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Psychology AS Level

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  • 1. 
    Milgram's Agency Theory Milgram's theory suggests that we have two states: The ______ state; we act for others and surrender our free will The ______ state; we act of our own free will are aware/ responsible of the consequences Evaluation: STRENGTHS lots of ______ to support the theory; Milgram, Hofling, _____ & Raajmakers explains why people in the ______ treat others inhumanely WEAKNESSES ignores personal reasons, such as _______ - certain people may be more obedient

  • 2. 
    Study of Obedience to Malevolent Authority (Milgram, 1963) ___ male volunteers, volunteer sampling method Aim: to find out how many naive participants would administer increasingly intense ______ _____ to an innocent victim by an authority figure Findings: 100% giving at least ___V __% giving max. shock 450V Conclusion: the social relationship with an ______ figure was very powerful and people do something they were uncomfortable with Evaluation: STRENGTHS helps us better understand ______ treatment of others by organisations like the military  easy to replicate because standardised procedures were used; highly ______ rich _____; quantitative and __________ WEAKNESSES lacked ______ validity; nothing like real-life and was taken place in a ______ ________; no informed consent and protection from _____, no effective right to withdraw and deception unrepresentative; gender ____ and volunteer sampling method used Milgram Variation; proximity: Presence of confederate and authority figure results in more guilt and greater ________ of suffering. Obedience drops; ___% giving max. shock 450V

  • 3. 
    Study of Obedience in Nurses (Hofling, 1966) 22 female nurses, opportunity sampling method Aim: to investigate aspects of the nurse-_______ relationship, specifically what happens when a nurse is ordered to carry out a procedure which goes against her professional standards Findings:  Experimental group; ___ of 22 nurses gave the overdose, they complied ______ group; 31 of the ___ said they wouldn't give the overdose Conclusion: nurses will knowingly break hospital rules in a situation where a doctor tells them to, even if it could endanger a patient's ____ Evaluation: STRENGTHS high ______ validity because the nurses were unaware naivety of nurses meant there were no ______ characteristics WEAKNESSES unethical; no informed _____, no _______ from harm, no right to _______ sample was unrepresentative because it was _____ bias

  • 4. 
    Delivering Insults in a Job Interview (Meeus & ________, 1985) 24 male & female participants, _____ sampling method Aim: to test ________ where harm would be done in a more 'up to date' way Findings:  _________ condition; ___% of participants delivered all 15 insults Control condition; no insults given Conclusion: a high percentage of people will inflict ________ harm on others when instructed Evaluation: STRENGTHS sample is _________ because both men and women were involved good use of _____ situation WEAKNESSES unethical; deception, they told participants it was a study about levels of _____ task is not typical of real-life; poor ecological ______ paid _______ may be more willing to obey than other members of the public

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