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Nursing Research 1

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Nursing Research 1

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    In your OWN WORDS, describe the reasons why nurses do research.
  • 2. 
    In your OWN WORDS, describe the reasons why nurses do research.
  • 3. 
    Which of the following responses best describes the relational statement that is diagrammed below?  Pain perception <------- (+) --------> Anxiety
    • A. 

      Increased perception of pain causes anxiety.

    • B. 

      Anxiety causes increased pain perception.

    • C. 

      Pain perception and anxiety are positively related to one another

    • D. 

      Pain perception and anxiety are inversely related.

  • 4. 
    Which relationship diagram below best represents the following hypothesis? "Conventional gauze dressings cause fewer skin changes in wound sites than do hydrocolloid or hydroactive dressings."
    • A. 

      Gauze dressing ----------> skin changes

    • B. 

      Type of dressing ---------> skin changes

    • C. 

      Type of dressing <---------> wound site

    • D. 

      Gauze dressing <--------- wound site

  • 5. 
    Conceptual definitions are important because: 
    • A. 

      The meanings of terms may differ depending on the study framework.

    • B. 

      They tell others how the concept will be measured in the study.

    • C. 

      they provide a dictionary definition that can be understood by everyone

    • D. 

      They suggest how to precisely measure the variables of interest

  • 6. 
    In the research report, a theoretical statement:
    • A. 

      Will always be clearly identified

    • B. 

      Should only be discussed in the framework section

    • C. 

      May be implied

    • D. 

      Can be omitted if variables are not yet well defined

  • 7. 
    Which of the following represents the most concrete term?
    • A. 

      Variable

    • B. 

      Concept

    • C. 

      Framework

    • D. 

      Construct

  • 8. 
    The framework and conceptual map for a study: 
    • A. 

      Are always included in the study report.

    • B. 

      are usually clearly identified in the report.

    • C. 

      Often must be inferred by the reader from the text of the report.

    • D. 

      Should be referred to only at the end of the study.

  • 9. 
    Which of the following is true about the relationship between a study framework and the hypotheses?
    • A. 

      The framework and hypotheses must be congruent with each other.

    • B. 

      The hypotheses are not meant to be testable, but the framework is.

    • C. 

      If the hypotheses are stated, the researcher does not need to have a framework.

    • D. 

      Hypotheses are inductively identified within the stated framework.

  • 10. 
    Which of the following is true about theoretical frameworks used in research?
    • A. 

      Theories offer precise guidance in all situations.

    • B. 

      Theories prove how concepts are related to one another.

    • C. 

      Theories represent ultimate truth and are congruent with reality.

    • D. 

      Theories are constructed by people and are tentative in nature.

  • 11. 
    "Abstract" is defined in research as:
    • A. 

      Particular and realistic

    • B. 

      Not well-defined and general

    • C. 

      Well-defined and precise

    • D. 

      Concrete and specific

  • 12. 
    A crucial resource for researchers conducting a literature review would be:
    • A. 

      A secondary source.

    • B. 

      An academic library.

    • C. 

      Lay literature

    • D. 

      A research mentor

  • 13. 
    Which numbers are even
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      6

    • E. 

      7

  • 14. 
    Which of the following indexes would provide the largest number of relevant nursing sources?
    • A. 

      International Nursing Index

    • B. 

      Nursing Studies Index

    • C. 

      Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature

    • D. 

      Index Medicus

  • 15. 
    A critical aspect of beginning a database search for relevant literature on a topic of interest involves identifying:
    • A. 

      Reference management software

    • B. 

      Electronic journals

    • C. 

      Keywords

    • D. 

      Existing knowledge

  • 16. 
    In the following APA formatted reference, what does the 21 refer to?  Harris, R. M., Bausell, R. B., Scott, D. E., Hetherington, S. E., & Kavanagh, K. H. (1998). An intervention for changing high-risk HIV behaviors of African American drug-dependent women. Research in Nursing and Health, 21(3), pp. 239-250.
    • A. 

      Volume number

    • B. 

      Issue number

    • C. 

      Chapter number

    • D. 

