Patho Chapter 6

36 Questions  I  By Caitlinnorthcutt
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Disease Quizzes & Trivia
Patho. Chapter. 6.

  
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Questions and Answers

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  • 1. 
    Choose the correct proportion of water to body weight to be expected in a healthy male adult’s body:
    • A. 

      30%

    • B. 

      45%

    • C. 

      60%

    • D. 

      70%


  • 2. 
    Choose the correct proportion of blood (to body weight) in an adult male’s body:
    • A. 

      30%

    • B. 

      20%

    • C. 

      10%

    • D. 

      4%


  • 3. 
    Insensible fluid loss refers to water lost through:
    • A. 

      Perspiration

    • B. 

      Feces

    • C. 

      Perspiration and expiration

    • D. 

      Urine and feces


  • 4. 
    When the osmotic pressure of the blood is elevated above normal, water would shift from the:
    • A. 

      Blood into the cells

    • B. 

      Interstitial compartment into the cells

    • C. 

      Interstitial compartment into the blood

    • D. 

      Cells into the interstitial compartment


  • 5. 
    What would a deficit of plasma proteins likely cause?
    • A. 

      Increased osmotic pressure

    • B. 

      Decreased osmotic pressure

    • C. 

      Increased hydrostatic pressure

    • D. 

      Decreased hydrostatic pressure


  • 6. 
    What would cause edema?
    • A. 

      Decreased capillary hydrostatic pressure

    • B. 

      Increased capillary osmotic pressure

    • C. 

      Decreased capillary permeability

    • D. 

      Increased capillary permeability


  • 7. 
    What would be related to an elevated hematocrit?
    • A. 

      Fluid excess

    • B. 

      Fluid deficit

    • C. 

      Increased sodium level

    • D. 

      Decreased erythrocytes


  • 8. 
    What is a typical sign of dehydration?
    • A. 

      Rapid, strong pulse

    • B. 

      Low hematocrit

    • C. 

      Increased urine output

    • D. 

      Rough oral mucosa


  • 9. 
    What is the term for a combination of decreased circulating blood volume and excess fluid in a body cavity?
    • A. 

      Dehydration

    • B. 

      Third-spacing

    • C. 

      Hypovolemia

    • D. 

      Water retention


  • 10. 
    Which of the following is a characteristic of sodium ion?
    • A. 

      It is a cation

    • B. 

      It is present primarily in the intracellular fluid

    • C. 

      It shifts out of the blood by active transport

    • D. 

      Blood levels are controlled by ADH (antidiuretic hormone)


  • 11. 
    What is a common causes of hyponatremia?
    • A. 

      Loss of the thirst mechanism

    • B. 

      Excessive sweating

    • C. 

      Excessive aldosterone secretion

    • D. 

      Prolonged period of rapid, deep respirations


  • 12. 
    What do both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia cause?
    • A. 

      Skeletal muscle twitch and cramps

    • B. 

      Oliguria

    • C. 

      Elevated serum pH

    • D. 

      Cardiac arrhythmias


  • 13. 
    What does increased parathyroid hormone cause?
    • A. 

      Movement of calcium ions into the bones

    • B. 

      Increased activation of vitamin D

    • C. 

      Increased absorption of calcium from the digestive tract

    • D. 

      Decreased reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys


  • 14. 
    What does hypocalcemia lead to? 1. low serum phosphate levels 2. nausea and constipation 3. skeletal muscle twitch and spasms 4. weak cardiac contractions
    • A. 

      1, 2

    • B. 

      1, 4

    • C. 

      2, 3

    • D. 

      3, 4


  • 15. 
    What causes tetany?
    • A. 

      Increased permeability of nerve membranes

    • B. 

      Insufficient calcium in skeletal muscle

    • C. 

      Excess calcium ions inside somatic nerves

    • D. 

      Increased stimulation of the nerves in the cerebral cortex


  • 16. 
    In which of the following is phosphate ion not a major component?
    • A. 

      Bone metabolism

    • B. 

      Metabolic processes involving ATP

    • C. 

      Blood clotting

    • D. 

      Acid-base balance


  • 17. 
    Which of the following would be considered normal serum pH?
    • A. 

      4.5-8

    • B. 

      7.0

    • C. 

      7.4

    • D. 

      8


  • 18. 
    When many excess hydrogen ions accumulate in the blood, what happens to serum pH? It:
    • A. 

      Decreases

    • B. 

      Increases

    • C. 

      Remains constant


  • 19. 
    What is the slowest but most effective control for acid-base balance?
    • A. 

      Respiratory system

    • B. 

      Buffer systems in the blood

    • C. 

      Kidneys

    • D. 

