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Oti Practice Exam 1

322 Questions
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OTI Practice Exam 1. Fill in the blank and multiple choice. Each question is worth 2 points, even if there is more than one right answer. In cases where there is more than one right answer, you must get all of them right to earn the 2 points. Selecting one wrong answer among other right answers, or not selecting a certain right answer while getting the others right, will result in 0 points for that question. If you can get an A on this test, you can probably get an A on Rollston's. (Be aware, though, that this test's grading system does not have plus or minus grades, so a low A on this test is really an A- on Rollston's. ) This test is designed to help you learn the material thoroughly. Take it multiple times until you're getting 100% every time. Obviously there is no practi

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    When was the Early Bronze Age?
  • 2. 
    When was the Middle Bronze Age?
  • 3. 
    When was the Late Bronze Age?
  • 4. 
    When was the Iron Age?
  • 5. 
    In what year were the Dead Sea Scrolls originally discovered?
  • 6. 
    In what year were the Ugaritic tablets discovered?
  • 7. 
    When is the Primeval History (Genesis 1-11) dated (setting not composition)?
  • 8. 
    When is the Exodus dated (setting not composition)?
  • 9. 
    When is the Period of Judges dated (setting not composition)?
  • 10. 
    When is the United Monarchy (Saul, David, Solomon period) dated (setting not composition)?
  • 11. 
    Name the man responsible for the building of the first temple.
  • 12. 
    When was the first temple destroyed?
    • A. 

      692/691 BCE

    • B. 

      722/721 BCE

    • C. 

      70 CE

    • D. 

      587/586 BCE

    • E. 

      730 BCE

  • 13. 
    By what year was the second temple completed?
  • 14. 
    What year did Artaxerxes send his cronies Ezra and Nehemiah back to Jerusalem to rebuild the walls and initiate reforms?
  • 15. 
    By what year was the composition of the book of Daniel finalized?
  • 16. 
    What are the dates for the second temple period? (Format your answer like this: ###BCE-##CE if you want to get it right.)
  • 17. 
    Hosea was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 18. 
    Obadiah was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 19. 
    Isaiah (1-39) was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 20. 
    Deutero-Isaiah was written during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 21. 
    Trito-Isaiah was written during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 22. 
    Jeremiah was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 23. 
    Zephaniah was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 24. 
    Nahum was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 25. 
    Haggai was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 26. 
    Habakkuk was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 27. 
    Malachi was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 28. 
    Amos was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 29. 
    Joel was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 30. 
    Jonah was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 31. 
    Micah was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 32. 
    Zechariah was a prophet during what century?
    • A. 

      4th or less

    • B. 

      5th

    • C. 

      6th

    • D. 

      7th

    • E. 

      8th

  • 33. 
    Between what dates did the fifth century BCE occur?
    • A. 

      Never. God skipped it!

    • B. 

      501-600 BCE

    • C. 

      458-557 BCE

    • D. 

      401-500 BCE

    • E. 

      500-600 BCE

  • 34. 
    Name and spell correctly the first, chronologically, of the two kings responsible for the destruction of Samaria in 722/21 BCE.
  • 35. 
    Name and spell correctly the second, chronologically, of the two kings responsible for the destruction of Samaria in 722/21 BCE.
  • 36. 
    From which nation were the two kings responsible for the destruction of Samaria in 722/21 BCE?
  • 37. 
    What date (see Erica and Katie's timeline) did the conquest of Canaan begin?
  • 38. 
    Where were Isaiah and Micah prophets?
    • A. 

      Southern Kingdom

    • B. 

      Assyria

    • C. 

      Northern Kingdom

    • D. 

      Sumeria

    • E. 

      Alexandria

  • 39. 
    Where were Hosea and Amos prophets?
    • A. 

      Sumeria

    • B. 

      Northern Kingdom

    • C. 

      Southern Kingdom

    • D. 

      Assyria

    • E. 

      Modern-Day Turkey

  • 40. 
    Where was Jonah a prophet?
    • A. 

      Northern Kingdom

    • B. 

      Sumeria

    • C. 

      Assyria

    • D. 

      NinjaTurtle

    • E. 

      Southern Kingdom

  • 41. 
    Where were Jeremiah and Nahum prophets?
    • A. 

      Southern Kingdom

    • B. 

      Northern Kingdom

    • C. 

      Sumeria

    • D. 

      Assyria

    • E. 

      Babylon

  • 42. 
    Where were Zephaniah and Habakkuk prophets?
    • A. 

      Northern Kingdom

    • B. 

      Southern Kingdom

    • C. 

      Assyria

    • D. 

      Babylon

    • E. 

      Ninevah

  • 43. 
    Where was Obadiah a prophet?
    • A. 

      Northern Kingdom

    • B. 

      Southern Kingdom

    • C. 

      Assyria

    • D. 

      Babylon

    • E. 

      Jerusalem

  • 44. 
    Where did Frank Moore Cross do his doctoral work?
    • A. 

      Harvard

    • B. 

      Yale

    • C. 

      John Hopkins

    • D. 

      Johns Hopkins

    • E. 

      Gordon-Conwell

  • 45. 
    Where did Frank Moore Cross teach?
    • A. 