      Bibliographic reference

  • 17. 
    What is the arrow pointing to?
    • A. 

      Aorta

    • B. 

      Scalene muscles

    • C. 

      Diaphraghm

    • D. 

      Left lung

  • 18. 
    Which of the following represents a primary source?
    • A. 

      The results of a computer search related to the primary topic of interest

    • B. 

      A report of a study written by the researcher who did the study

    • C. 

      A published summary of the relevant research in a primary care area

    • D. 

      A thesaurus that identifies key words to use in a computer search

  • 19. 
    At what point is the literature review conducted in a qualitative investigation?
    • A. 

      Prior to study implementation

    • B. 

      During study implementation

    • C. 

      After study completion

    • D. 

      Depends on the type of study

  • 20. 
    Which of the following types of information is consistently covered in a quantitative literature review? 
    • A. 

      Descriptions of effective clinical outcomes

    • B. 

      Anecdotal opinions of expert researchers

    • C. 

      Approaches used to investigate similar problems

    • D. 

      Clinical impressions of related phenomena

  • 21. 
    The primary purpose for reviewing relevant literature is to:
    • A. 

      Select the research design.

    • B. 

      Delineate the existing knowledge base of an identified problem

    • C. 

      interpret previous research findings

    • D. 

      develop conceptual and operational definitions of variables

  • 22. 
    In which section of the research report might the problem statement be located?
    • A. 

      Literature review

    • B. 

      Methods

    • C. 

      Results

    • D. 

      Implications

  • 23. 
    The literature review section of a research report might include a summary of which of the following?
    • A. 

      Empirical literature

    • B. 

      Funding sources

    • C. 

      Proposed methods and design

    • D. 

      Description of study sample

  • 24. 
    One advantage of an integrative review of research is that: 
    • A. 

      previous research findings have been synthesized.

    • B. 

      Multidisciplinary literature has been filtered out.

    • C. 

      Emphasis is placed on what is not known.

    • D. 

      Statistical analyses of the summarized research are conducted.

  • 25. 
    A study framework reflects the:
    • A. 

      Blueprint for the study

    • B. 

      Specific plan for data collection

    • C. 

      Data analysis strategy

    • D. 

      researcher's "theory" or idea about the study

  • 26. 
    A researcher theorizes that walking three times per week will minimize the likelihood of premature labor in at-risk pregnant women. The researcher initiates a research program to test this theory. This research study is attempting to validate what aspect of theory?
    • A. 

      Development

    • B. 

      Explanation

    • C. 

      Prediction

    • D. 

      Strategies for controlling outcomes

  • 27. 
    Hypotheses:  "Structured preoperative support is more effective in reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for analgesics than structured postoperative support."  This hypothesis is
    • A. 

      Simple, directional, research

    • B. 

      Complex, nondirectional, null

    • C. 

      Complex, directional, research

    • D. 

      Simple, nondirectional, statistical

  • 28. 
    The statement below is an example of which of the following?   "In this study, pain is reflected as a score between 0 and 10 on the Post-operative Pain Rating Scale."
    • A. 

      Problem statement

    • B. 

      Conceptual definition

    • C. 

      Associative hypothesis

    • D. 

      Operational definition

  • 29. 
    Hypotheses:  "Structured preoperative support is more effective in reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for analgesics than structured postoperative support."  Question: "Type of support" is
    • A. 

      Independent variable.

    • B. 

      Dependent variable

    • C. 

      Attribute variable

    • D. 

      Extraneous variable

  • 30. 
    Hypotheses:  "Structured preoperative support is more effective in reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for analgesics than structured postoperative support."  Question: "Perception of pain" is the:
    • A. 

      Independent variable.

    • B. 

      Dependent variable.

    • C. 

      Attribute variable.

    • D. 

      Extraneous variable

  • 31. 
    Hypotheses:  "Structured preoperative support is more effective in reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for analgesics than structured postoperative support."  Question: "Request for analgesics" is the:
    • A. 

      Independent variable.

    • B. 

      Dependent variable.

    • C. 

      Attribute variable

    • D. 

