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  • 1. 
    In cases of noncommunicating hydrocephalus, why does excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulate?
    • A. 

      A. Absorption of CSF through the arachnoid villi is impaired.

    • B. 

      B. Excessive amounts of CSF are produced in the ventricles.

    • C. 

      C. An obstruction is present in the aqueduct of Sylvius or other channel.

    • D. 

      D. Flow around the spinal cord is blocked.


  • 2. 
    All of the following are typical signs of hydrocephalus in the neonate EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      A. enlarged head with bulging fontanels

    • B. 

      B. vomiting, headache, and paralysis

    • C. 

      C. irritability and feeding difficulties

    • D. 

      D. eyes are turned downward with sclerae showing above the pupils


  • 3. 
    The best description of a myelomeningocele is:
    • A. 

      A. asymptomatic failure of the posterior spinous processes of the vertebrae to fuse

    • B. 

      B. herniation of the meninges and CSF through a vertebral defect

    • C. 

      C. herniation of the meninges, CSF, and spinal cord or nerves through a vertebral defect

    • D. 

      D. herniation of brain tissue through a defect in the cranium


  • 4. 
    How is the presence of spina bifida diagnosed?
    • A. 

      A. prenatally by ultrasound or detection of AFP in maternal blood or amniotic fluid

    • B. 

      B. only after birth by direct observation of the sac

    • C. 

      C. after birth when the sac herniates as CSF builds up

    • D. 

      D. only with a spinal x-ray


  • 5. 
    What characteristic is common to all individuals with cerebral palsy?
    • A. 

      A. some loss of cognitive function

    • B. 

      B. one or more types of seizure

    • C. 

      C. serious multiple communication difficulties

    • D. 

      D. a form of motor disability


  • 6. 
    Which of the following applies to cerebral palsy?
    • A. 

      A. nonprogressive brain damage to the fetus or neonate

    • B. 

      B. a genetic defect affecting metabolism and causing degeneration in the neurons

    • C. 

      C. a developmental error during early growth of the peripheral nervous system

    • D. 

      D. a chromosomal defect resulting in abnormalities in many body structures


  • 7. 
    Which of the following is characteristic of generalized seizures?
    • A. 

      A. the localization of the seizure activity

    • B. 

      B. the uncontrolled discharge of neurons in both hemispheres

    • C. 

      C. seizures that persist for several hours

    • D. 

      D. loss of consciousness and all motor function


  • 8. 
    From the following, choose the two events (in correct sequence) that immediately follow the aura during a tonic-clonic event:
    • A. 

      A. prodromal signs, then the clonic stage

    • B. 

      B. clonic stage, then the tonic stage

    • C. 

      C. loss of consciousness, then the tonic stage

    • D. 

      D. loss of consciousness and cessation of respiration


  • 9. 
    What does the clonic stage of a seizure consist of?
    • A. 

      A. a sudden strong skeletal muscle contraction and rigidity of trunk and limbs

    • B. 

      B. a cry and contraction of abdominal and thoracic muscles

    • C. 

      C. alternating contractions and relaxation of skeletal muscles

    • D. 

      D. cessation of all skeletal muscle activity


  • 10. 
    How would a seizure consisting of bizarre or inappropriate activity be classified?
    • A. 

      A. an absence seizure

    • B. 

      B. a psychomotor seizure

    • C. 

      C. a focal seizure

    • D. 

      D. a Jacksonian seizure


  • 11. 
    Which of the following is characteristic of multiple sclerosis?
    • A. 

      A. remissions and exacerbations

    • B. 

      B. predictable pattern of progression in all patients

    • C. 

      C. onset in men and women more than 60 years of age

    • D. 

      D. full recovery of function during remissions


  • 12. 
    Which statement does NOT apply to the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis?
    • A. 

      A. demyelination of axons

    • B. 

      B. it affects the brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves

    • C. 

      C. it affects motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers

    • D. 