      Harvard

    • B. 

      Yale

    • C. 

      John Hopkins

    • D. 

      Johns Hopkins

    • E. 

      Gordon-Conwell

  • 46. 
    Where did William Foxwell Albright do his doctoral work?
    • A. 

      Harvard

    • B. 

      The American Schools of Oriental Research

    • C. 

      Johns Hopkins

    • D. 

      John Hopkins

    • E. 

      Berkley

  • 47. 
    Where did William Foxwell Albright teach?
    • A. 

      Harvard

    • B. 

      Yale

    • C. 

      Johns Hopkins

    • D. 

      John Hopkins

    • E. 

      Gordon-Conwell

  • 48. 
    Who is Dr. Rollston's Doktorvater?
  • 49. 
    Where did Dr. Bembry do his doctoral work?
    • A. 

      Johns Hopkins

    • B. 

      John Hopkins

    • C. 

      Harvard

    • D. 

      Yale

    • E. 

      Berkley

  • 50. 
    Where does Immanuel Tov teach?
    • A. 

      Harvard

    • B. 

      Johns Hopkins

    • C. 

      Hebrew Union

    • D. 

      Hebrew University

    • E. 

      The American Schools of Oriental Research

  • 51. 
    Where does Ulrich teach?
    • A. 

      Harvard

    • B. 

      Johns Hopkins

    • C. 

      John Hopkins

    • D. 

      Notre Dame

    • E. 

      NYU

  • 52. 
    Name two of Albright's most famous students? (Hint: Only Two Are Correct)
    • A. 

      Christopher Rollston

    • B. 

      John Bright

    • C. 

      Immanuel Tov

    • D. 

      G. Ernest Wright

    • E. 

      Bill Dever

  • 53. 
    Under whom did Milligan graduate Bill Dever study?
    • A. 

      Frank Moore Cross

    • B. 

      W. F. Albright

    • C. 

      John Bright

    • D. 

      G. Ernest Wright

    • E. 

      Immanuel Tov

  • 54. 
    When did the council of Jamnia take place?
    • A. 

      66 CE

    • B. 

      90 CE

    • C. 

      134 CE

    • D. 

      254 CE

    • E. 

      Jamnia never actually happened

  • 55. 
    Did the Council of Jamnia determine the Hebrew Bible canon?
    • A. 

      Yes

    • B. 

      No

  • 56. 
    Which canon was bigger in the first century?
    • A. 

      Alexandrian

    • B. 

      Palestinian

  • 57. 
    Which book of the HB did Melito of Sardis reject definitively?
    • A. 

      Nehemiah but not Ezra

    • B. 

      Esther

    • C. 

      Song of Songs

    • D. 

      Sirach

    • E. 

      3 Maccabees

  • 58. 
    In which section of the tri-partite Hebrew Bible is the book of Daniel included?
    • A. 

      Law

    • B. 

      Prophets

    • C. 

      Writings

  • 59. 
    The Apocrypha cannot be trusted because none of it was written originally in Hebrew.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 60. 
    Athanasius (ca. 367 CE) accepted all of the HB plus which additional books? (Name all that apply)
    • A. 

      Baruch

    • B. 

      The Epistle of Jeremiah

    • C. 

      The Daniel Additions

  • 61. 
    Who put a curse on anyone who said that Song of Songs WASN’T allegorical?
  • 62. 
    Of which significant Jewish leader might the book of Jonah have been a critique?
  • 63. 
    In which period does philological and historical evidence indicate that the book of Jonah was composed?
    • A. 

      Pre-Monarchical

    • B. 

      Divided Kingdom

    • C. 

      Between 722-587 BCE

    • D. 

      Exilic Period

    • E. 

      Post-Exilic Period

  • 64. 
    Of which nation is Ninevah a major city?
  • 65. 
    What is the last name (correctly spelled) of the scholar who argued that the LXX is a composite translation derived from ad hoc translations made over a long period of time in the synagogues, much like the Aramaic Targumim? (If you misspell the name, your answer will not be correct.)
  • 66. 
    Fill in the blank: The Letter of ___________ tells the legendary story of the translation of the Pentateuch into Greek.
  • 67. 
    According to this Letter, where was the LXX translated?
  • 68. 
    What is the name of the person that this king commissioned to organize the translation?
  • 69. 
    How many scribes from each tribe of Israel were summoned to participate in the translation?
  • 70. 
    When did the Masoretes live and work?
    • A. 

      400 BCE - 200 CE

    • B. 

      300-800 CE

    • C. 

      600-1000 CE

    • D. 

      800-1200 CE

    • E. 

      1200-1600 CE

  • 71. 
    Which text (or texts) is NOT an example of evidence that Aramaic was spoken in Palestine during the late second temple period.
    • A. 

      Matthew 5:22

    • B. 

      Mark 5:41

    • C. 

      Mark 15:34

    • D. 

      John 4:16

    • E. 

      Revelation 22:20

  • 72. 
    The oldest of the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) date back to which century?
    • A. 

      4th BCE

    • B. 

      3rd BCE

    • C. 

      2nd BCE

    • D. 

      1st BCE

    • E. 