      Extraneous variable

  • 32. 
    The dependent variable is:
    • A. 

      A stimulus or activity that is varied by the researcher.

    • B. 

      The quality, property, or characteristic identified in the problem

    • C. 

      A characteristic or element of the human subjects involved in the study

    • D. 

      The response or outcome that the researcher wants to understand

  • 33. 
    Identify the independent variable in the following hypothesis: "Cancer patients who receive music therapy complain less frequently of pain and require less pain medication than cancer patients not receiving music therapy." 
    • A. 

      Relaxation therapy

    • B. 

      Complaints of pain

    • C. 

      Pain medication use

    • D. 

      Music therapy

  • 34. 
    What type of hypothesis is the following?  "Low-fat diet is related to lower total cholesterol and higher HDL (high-density lipoprotein)." 
    • A. 

      Complex, directional, causal

    • B. 

      Complex, directional, associative

    • C. 

      Simple, nondirectional, research

    • D. 

      Simple, directional, causal

  • 35. 
    A research hypothesis:
    • A. 

      Predicts the expected results or outcomes of the study

    • B. 

      Defines the theoretical framework for the study

    • C. 

      Identifies the source of the problem under study

    • D. 

      Clarifies the concepts used in the study

  • 36. 
    The statement "This study explores the experience of caregiving by adult daughters of parents with Alzheimer disease" is an example of which of the following?
    • A. 

      Objective

    • B. 

      Question

    • C. 

      Simple hypothesis

    • D. 

      Complex hypothesis

  • 37. 
    What type of hypothesis is the following? "Normal saline flush with heparin is more effective than normal saline flush alone in maintaining patency of an intermittent intravenous site."
    • A. 

      Simple, research

    • B. 

      Complex, nondirectional

    • C. 

      Complex, causal

    • D. 

      Simple, directional

  • 38. 
    What type of hypothesis is the following? "Cancer patients who receive music therapy complain less frequently of pain and require less pain medication than cancer patients not receiving music therapy." 
    • A. 

      Complex, directional hypothesis

    • B. 

      Simple, associative hypothesis

    • C. 

      Simple, nondirectional hypothesis

    • D. 

      Complex, null hypothesis

  • 39. 
    Feasibility is determined by examining which of the following? 
    • A. 

      Researcher's credibility

    • B. 

      Significance of research problem

    • C. 

      Availability of subjects

    • D. 

      Previous studies

  • 40. 
    In a research proposal, the investigator notes that written permission has been obtained from three local hospitals to access patients for the proposed study. This is an example of what aspect of a study?
    • A. 

      Reliability

    • B. 

      Methodology

    • C. 

      Ethics

    • D. 

      Feasibility

  • 41. 
    The purpose statement should identify the study variable(s) and what other key aspect of the study?
    • A. 

      Design

    • B. 

      Measurement tools

    • C. 

      Population

    • D. 

      Statistics

  • 42. 
    One important source for identification of a research problem would be:
    • A. 

      Nursing practice

    • B. 

      Research textbook

    • C. 

      Nursing code of ethics

    • D. 

      Practice guidelines

  • 43. 
    The initial and one of the most significant steps in conducting the research process is:
    • A. 

      Defining the research variables.

    • B. 

      identifying the research problem.

    • C. 

      Stating the research purpose.

    • D. 

      Determining the feasibility of the study.

  • 44. 
    In the literature report of a study on quality of life, the researcher describes two previous investigations suggesting that spirituality is related to quality of life. This information suggests the current study is significant because it:
    • A. 

      Influences theology.

    • B. 

      builds on previous research.

    • C. 

      Challenges existing theory.

    • D. 

      Addresses multidisciplinary concerns.

  • 45. 
    A researcher investigates the effect of frequency of position change on healing of decubitus ulcers. The study would be described as:
    • A. 

      applied research

    • B. 

      Basic research

    • C. 

      Descriptive research

    • D. 

      Phenomenological research

  • 46. 
    Applied research seeks to solve a clinical problem in which setting?  
    • A. 

      Controlled

    • B. 

      Laboratory

    • C. 

      Natural

    • D. 