      D. progressive random degeneration of peripheral nerves


  • 13. 
    Which of the following are common early signs of multiple sclerosis?
    • A. 

      A. paralysis of the lower body, impaired cognitive function

    • B. 

      B. tremors, weakness in the legs, visual problems

    • C. 

      C. sensory deficit in the legs and trunk, memory loss, urinary incontinence

    • D. 

      D. tremors, speech impairment, hearing loss


  • 14. 
    Which of the following applies to Parkinson’s disease?
    • A. 

      A. Onset occurs in men and women over 60 years of age.

    • B. 

      B. There is a strong genetic component.

    • C. 

      C. The majority of cases are predisposed by intake of antipsychotic medications.

    • D. 

      D. It rarely develops in women.


  • 15. 
    What is the pathophysiologic change in Parkinson’s disease?
    • A. 

      A. degeneration of motor fibers in the pyramidal tracts

    • B. 

      B. excess secretion of stimulatory neurotransmitters in the CNS

    • C. 

      C. degeneration of the basal nuclei with a deficit of dopamine

    • D. 

      D. deficit of acetylcholine and degeneration of the motor cortex in the frontal lobe


  • 16. 
    Which of the following are common early manifestations of Parkinson’s disease?
    • A. 

      A. tremors at rest in the hands and difficulty initiating voluntary movements

    • B. 

      B. extreme weakness in the legs and spastic movements in the arms

    • C. 

      C. visual deficits and speech impairment

    • D. 

      D. loss of facial expressions and altered posture and gait


  • 17. 
    In which type of neuron is progressive degeneration occurring with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?
    • A. 

      A. upper motor neurons

    • B. 

      B. upper and lower motor neurons

    • C. 

      C. motor and sensory neurons

    • D. 

      D. motor, sensory, and autonomic system neurons


  • 18. 
    Which of the following statements does NOT apply to myasthenia gravis?
    • A. 

      A. The cholinergic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions are damaged.

    • B. 

      B. It is an autoimmune disorder.

    • C. 

      C. Muscle weakness and fatigue occur in the face and neck.

    • D. 

      D. Dementia develops in the later stage.


  • 19. 
    Which statement applies to Huntington’s disease? It:
    • A. 

      A. is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait

    • B. 

      B. is manifested in individuals by age 20 years

    • C. 

      C. presents with choreiform movements in the upper body and decreased ability to concentrate

    • D. 

      D. causes decreased levels of all neurotransmitters in the CNS


  • 20. 
    What are the characteristic changes in the brain with Alzheimer’s disease?
    • A. 

      A. cortical atrophy with plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, impairing conduction

    • B. 

      B. increased ACH and decreased GABA and serotonin levels

    • C. 

      C. obstruction of many small arteries and arterioles throughout the cerebral cortex

    • D. 

      D. vacuoles forming in the neurons, rapidly destroying them


  • 21. 
    Which disease is associated with excessive dopamine secretion, decreased gray matter in the temporal lobes, and abnormal hippocampal cells in the brain?
    • A. 

      A. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    • B. 

      B. schizophrenia

    • C. 

      C. panic disorder

    • D. 

      D. depression


  • 22. 
    In which disorders do biochemical abnormalities involving the neurotransmitters in the brain occur? 1. bipolar disorder 2. schizophrenia 3. Huntington’s disease 4. AIDS dementia
    • A. 

      A. 1, 3

    • B. 

      B. 1, 4

    • C. 

      C. 1, 2, 3

    • D. 

      D. 2, 3, 4


  • 23. 
    Which of the following are typical characteristics associated with schizophrenia?
    • A. 

      A. disorganized thought processes, short attention span, delusions

    • B. 

      B. lack of energy and motivation, poor concentration, insomnia

    • C. 

      C. hyperventilation, tachycardia, intense anxiety

    • D. 

      D. memory loss, mood swings, hostile behavior


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