      1st CE

  • 73. 
    The most recent DSS manuscripts date back to which century?
    • A. 

      3rd BCE

    • B. 

      2nd BCE

    • C. 

      1st BCE

    • D. 

      1st CE

    • E. 

      2nd CE

  • 74. 
    Fill in the blank: The ________ Codex is dated ca. 1000 CE and is reproduced in the BHS (Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia).
  • 75. 
    Fill in the blank: The __________ Codex is the oldest Hebrew codex extant, but portions of it were lost to a fire during anti-Jewish riots in 1947 (the same year the DSS were discovered).
  • 76. 
    Fill in the blank: The LXX of Jeremiah is about _____ shorter than the MT (Masoretic Text). (Format your answer like this: #/# if you want it to be counted as correct.)
  • 77. 
    In contrast to Qumran, after the 2nd century CE, what do we see reflected in the textual traditions?
    • A. 

      Pluriformity

    • B. 

      Monoformity

    • C. 

      Heteroformity

  • 78. 
    Who wrote the important book in textual criticism called The Text of the Old Testament?
    • A. 

      Frank Moore Cross

    • B. 

      Julius Wellhausen

    • C. 

      Immanuel Tov

    • D. 

      Ernst Würtwein

    • E. 

      G. Ernest Wright

  • 79. 
    In which text-critical problem text do the LXX and DSS agree against the MT?
    • A. 

      1 Sam. 6:19

    • B. 

      1 Sam 13:1

    • C. 

      1 Sam 17:4

  • 80. 
    In which text-critical problem text are all three MSS obviously corrupted?
    • A. 

      1 Sam. 6:19

    • B. 

      1 Sam 13:1

    • C. 

      1 Sam 17:4

  • 81. 
    Over which text-critical problem text do the MT, LXX, KJV and NIV all disagree?
    • A. 

      1 Sam. 6:19

    • B. 

      1 Sam 13:1

    • C. 

      1 Sam 17:4

  • 82. 
    In the text about the length of Saul's reign, which text says that Saul began reigning when he was 1 and reigned for 2 years?
    • A. 

      MT

    • B. 

      LXX

    • C. 

      KJV

    • D. 

      NIV

    • E. 

      4QSamª

  • 83. 
    In the text about Saul's reign, which text says that Saul reigned for 40 years?
    • A. 

      MT

    • B. 

      LXX

    • C. 

      4QSamª

    • D. 

      KJV

    • E. 

      NIV

  • 84. 
    How many inches make up a cubit?
  • 85. 
    Fill in the blank: 4Q Samª and the LXX both say that Goliath's height was ____ cubits and a span.
  • 86. 
    Fill in the blank: The MT says that Goliath's height was ____ cubits and a span.
  • 87. 
    What is the technical name for the dominant language in a given time over a broad geographic region?
  • 88. 
    What was the "dominant language" in Palestine during the first century CE?
  • 89. 
    In the space below, write each letter that represents the Pentateuch source hypothesis in the order Karl Heinrich Graf said they were written. Write the letters in Graf's order, with no spaces or punctuation between them, and in all caps.
  • 90. 
    Write and correctly spell the name of the source represented by the first letter of Graf's hypothesis.
  • 91. 
    Write and correctly spell the name of the source represented by the second letter of Graf's hypothesis.
  • 92. 
    Write and correctly spell the name of the source represented by the third letter of Graf's hypothesis.
  • 93. 
    Write and correctly spell the name of the source represented by the fourth letter of Graf's hypothesis. (Hint: this one requires two words)
  • 94. 
    What is the first and last name of the scholar who, similarly to Graf, saw multiple sources, but in this case in Akkadian literature?
  • 95. 
    What is the first and last name of the scholar who made Karl Heinrich Graf's hypothesis famous? (Make sure it is spelled correctly.)
  • 96. 
    What were some of the reasons the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch began to be disputed? (Choose all that apply.)
    • A. 

      Moses is spoken of in the third person.

    • B. 

      Moses calls God "Yahweh".

    • C. 

      The narrator makes statements indicating he comes from a later time than Moses.

    • D. 

      The tabernacle was an invention of P.

    • E. 

      Anachronistic geographical appellations.

  • 97. 
    What kinds of things in the text directed scholars to the conclusion that there were multiple authors in the Pentateuch? (Choose all that apply.)
    • A. 

      Archaeological discoveries

    • B. 

      Style differences

    • C. 

      Breaks in logical continuity

    • D. 

      Suspicious level of consistency

    • E. 

      Vocabulary shifts

  • 98. 
    Once more, what kinds of things in the text directed scholars to the conclusion that there were multiple authors in the Pentateuch? (Choose all that apply.)
    • A. 

      Hapax legomena

    • B. 

      Presence of doublets

    • C. 

      Changes in viewpoint

    • D. 

      Inconsistencies

    • E. 

      Umberto Cassuto

  • 99. 
    Who compiled a six-columned document designed for text-critical purposes?
  • 100. 
    What was the name of this document?
  • 101. 
    Of what did the first column consist?
    • A. 

      Greek Translation of the Hebrew Bible

    • B. 

      Aramaic Targum

    • C. 