      Simulated

  • 47. 
    A researcher designs a study that uses a random sampling method to decrease the likelihood of bias in the study sample. This strategy was used to implement:
    • A. 

      Manipulation

    • B. 

      Control

    • C. 

      Data collection

    • D. 

      Experimental research

  • 48. 
    Which of the following definitions best describes rigor in quantitative research?
    • A. 

      Time frame in which the research takes place

    • B. 

      Degree of aggressiveness used in acquiring the data

    • C. 

      Amount of control and precision exerted by the methodology

    • D. 

      Process used to synthesize findings to form conclusions from a study

  • 49. 
    A researcher is interested in studying stress and coping in caregivers of elderly stroke victims. The researcher designs a study where data collection takes place in the caregiver's home. This would be an example of which type of research setting?
    • A. 

      Natural, field

    • B. 

      Highly controlled, field

    • C. 

      Partially controlled, laboratory

    • D. 

      Highly controlled, laboratory

  • 50. 
    Problem identification in the research process would be equivalent to which step in the nursing process?
    • A. 

      Goal identification

    • B. 

      Data interpretation

    • C. 

      Identifying solutions

    • D. 

      Nursing diagnosis

  • 51. 
    The plan in the problem-solving process is equivalent to which step in the research process?
    • A. 

      Outcomes

    • B. 

      Design

    • C. 

      Implementation

    • D. 

      Goal identification

  • 52. 
    The research process differs from the nursing process on which of the following?
    • A. 

      Identifies new information

    • B. 

      Involves abstract, critical thinking

    • C. 

      Has a broader focus

    • D. 

      Utilizes complex thinking

  • 53. 
    Which of the following would identify the specific aim or goal of the study based on the identified problem?
    • A. 

      Purpose

    • B. 

      Literature review

    • C. 

      Methodology

    • D. 

      Assumptions

  • 54. 
    Research subjects in a study of quality of life (QOL) in liver transplant recipients were asked to complete a questionnaire about their experiences following transplantation. Which of the following would be a likely assumption the researcher made in relation to this study?
    • A. 

      Subjects will complete every item on the questionnaire.

    • B. 

      Subjects are able to identify a personal awareness of QOL.

    • C. 

      All liver transplant recipients invited to participate in the study will complete a questionnaire

    • D. 

      QOL is an important issue to liver transplant recipients.

  • 55. 
    The sentence "The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between health beliefs and breast self-examination" would most likely be found in which section of a research report?
  • 56. 
    The researcher uses which portion of the research report to capture the reader's attention?
  • 57. 
    In which type of research is there high researcher control, random sampling, and laboratory setting?
    • A. 

      Descriptive

    • B. 

      Correlational

    • C. 

      Quasiexperimental

    • D. 

      Experimental

  • 58. 
    Benner (1984) emphasizes the importance of acquiring clinical knowledge and expertise through:
    • A. 

      Professional experience

    • B. 

      Personal experience

    • C. 

      Academic experience

  • 59. 
    What category of research is suggested by the following research question? "Does telephone follow-up by nurses improve patients' compliance with their medication regimens?"
    • A. 

      Applied research

    • B. 

      Basic research

    • C. 

      Descriptive research

    • D. 

      Phenomenological research

  • 60. 
    Which of the following types of research involve at least some control by the researcher to implement the study treatment?
    • A. 

      Correlational

    • B. 

      Descriptive

    • C. 

      Quasi-experimental

    • D. 

      Experimental

  • 61. 
    Which of the following historical events had a major impact on the funding for nursing research?
    • A. 

      Development of local, national, and international nursing research conferences by Sigma Theta Tau

    • B. 

      Initiation of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research

    • C. 

      Formation of the National Institute for Nursing Research

    • D. 

      Development of a Nursing Research Council as part of the American Nurses Association

  • 62. 
    A nurse who reads research articles and incorporates research findings into nursing practice would demonstrate which of the following research roles?
    • A. 

      Consumer

    • B. 

      Primary investigator

    • C. 

      Collaborator

    • D. 

      Producer

  • 63. 
    Quantitative and qualitative research approaches are particularly useful in nursing because they:
    • A. 

