malignant neoplasms of cells originally derived from hematopoeitic stem cells
    • A. 

      Lymphomas

    • B. 

      Leukemias

    • C. 

      Myelomas

  • 41. 
    Common sites for metastatic calcification
    • A. 

      Brain

    • B. 

      Lung

    • C. 

      Blood vessels

    • D. 

      Heart valves of the elderly

    • E. 

      Ear canals of infants

  • 42. 
    Underlying anatomical difficulty could be a thicker lens or a longer eyeball
    • A. 

      Presbyopia

    • B. 

      Myopia

    • C. 

      Hyperopia

    • D. 

      Cataract

    • E. 

      Glaucoma

  • 43. 
    There is an increased prevalence of cataracts in:
    • A. 

      Myopic people

    • B. 

      Hyperopic people

    • C. 

      Presbyopic people

    • D. 

      People who take steroids (not the anabolic kind)

    • E. 

      Diabetics

  • 44. 
    Antibodies broduced by B cells harboring the Epstein-Barr virus - they react with antigens from other species
    • A. 

      Homophil antibodies

    • B. 

      Heterophil antibodies

    • C. 

      Monoclonal antibodies

    • D. 

      IgE antibodies

    • E. 

      EBV antibodies

  • 45. 
    The most common cause of impaired platelet function
    • A. 

      Thrombocytopenic purpuras

    • B. 

      Hemophilia

    • C. 

      Von Willebrand's disease

    • D. 

      Aspirin and NSAID use

  • 46. 
    These factors start the clotting process in response to injury
    • A. 

      X

    • B. 

      XII

    • C. 

      High molecular weight kininogen

    • D. 

      II

    • E. 

      Prekallikren

  • 47. 
    Pus collects in a naturally existing anatomic cavity, such as the pleura
    • A. 

      Abscess

    • B. 

      Pustule

    • C. 

      Epyema

    • D. 

      Pyemia

    • E. 

      Pyrexia

  • 48. 
    Outcome of the primary disease
    • A. 

      Complications

    • B. 

      Sequela

    • C. 

      Pathology

    • D. 

      Pathophysiolgy

  • 49. 
    Neoplasm of gland tissue or gland pattern
    • A. 

      Glioma

    • B. 

      Chondroma

    • C. 

      Adenocarcinoma

    • D. 

      Sarcoma

    • E. 

      Fibroma

  • 50. 
    Sudden unilateral blindness
    • A. 

      Ambliopia

    • B. 

      Strabismus

    • C. 

      Anopsia

    • D. 

      Retinopathy

    • E. 

      Amaurosis fugax

  • 51. 
    Occlusions of branch arteries of the retina can cause
    • A. 

      Amblyopia

    • B. 

      Myopia

    • C. 

      Amaurosis fugax

    • D. 

      Diabetic retinopathy

    • E. 

      Uveitis

  • 52. 
    An abnormality in the partial thromboplastin time could possibly be explained by the following
    • A. 

      Warfarin use

    • B. 

      Antiphospholipid antibodies

    • C. 

      Thrombocytopenia

    • D. 

      Disseminated intravascular coagulation

    • E. 

      Liver damage

  • 53. 
    Vitamin K is required in the synthesis of the following
    • A. 

      Factor VII

    • B. 

      Factor IX

    • C. 

      Factor X

    • D. 

      Factor II

    • E. 

      Proteins C & S

  • 54. 
    Calcium is required in the coagulation cascade in every step except
    • A. 

      XII > XIIa

    • B. 

      VII > VIIa

    • C. 

      Fibrinogen > fibrin

    • D. 

      XI > XIa

    • E. 

      Prothrombin > thrombin

  • 55. 
    Where are the fixed macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system?
    • A. 

      Kupffer's cells (liver)

    • B. 

      Islet cells (pancreas)

    • C. 

      Spleen

    • D. 

      Alveolar macrophages (lungs)

    • E. 

      Cerumen

  • 56. 
    Which is not a cardinal sign of infection?
    • A. 

      Rubor

    • B. 

      Calor

    • C. 

      Tumor

    • D. 

      Functio laesa

    • E. 

      Amaurosis fugax

  • 57. 
    Clinical manifestations:vessel narrowingA-V nickingedemamicroaneurysmsexudatescotton-wool spots
    • A. 

      Central retinal artery occlusion

    • B. 

      Vascular retinopathy

    • C. 

      Amblyopia

    • D. 

      Episcleritis

    • E. 

      Anopia

  • 58. 
    Involves the passage of whiter blood cells through the walls of small blood vessels
    • A. 

      Margination

    • B. 

      Pavementing

    • C. 

      Chemotaxis

    • D. 

      Emigration

    • E. 

      Aggregation

  • 59. 
    Disease due to absent or defective synthesis of alpha/beta chains of adult hemoglobin
    • A. 

      Hemolytic anemia

    • B. 

      Sickle cell anemia

    • C. 

      Thalassemia

    • D. 

      G6PD deficiency

    • E. 

      Iron deficiency anemia

  • 60. 
    Characterized by large erythrocytes on peripheral smear; caused by malnutrition, malabsorption and/or folic acid antagonists
    • A. 

      Hemolytic anemia

    • B. 

      Thalassemia

    • C. 

      Megaloblastic anemia

    • D. 

      Aplastic anemia

    • E. 

      Polycythemia

  • 61. 
    A myeloproliferative disorder in men 40-60; the volume of erythrocytes exceeds normal levels, leading to increased blood viscosity.  Symptoms include complexion changes and bloodshot eyes.
    • A. 

      Polycythemia vera

    • B. 

      Absolute polycythemia

    • C. 

      Relative polycythemia

    • D. 

      Pseudopolycythemia

    • E. 

      Aplastic anemia

  • 62. 
    Most common inherited enzyme defect that affects males and homozygous females; makes erythrocytes susceptible to oxidants, denaturing of HgB and Heniz body formation.  People with this deficiency cannot take aspirin.
    • A. 

      Iron deficiency

    • B. 

      B12 deficiency

    • C. 

      Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    • D. 

      Alpha thalassemia

    • E. 

      Cooley's anemia

  • 63. 
    Anemia of thalassemia occurs for two of these reasons
    • A. 

      Reduced Hgb synthesis

    • B. 

      Vessel occlusion and hypoxia result in hypercoagulation and clot formation

    • C. 

      Imbalance in globin chain production (unaffected chains accumulate in RBC and Heinz bodies impair DNA synthesis)

    • D. 

      Malnutrition

    • E. 

      Macrophage/lymphocyte activity in response to inflammation