      Greek Transliteration of the Hebrew Bible

    • D. 

      The Septuagint

    • E. 

      The Hebrew Text

  • 102. 
    Of what did the second column consist?
    • A. 

      Greek Translation of the Hebrew Bible

    • B. 

      Aramaic Targum

    • C. 

      Greek Transliteration of the Hebrew Bible

    • D. 

      The Septuagint

    • E. 

      The Hebrew Text

  • 103. 
    Who translated the third column? (Just the first name, not where s/he is from or what his or her nationality is.)
  • 104. 
    Who translated the fourth column? (Just the first name, not where s/he is from or what his or her nationality is.)
  • 105. 
    What was in the fifth column?
  • 106. 
    Who translated the sixth column? (Just the first name, not where s/he is from or what his or her nationality is.)
  • 107. 
    Was the person who compiled this six-column book ever canonized as a saint?
    • A. 

      Yes

    • B. 

      No

  • 108. 
    In which century (CE) was this six-column book created?
    • A. 

      1st

    • B. 

      2nd

    • C. 

      3rd

    • D. 

      4th

    • E. 

      5th

  • 109. 
    In Saint Jerome's lifetime, what was the predominant text in Palestine?
    • A. 

      3rd Column

    • B. 

      4th Column

    • C. 

      5th Column

    • D. 

      6th Column

    • E. 

      MT

  • 110. 
    In Saint Jerome's lifetime, what was the predominant text in Syria?
    • A. 

      LXX

    • B. 

      MT

    • C. 

      Hesychius's translation

    • D. 

      Lucian's translation

    • E. 

      Textus Receptus

  • 111. 
    In Saint Jerome's lifetime, what was the predominant text in Alexandria?
    • A. 

      LXX

    • B. 

      MT

    • C. 

      Hesychius's translation

    • D. 

      Lucian's translation

    • E. 

      Textus Receptus

  • 112. 
    What is the Latin phrase meaning, "The more difficult reading is to be preferred"? (Get the spelling right.)
  • 113. 
    What is the Latin phrase meaning, "The shorter reading is to be preferred"? (Get the spelling right.)
  • 114. 
    What is the technical term for when a scribe "corrects" a text, or tampers with it for theological reasons? (Know your spelling!)
  • 115. 
    Which passage in the MT begins abruptly with the phrase, "About a month later"? (Include full name of book, not abbreviated, chapter, colon, verse.)
  • 116. 
    In which Dead Sea Scroll was the antecedent paragraph to the "About a month later" verse found? (No spaces, no special characters.)
  • 117. 
    What type of scribal transmission error is this an example of?
  • 118. 
    Deuteronomy 32:8-9 and Judges 18:30 in the MT are examples of what?
    • A. 

      Dittography

    • B. 

      Haplography

    • C. 

      Homoioarchton

    • D. 

      Homoioteleuton

    • E. 

      Tiqqune Sopherim

  • 119. 
    What is the technical term for the reconstructed Hebrew text from which the LXX was translated? Means "lying before."
  • 120. 
    With which text does the LXX's Vorlage ostensibly agree in Deut. 32:8-9?
    • A. 

      MT

    • B. 

      4QDeut

  • 121. 
    In Deut. 32:8-9, what is the word in the MT that is different from 4QDeut?
    • A. 

      El Elyon

    • B. 

      Yahweh

    • C. 

      Elohim

    • D. 

      Israel

    • E. 

      Sons

  • 122. 
    In Deut. 32:8-9, what is the word in 4QDeut that is different from the MT?
    • A. 

      El Elyon

    • B. 

      Yahweh

    • C. 

      Elohim

    • D. 

      Israel

    • E. 

      Sons

  • 123. 
    In Deut. 32:8-9, how is the word at issue rendered in the LXX?
    • A. 

      Gods

    • B. 

      God

    • C. 

      Israel

    • D. 

      Angels

    • E. 

      Most High

  • 124. 
    In Judges 18:30, what is the name of the grandson who crafts an idol?
  • 125. 
    In Judges 18:30, what is the name of the grandson's father?
  • 126. 
    In the MT version of Judges 18:30, who is the grandfather of the idol maker?
  • 127. 
    Who is the REAL grandfather of the idol maker?
  • 128. 
    What is the term for the following scribal error: When the copyist looks to the left or right margin of the page resulting in a copy error.
  • 129. 
    A copyist error in which words, parts of words, or lines are omitted because the transcriber's eye fell to a subsequent and similar ending, whether of a syllable, word, or line.
  • 130. 
    A copyist error in which words, parts of words, or lines are omitted because the transcriber's eye fell to a subsequent and similar beginning, whether of a syllable, word, or line.
  • 131. 
    Fill in the blank: ____________ is the name of an error in which a syllable, word, or line is omitted by accidental oversight because of the identity or similarity of adjacent material.
  • 132. 
    Fill in the blank: ____________ is the technical name for the scribal error in which a letter, word, or line is mistakenly repeated.
  • 133. 
    Which two Hebrew letters are sometimes confused in "the Jewish script" (i.e., the writing style of the Second Temple Period)? (Choose two)
    • A. 

      Gimel

    • B. 

      Nun

    • C. 

