A. Absorption of CSF through the arachnoid villi is impaired.
B. Excessive amounts of CSF are produced in the ventricles.
C. An obstruction is present in the aqueduct of Sylvius or other channel.
D. Flow around the spinal cord is blocked.
A. enlarged head with bulging fontanels
B. vomiting, headache, and paralysis
C. irritability and feeding difficulties
D. eyes are turned downward with sclerae showing above the pupils
A. asymptomatic failure of the posterior spinous processes of the vertebrae to fuse
B. herniation of the meninges and CSF through a vertebral defect
C. herniation of the meninges, CSF, and spinal cord or nerves through a vertebral defect
D. herniation of brain tissue through a defect in the cranium
A. prenatally by ultrasound or detection of AFP in maternal blood or amniotic fluid
B. only after birth by direct observation of the sac
C. after birth when the sac herniates as CSF builds up
D. only with a spinal x-ray
A. some loss of cognitive function
B. one or more types of seizure
C. serious multiple communication difficulties
D. a form of motor disability
A. nonprogressive brain damage to the fetus or neonate
B. a genetic defect affecting metabolism and causing degeneration in the neurons
C. a developmental error during early growth of the peripheral nervous system
D. a chromosomal defect resulting in abnormalities in many body structures
A. the localization of the seizure activity
B. the uncontrolled discharge of neurons in both hemispheres
C. seizures that persist for several hours
D. loss of consciousness and all motor function
A. prodromal signs, then the clonic stage
B. clonic stage, then the tonic stage
C. loss of consciousness, then the tonic stage
D. loss of consciousness and cessation of respiration
A. a sudden strong skeletal muscle contraction and rigidity of trunk and limbs
B. a cry and contraction of abdominal and thoracic muscles
C. alternating contractions and relaxation of skeletal muscles
D. cessation of all skeletal muscle activity
A. an absence seizure
B. a psychomotor seizure
C. a focal seizure
D. a Jacksonian seizure
A. remissions and exacerbations
B. predictable pattern of progression in all patients
C. onset in men and women more than 60 years of age
D. full recovery of function during remissions
A. demyelination of axons
B. it affects the brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves
C. it affects motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers
D. progressive random degeneration of peripheral nerves
A. paralysis of the lower body, impaired cognitive function
B. tremors, weakness in the legs, visual problems
C. sensory deficit in the legs and trunk, memory loss, urinary incontinence
D. tremors, speech impairment, hearing loss
A. Onset occurs in men and women over 60 years of age.
B. There is a strong genetic component.
C. The majority of cases are predisposed by intake of antipsychotic medications.
D. It rarely develops in women.
A. degeneration of motor fibers in the pyramidal tracts
B. excess secretion of stimulatory neurotransmitters in the CNS
C. degeneration of the basal nuclei with a deficit of dopamine
D. deficit of acetylcholine and degeneration of the motor cortex in the frontal lobe
A. tremors at rest in the hands and difficulty initiating voluntary movements
B. extreme weakness in the legs and spastic movements in the arms
C. visual deficits and speech impairment
D. loss of facial expressions and altered posture and gait
A. upper motor neurons
B. upper and lower motor neurons
C. motor and sensory neurons
D. motor, sensory, and autonomic system neurons
A. The cholinergic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions are damaged.
B. It is an autoimmune disorder.
C. Muscle weakness and fatigue occur in the face and neck.
D. Dementia develops in the later stage.
A. is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait
B. is manifested in individuals by age 20 years
C. presents with choreiform movements in the upper body and decreased ability to concentrate
D. causes decreased levels of all neurotransmitters in the CNS
A. cortical atrophy with plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, impairing conduction
B. increased ACH and decreased GABA and serotonin levels
C. obstruction of many small arteries and arterioles throughout the cerebral cortex
D. vacuoles forming in the neurons, rapidly destroying them
A. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
C. panic disorder
A. 1, 3
B. 1, 4
C. 1, 2, 3
D. 2, 3, 4
A. disorganized thought processes, short attention span, delusions
B. lack of energy and motivation, poor concentration, insomnia
C. hyperventilation, tachycardia, intense anxiety
D. memory loss, mood swings, hostile behavior