      Brain


  • 20. 
    Which of the following is essential in order to maintain serum pH within normal range?
    • A. 

      Carbonic acid and bicarbonate ion must be present in equal quantities

    • B. 

      All excess carbonic acid must be excreted by the kidneys

    • C. 

      The concentration of bicarbonate must remain constant

    • D. 

      The ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate must be 1:20


  • 21. 
    Which is the correct effect on the body of abnormally slow respirations?
    • A. 

      Increased carbonic acid

    • B. 

      Decreased carbonic acid

    • C. 

      Increased bicarbonate ion

    • D. 

      Decreased bicarbonate ion


  • 22. 
    What is likely to cause metabolic acidosis?
    • A. 

      Slow, shallow respirations

    • B. 

      Prolonged diarrhea

    • C. 

      Mild vomiting

    • D. 

      Excessive fluid in the body


  • 23. 
    What would a serum pH of 7.33 in a patient with kidney disease indicate?
    • A. 

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • B. 

      Metabolic acidosis

    • C. 

      Respiratory alkalosis

    • D. 

      Respiratory acidosis


  • 24. 
    Which serum value indicates decompensated metabolic acidosis?
    • A. 

      PH is below normal range

    • B. 

      PH is above normal range

    • C. 

      Bicarbonate level decreases

    • D. 

      Bicarbonate level increases


  • 25. 
    When excessive lactic acid accumulates in the body, serum:
    • A. 

      Bicarbonate ion levels decrease

    • B. 

      Bicarbonate ion levels increase

    • C. 

      Carbonic acid levels increase

    • D. 

      PH increases


  • 26. 
    What does acidosis cause?
    • A. 

      CNS hyperexcitability and nervousness

    • B. 

      Hypokalemia

    • C. 

      CNS depression and drowsiness

    • D. 

      Hypernatremia


  • 27. 
    Compensation in the body for dehydration would include:
    • A. 

      Increased ADH

    • B. 

      Decreased aldosterone

    • C. 

      Slow, strong heart contraction

    • D. 

      Peripheral vasodilation


  • 28. 
    Emphysema impairs expiration causing the acid-base imbalance:
    • A. 

      Metabolic acidosis

    • B. 

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • C. 

      Respiratory acidosis

    • D. 

      Respiratory alkalosis


  • 29. 
    In patients with emphysema and impaired expiration, effective compensation for the acid-base imbalance, would be:
    • A. 

      Increased rate and depth of respiration

    • B. 

      Decreased rate and depth of respiration

    • C. 

      Increased urine pH and decreased serum bicarbonate

    • D. 

      Decreased urine pH and increased serum bicarbonate


  • 30. 
    An anxiety attack often causes hyperventilation leading to:
    • A. 

      Increased pCO

    • B. 

      Decreased pCO2

    • C. 

      Respiratory acidosis

    • D. 

      Metabolic acidosis


  • 31. 
    Young infants are more vulnerable to serious dehydration because
    • A. 

      Decreased body surface area and insensible fluid loss

    • B. 

      Limited renal compensation

    • C. 

      Decreased proportion of fluid to body weight

    • D. 

      Slower metabolic rate


  • 32. 
    Compensation for respiratory system depression due to anesthesia and sedation would be: 1. increased reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the kidneys 2. increased secretion of hydrogen ions into the filtrate 3. increased respiratory rate and depth 4. increased renin secretion
    • A. 

      1, 2

    • B. 

      2, 3

    • C. 

      1, 4

    • D. 

      3, 4


  • 33. 
    Metabolic acidosis leads to:
    • A. 

      Hypokalemia

    • B. 

      Hyperkalemia

    • C. 

      Hyponatremia

    • D. 

      Hypercalcemia


  • 34. 
    Strenuous physical exercise on a hot day is likely to result in:
    • A. 

      Hypokalemia

    • B. 

      Hypernatremia

    • C. 

      Hyperchloremia

    • D. 

      Hypovolemia


  • 35. 
    Place the following events in the correct sequence that occurs when ketoacids increase in the blood of a diabetic. Not all options are used in the answers. 1. serum pH decreases 2. serum bicarbonate decreases 3. pCO2 decreases 4. respiration decreases 5. respiration increases 6. serum pH increases 7. urine pH decreases
    • A. 

      1, 3, 7, 4, 2, 6

    • B. 

      5, 2, 7, 3, 4, 1

    • C. 

      2, 1, 5, 3, 6, 7

    • D. 

      3, 1, 2, 5, 7, 6


  • 36. 
    Which of the following is a manifestation of respiratory alkalosis
    • A. 

      Bradycardia

    • B. 

      Drowsiness

    • C. 

      Seizures

    • D. 

      Decreased urine pH


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