      Waw

    • D. 

      Dalet

    • E. 

      Yod

  • 134. 
    Are these letters ever confused in the "Ancient Hebrew Script" (i.e., the writing style up to the time of Nebuchadnezzar)?
    • A. 

      Yes

    • B. 

      No

  • 135. 
    Who was popularized Graf's hypothesis and what was is the name of his magnum opus? (Format answer as follows: Firstname Lastname, Title of Book)
  • 136. 
    From what country was this scholar?
  • 137. 
    Who is considered to be the father of Form Criticism?
  • 138. 
    What is the German phrase for "form criticism"? (one compound word)
  • 139. 
    What was the last name of the two brother scholar/writers to whom the father of form criticism was most indebted?
  • 140. 
    What is the last name of the late actor who played one of these two brothers in an uncharacteristically bad movie by former Monty Python animator Terry Gilliam?
  • 141. 
    What is the English word for the German "gattung"?
  • 142. 
    Wisdom, prophetic oracles, secular lyric, hymns, thanksgivings and eschatological psalms are all examples of which of Gunkel's two main genre categories?
  • 143. 
    Myths, folktales, sagas, romances, legends, and historical narratives are all examples of which of Gunkel's two main genre categories?
  • 144. 
    Gunkel argued that one could determine the form of a text by... (choose only one)
    • A. 

      Its meter

    • B. 

      Its context

    • C. 

      The parameters set by an inclusio

    • D. 

      Its introductory formula

    • E. 

      Sheer luck

  • 145. 
    Fill in the blanks: _________ __________ has as its goal the study of the oldest material. It attempts to make determinations regarding the layers of a text. It wants to find the oldest part of the text, and then attempt to determine how it was changed over time, diachronically.
  • 146. 
    This form of criticism is focuses primarily on short coherent groups of verses, self contained units of scripture suitable for public readings, units called ___________.
  • 147. 
    According to this form of criticism, how would the oldest material inscribed in the text have been originally transmitted?
  • 148. 
    What is the name for the form of criticism that emphasizes the narrative potency of a piece and that is highly aesthetic in nature?
  • 149. 
    What is the name of a noted scholar who is committed to this kind of criticism?
  • 150. 
    What is the name of the type of criticism that is most interested in the final form of the canon?
  • 151. 
    Name one of the two leading proponents of Canonical Criticism.
  • 152. 
    Name the other leading proponent of Canonical Criticism.
  • 153. 
    What is the last name of the scholar who spawned a whole academic pedigree thoroughly indebted and committed to archaeology?
  • 154. 
    What is the name for the type of archaeology that holds a shovel in one hand and a Bible in the other?
  • 155. 
    What is the last name of the most important archaeologist in the first half of the 20th century?
  • 156. 
    What is the last name of the most important archaeologist in the latter half of the 20th century?
  • 157. 
    What is the full name, first and last, of the archaeologist whose archaeological work disproved the historicity of Ai and Jericho accounts in Joshua?
  • 158. 
    Who wrote The History of Israel? (Hint: he studied under Albright)
  • 159. 
    Which type of archaeology works on 5x5 meter squares (10x10 mtr squares in Syria) of a tel at a time?
  • 160. 
    What type of archaeology works on 1x1 or 2x2 meter areas and digs until virgin soil is struck?
  • 161. 
    What type of archaeology walks, drives or flies around, picking up, bagging and tagging potsherds and things along the way?
  • 162. 
    Fill in the blank: The Principle of _____________ says that subsequent levels are superimposed on earlier levels. It’s a principle, not a law, because erosion can reverse it, or an animal den could kick stuff from earlier periods up to later periods.
  • 163. 
    A portable object in the archaeological record that reflects human activity is called an archaeological ___________.
  • 164. 
    Things like seeds, erosion, etc., are called archaeological ______________.
  • 165. 
    Houses are examples of _____________ architecture.
  • 166. 
    An artifact found in its appropriate chronological setting and appropriate place is found in its ____________ ______________.
  • 167. 
    Something taken out of its place and reused for something else, like an inscription later used as a house stone, is found in a _____________ ______________.
  • 168. 
    ____-____ _____________ is used to calibrate Carbon 14 dates.
  • 169. 
    __________________ ____________ is not nearly as precise. Any object that has been fired at a certain level resets the TL clock, and you can test the amount of TL in the object and compare it with the TL in the atmosphere, and get a ballpark within a couple hundred years. If, however, there is a conflagration that can sometimes reset the TL clock (thank you, Barbara).
  • 170. 
    The different depths (plural) of digging are called _______. The singular is called a _______. (Put your answers in the correct order, separated by a comma.)
  • 171. 
    A ___________ is a ruin. A tel will have many different strata, but a ruin will not have many.
  • 172. 
    __________ are little pieces of clay impressed with a seal.
  • 173. 
    The first type of "little piece of clay impressed with a seal" is called a __________, and it was worn around people's necks.
  • 174. 
    The second type of "little piece of clay impressed with a seal" is called __________, and it involved rolling clay around a seal.
  • 175. 
    _____________ are pieces of broken pottery upon which an ink inscription is written. ONLY on pottery. On a jar, it’s a jar inscription.
  • 176. 
    Nations in Syria/Palestine are sometimes also called __________ states.
  • 177. 
    A main character from a Canaanite epic is mentioned alongside Noah and Job in which biblical text?
    • A. 

