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Psychology AS Level

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1.  Milgram's Agency Theory Milgram's theory suggests that we have two states: The ______ state; we act for others and surrender our free will The ______ state; we act of our own free will are aware/ responsible of the consequences Evaluation: STRENGTHS
  • lots of ______ to support the theory; Milgram, Hofling, _____ & Raajmakers
  • explains why people in the ______ treat others inhumanely
  • ignores personal reasons, such as _______ - certain people may be more obedient
2.  Study of Obedience to Malevolent Authority (Milgram, 1963) ___ male volunteers, volunteer sampling method Aim: to find out how many naive participants would administer increasingly intense ______ _____ to an innocent victim by an authority figure Findings:
  • 100% giving at least ___V
  • __% giving max. shock 450V
Conclusion: the social relationship with an ______ figure was very powerful and people do something they were uncomfortable with Evaluation: STRENGTHS
  • helps us better understand ______ treatment of others by organisations like the military 
  • easy to replicate because standardised procedures were used; highly ______
  • rich _____; quantitative and __________
  • lacked ______ validity; nothing like real-life and was taken place in a ______
  • ________; no informed consent and protection from _____, no effective right to withdraw and deception
  • unrepresentative; gender ____ and volunteer sampling method used
Milgram Variation; proximity: Presence of confederate and authority figure results in more guilt and greater ________ of suffering. Obedience drops; ___% giving max. shock 450V
3.  Study of Obedience in Nurses (Hofling, 1966) 22 female nurses, opportunity sampling method Aim: to investigate aspects of the nurse-_______ relationship, specifically what happens when a nurse is ordered to carry out a procedure which goes against her professional standards Findings
  • Experimental group; ___ of 22 nurses gave the overdose, they complied
  • ______ group; 31 of the ___ said they wouldn't give the overdose
Conclusion: nurses will knowingly break hospital rules in a situation where a doctor tells them to, even if it could endanger a patient's ____ Evaluation: STRENGTHS
  • high ______ validity because the nurses were unaware
  • naivety of nurses meant there were no ______ characteristics
  • unethical; no informed _____, no _______ from harm, no right to _______
  • sample was unrepresentative because it was _____ bias
4.  Delivering Insults in a Job Interview (Meeus & ________, 1985) 24 male & female participants, _____ sampling method Aim: to test ________ where harm would be done in a more 'up to date' way Findings
  • _________ condition; ___% of participants delivered all 15 insults
  • Control condition; no insults given
Conclusion: a high percentage of people will inflict ________ harm on others when instructed Evaluation: STRENGTHS
  • sample is _________ because both men and women were involved
  • good use of _____ situation
  • unethical; deception, they told participants it was a study about levels of _____
  • task is not typical of real-life; poor ecological ______
  • paid _______ may be more willing to obey than other members of the public
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