      Daniel 14:14

    • B. 

      Jeremiah 14:14

    • C. 

      Proverbs 14:14

    • D. 

      Ezekiel 14:14

    • E. 

      Isaiah 14:14

  • 178. 
    Name the three major Ugaritic myths in English alphabetical order, separated by commas. Only write the name of the main character, do not write "epic" or "cycle," or the like. Your should be formatted: Name, Name, Name (Don't forget to alphabetize!)
  • 179. 
    What is the name of the Aqhat's father in the Aqhat epic?
  • 180. 
    To whom does Danel pray for a son?
  • 181. 
    Who ultimately grants a son to Danel?
  • 182. 
    What is the name of the craftsman god who makes a hunting bow for Danel?
  • 183. 
    Where does this craftsman god normally live?
  • 184. 
    To whom does Danel give the hunting bow?
  • 185. 
    In one word, describe Danel's status in Ugarit, i.e., what his title is.
  • 186. 
    What is the name of the god/dess who tries to get Aqhat to surrender his hunting bow?
  • 187. 
    In one word, what does this god/dess offer Aqhat in return for the hunting bow?
  • 188. 
    How does Aqhat respond to this god/dess?
    • A. 

      With kindness

    • B. 

      By surrendering the bow

    • C. 

      With more questions

    • D. 

      With insults

    • E. 

      Aqhat offers no response

  • 189. 
    In response to Aqhat, Anat makes her servant kill Aqhat by striking him on the skull. What is this servant's name?
  • 190. 
    In one word, what form does this servant take when he kills Aqhat?
  • 191. 
    Mourning his son's death, Danel places a curse on nature which lasts how many years?
  • 192. 
    From what Danel says in the curse, which god in Ugarit was considered to be the god of terrestrial fertility?
  • 193. 
    What is the name of Aqhat's sister who seeks to avenge her brother against Yatpan?
  • 194. 
    What was the sister's strategy for killing Yatpan?
    • A. 

      Sexual temptation

    • B. 

      Hide and wait for him to return home

    • C. 

      Challenge him to mortal combat

    • D. 

      Get him drunk

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 195. 
    In the Kirta epic, which god appears to Kirta whose instructions initiate the action of the story?
  • 196. 
    This god tells Kirta to find something. What does he tell him to find?
  • 197. 
    Where does the god send Kirta to find this thing?
  • 198. 
    In one word, what strategy does Kirta use to obtain a wife?
  • 199. 
    What is the name of the woman Kirta wants for a wife?
  • 200. 
    What is the name of her father?
  • 201. 
    On the way to Udm to obtain Hurriya, Kirta stops at a shrine and promises that if he is successful in obtaining a wife and prolonging his dynasty, he will give an offering to whom?
  • 202. 
    Does Kirta get a wife and have sons?
    • A. 

      Yes

    • B. 

      No

  • 203. 
    Does Kirta make good on his promise of an offering to Asherah?
    • A. 

      Yes

    • B. 

      No

  • 204. 
    What happens to Kirta as a result of his having neglected his promise to Asherah?
    • A. 

      Asherah strikes him with a sickness.

    • B. 

      Asherah asks permission to kill him but is denied permission.

    • C. 

      Asherah kills him.

    • D. 

      Nothing. He repents and she forgives him.

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 205. 
    Which god decides to heal Kirta of his sickness?
  • 206. 
    What is the name of the healing god El sends who is able to break Kirta's fever?
  • 207. 
    What is the name of Kirta's son who attempts to usurp the throne while Kirta is sick?
  • 208. 
    Of which biblical son does Kirta's son remind us?
  • 209. 
    In the Baal epic, who is the head of the pantheon at the beginning?
  • 210. 
    Who is the wife/consort of the head of the pantheon?
  • 211. 
    What is the name of Baal's sister?
  • 212. 
    Who is the third goddess in the Baal epic who does not play a very large role?
  • 213. 
    What is Astarte's name in the Babylonian myths?
  • 214. 
    What is Astarte's name in the Sumerian myths?
  • 215. 
    Who does Baal slay at the start of the Baal Epic?
  • 216. 
    The god whom Baal slays is the god of the what?
  • 217. 
    Baal kills slays this god with two clubs. Who fashioned these clubs?
  • 218. 
    What is the Ugaritic name for the goddess who proclaims Baal's victory over Yamm?
  • 219. 
    In the same myth, what is the other name given for Yamm?
  • 220. 
    What is the name of Yamm's counterpart in the Hebrew Bible?
  • 221. 
    After Baal's victory over Yamm, Anat and Baal make a palace for Baal, who has now ascended as king of the gods. Which god encourages Baal to put a window in the palace?
  • 222. 
    After Baal reluctantly puts a window in his palace, who uses that window to sneak in and kill him? (Hint: the name in English is Death.)
  • 223. 
    What is the name of Asherah's son who attempts to sit on Baal's throne after his death, but whose feet do not reach the footstool?
  • 224. 
    Who kills Death to avenge Baal?
  • 225. 
    After Death is killed, Baal returns to life, and goes right back into a struggle with Mot, who presumably has also returned to life. What does this cycle of death and return to life represent?
    • A. 

      The rise of the monarchy in Ugarit

    • B. 

      The rise and fall of kings

    • C. 

      The Ugaritic belief in the afterlife

    • D. 

      The cycle of the annual seasons

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 226. 
    What is the name of the Old Babylonian Flood Myth?
  • 227. 
    In this myth, who was the god of the sky?
  • 228. 
    Who was the god of the earth?
  • 229. 
    Who was the god of the waters below the earth?
  • 230. 
    What was the name of proletariat (labor) class of gods?
  • 231. 
    What is the name of the mother-goddess?
  • 232. 
    Besides Nintu, the mother-goddess, which other god helped to create humanity out of the blood of one of the proletariat gods?
  • 233. 
    Which god most wanted to kill off the human race?
  • 234. 
    Which god regularly gave advice to Atrahasis to thwart Enlil's plans?
  • 235. 
    How long did the deluge last, how many days and nights? (Write the number only once)
  • 236. 
    According to Collins, what two main characteristics distinguish the Mesopotamian gods from modern conceptions of God? (choose the correct two)
    • A. 

      Their sociality

    • B. 

      Their ineffability

    • C. 

      Their logic

    • D. 

      Their anthropomorphic qualities

    • E. 

      Their willingness to intervene in human affairs

  • 237. 
    Where does the Enuma Elish myth take place?
  • 238. 
    Who is the god whose rise to supremacy is the principal subject of the Enuma Elish myth?
  • 239. 
    In Enuma Elish, who is the father of all the gods?
  • 240. 
    In Enuma Elish, who is the mother of all the gods?
  • 241. 
    When Apsu was plotting to kill the gods of his creation (because they were noisy and he couldn't sleep) which of the younger gods learned of Apsu's plot and killed Apsu in his sleep?
  • 242. 
    After taking Apsu's place, which two gods to Ea beget? (separate with a comma)
  • 243. 
    Who was Marduk's grandfather?
  • 244. 
    When she was royally peeved at Marduk for being noisy, who did Tiamat make general of her army?
  • 245. 
    Which two gods tried to stop Tiamat from starting a war among the gods? (Separate with a comma)
  • 246. 
    To whom did these two gods turn when Tiamat would not listen?
  • 247. 
    Marduk devises a plan to make humanity to do the labor of the gods. Humanity is subsequently made out of the blood of _______.
  • 248. 
    Which god actually is responsible for making humanity out of the blood?
  • 249. 
    After all of this, Marduk issues the order to create Babylon, and then upon its completion invites everyone to a feast at which he is lauded with praise as the supreme ruler of gods and humanity. What does Collins suggest this myth reflects in the real world? (Choose the two correct answers.)
    • A. 

      The cycle of seasons

    • B. 

      The rise of the monarchy in Babylon

    • C. 

      The rise and fall of kings

    • D. 

      The necessity of consolidated power in a violent world

    • E. 

      The rise of Emperor Palpatine

  • 250. 
    Where did the historical Gilgamesh actually live?
  • 251. 
    Who/What did Gilgamesh send to Enkidu to bring him into civilization?
  • 252. 
    After Enkidu has been taught the ways of humans, he and Gilgamesh go out to the forest and kill a giant by the name of ____________.
  • 253. 
    Upon their return from killing the giant, Gilgamesh is so attractive that a goddess falls in love with him and proposes marriage. What is the name of this goddess?
  • 254. 
    Gilgamesh insults this goddess by calling her bad luck for men, and so she appeals to the god of heaven to punish Gilgamesh. Who is the god of heaven?
  • 255. 
    What does the insulted goddess persuade the god of heaven to send to Gilgamesh to punish him? (three words, no articles)
  • 256. 
    Who subdues the Bull of Heaven?
  • 257. 
    Who kills the Bull of Heaven?
  • 258. 
    The gods are displeased that Enkidu and Gilgamesh have killed the bull of heaven, and so they decree that one of them must die. Upon whom does the death sentence fall?
  • 259. 
    Enkidu complains to the sun god. What is the name of the sun god?
  • 260. 
    Which of the gods is primarily responsible for Enkidu's death?
  • 261. 
    Which of the gods opposes Enkidu's death sentence?
  • 262. 
    Upon Enkidu's death, Gilgamesh determines to learn the secret of immortality. Gilgamesh decides to seek out the only immortal he knows, the flood hero. What is this hero's name?
  • 263. 
    What is the name of the alewife/innkeeper who warns Gilgamesh against notions of immortality and tells him to eat, drink, and be merry, since death is inevitable?
  • 264. 
    What is the name of the boatman of the great flood hero?
  • 265. 
    Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh that at the bottom of the sea there is a ______ that will give him youth.
  • 266. 
    What is the main theme of the Gilgamesh epic?
  • 267. 
    According to Collins, what striking theme is absent from the Gilgamesh epic?
  • 268. 
    What is the name of the Bedu who discovered the Dead Sea Scrolls?
  • 269. 
    What is the name of the man who wrote the true story behind the discovery of the DSS?
  • 270. 
    About what specific genre of historical narrative did Kyle McCarter write extensively?
  • 271. 
    Bill Baker is the Editor of which scholarly journal? (abbreviate or spell it out)
  • 272. 
    Who wrote a two volume book called The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English, which included a translation of the "Letter of Aristeas"
  • 273. 
    Who argued that it was anachronistic to see the so-called "council of Jamnia" in the vein of the later Christian ecumenical councils like Nicaea and Chalcedon?
  • 274. 
    Name the famous philosopher who was one of the very first to argue that Moses could not have authored the Pentateuch, long before the time of Graf and Wellhausen. (Hint: the book in which this argument can be found is called A Theologico-Political Treatise.)
  • 275. 
    Who wrote Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism?
  • 276. 
    Who is the father of modern archaeology?
  • 277. 
    Which particular Babylonian king was responsible for the destruction of the first temple?
  • 278. 
    Name the biblical prophetess during the period of Moses.
  • 279. 
    Name the biblical prophetess, judge and military leader during the time of the judges.
  • 280. 
    What is the name of the Ammonite king who b esieged Jabesh-Gilead and foolishly allowed the Israelites seven days to call for help.
  • 281. 
    Who called her husband "Nabal" and won a king's heart?
  • 282. 
    How does Rollston think "Nabal" died?
    • A. 

      By the grace of God.

    • B. 

      From natural causes.

    • C. 

      A violent accident.

    • D. 

      David had him murdered in his sleep.

    • E. 

      Rollston is agnostic about it.

  • 283. 
    What does "Nabal" mean?
  • 284. 
    Who wrote in the prologue of his grandfather’s book (ca. 130 BCE) the “Law, Prophets, and other writings,” denoting a tripartite canon.
  • 285. 
    Technical word for a collection of like books.
  • 286. 
    Name of the collection of books that includes Tobit, I and II Maccabees , Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, Ben Sira (a.k.a. Sirach, a.k.a. Eccliesiasticus), Baruch, Wisdom of Solomon, Judith, I and II Esdras. (Two options, one for Matthew Worsfold and Amber Lee Peace, the other for everyone else.)
  • 287. 
    Name of the collection of books that includes Jubilees, Enoch, III and IV Maccabees, Testament of the Patriachs.
  • 288. 
    Name of the Syriac translation of the Hebrew Bible.
  • 289. 
    Name of Jerome's Latin translation of the Bible. Means "popular."
  • 290. 
    Technical term for a word used only once in the Bible...
  • 291. 
    What two books were not found among the DSS? (Separate with comma)
  • 292. 
    How many caves at Qumran had scrolls in them?
  • 293. 
    What is the name of the inscription which evinces the fact that most ancient kings believed they were divinely appointed?
  • 294. 
    The study of the use of language.
  • 295. 
    Name the two codices (written ca. 4th century), which prior to the discovery of the DSS, the earliest extant versions of the HB and NT. Both codices were written in Greek. (Separate with comma)
  • 296. 
    Name for the study of beginnings (“of the old”).
  • 297. 
    A man-made hill where civilization/s once existed.
  • 298. 
    The study of strata.
  • 299. 
    Name for the wall of an excavation site. Good excavators will have very clean-cut and well defined ones. (Answer in the singular.)
  • 300. 
    The number of examples you have. The larger the sample size, the more reliable the results.
  • 301. 
    The study of the development of handwriting. Used in dating inscriptions.
  • 302. 
    Osiris was the husband of whom?
  • 303. 
    Who was Osiris's brother?
  • 304. 
    Who was the son of Osiris and Isis?
  • 305. 
    In what did Set put Osiris before sending him downriver? A _______ (what)?
  • 306. 
    Who defeated Set to avenge Osiris?
  • 307. 
    JBL stands for:
  • 308. 
    NEA stands for:
  • 309. 
    BASOR stands for:
  • 310. 
    A journal focusing on Northwest Semitic Languages and Literatures
  • 311. 
    IEJ stands for:
  • 312. 
    RB stands for:
  • 313. 
    JSOT stands for:
  • 314. 
    HTR stands for:
  • 315. 
    What chapter in Genesis contains some Aramaic?
  • 316. 
    What chapter in Jeremiah was written in Aramaic?
  • 317. 
    Which chapters in Daniel contain Aramaic? (Choose only one.)
    • A. 

      1-6

    • B. 

      2-7

    • C. 

      3-8

    • D. 

      4-9

    • E. 

      5-10

  • 318. 
    Where were the Ugaritic texts discovered?
  • 319. 
    In addition to mentioning Satan, what do these three books have in common?
    • A. 

      Pre-monarchical date

    • B. 

      1st temple date

    • C. 

      Exilic date

    • D. 

      2nd temple date

    • E. 

      Theology of evil

  • 320. 
    Who tells David to take the census in 2 Samuel 24?
  • 321. 
    Who tells David to take the census in 1 Chronicles 21?
  • 322. 
    Who killed Goliath? (Select all that apply)
    • A. 

      David

    • B. 

      Joab

    • C. 

      Joash

    • D. 

      Elhanan

    • E. 

      Uriah