      Are easy to implement.

    • B. 

      Require few resources.

    • C. 

      are both process oriented.

    • D. 

      Balance each other by generating different types of nursing knowledge.

  • 64. 
    An example of inductive reasoning is:
    • A. 

      reasoning from all chronically ill patients to a single chronically ill patient

    • B. 

      Reasoning from a single diabetic patient to all diabetic patients

    • C. 

      Using a standard nursing care plan to care for a specific patient

    • D. 

      Using a computerized nursing care plan to care for insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  • 65. 
    Florence Nightingale is most noted for which of the following contributions to nursing research?
    • A. 

      Case study approach to research

    • B. 

      Data collection and analysis

    • C. 

      Framework and model development

    • D. 

      Quasi-experimental study design

  • 66. 
    Having worked in the emergency word for six months, you are convinced that crisis intervention is one of those services that a nurse can charge a professional fee. This knowledge is based on: (1)
    • A. 

      Scientific method

    • B. 

      Experiences

    • C. 

      Consulting expert

    • D. 

      Trial and error

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 67. 
    Nurse Vilma is interested to conduct a mini research on responsible parenthood. How should Nurse Vilma start the process of research? (6)
    • A. 

      Make a survey in the neighbourhood

    • B. 

      Identify what should be the focus of the study

    • C. 

      Observe family relationships at home

    • D. 

      Watch family interactions in telenovelas and family shows

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 68. 
    Having worked in the emergency word for six months, you are convinced that crisis intervention is one of those services that a nurse can charge a professional fee. This knowledge is based on: (1)
    • A. 

      Scientific method

    • B. 

      Experiences

    • C. 

      Consulting expert

    • D. 

      Trial and error

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 69. 
    Nurse Vilma is interested to conduct a mini research on responsible parenthood. How should Nurse Vilma start the process of research? (6)
    • A. 

      Make a survey in the neighbourhood

    • B. 

      Identify what should be the focus of the study

    • C. 

      Observe family relationships at home

    • D. 

      Watch family interactions in telenovelas and family shows

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 70. 
    13. In a questionnaire Open-Ended questions are :
    • A. 

      A) The question are open to interpetation

    • B. 

      B) Those where long answers are required

    • C. 

      C) The answers may be incomplete

    • D. 

      D) The question are open completely

  • 71. 
    14. In a questionnaire close ended question are those where :
    • A. 

      A) The question and answer are close to each other

    • B. 

      B) The answer are given as option

    • C. 

      C) Short answer are required

    • D. 

      D) The question are clear and distinct

  • 72. 
    19. A big difference between the mean and median is an indication that :
    • A. 

      A) There is a mistake in the calculation

    • B. 

      B) The calculation is correct

    • C. 

      C) There is a wide variation in the data

    • D. 

      D) None of the above

  • 73. 
    20. Systematic sampling is also known as :
    • A. 

      A) Sample sampling

    • B. 

      B) Interval sampling

    • C. 

      C) Cluster sampling

    • D. 

      D) Preplan sampling

  • 74. 
    21. To studying ,panchayat system in country ,the best method of sampling is :
    • A. 

      A) Random sampling

    • B. 

      B) Clustory sampling

    • C. 

      C) Stratified sampling

    • D. 

      D) Multistage sampling

  • 75. 
    22. In Histogram the value of variables are presented in :
    • A. 

      A) Vertical Bars

    • B. 

      B) Horizental

    • C. 

      C) In both Fashion

    • D. 

      D) Line Bar

  • 76. 
    23. How many scale are used for measurement :
    • A. 

      A) Three scale

    • B. 

      B) Five scale

    • C. 

      C) Four Scale

    • D. 

      D) No limit

  • 77. 
    2. Under mean 10-15,15-20,20-25,25-30 is a ............... series
    • A. 

      A)Continuous

    • B. 

      B)Simple

    • C. 

      C) Discrete

    • D. 

      D) None

  • 78. 
    3.Published report is :
    • A. 

      A) Public document

    • B. 

      B) Grey literature

    • C. 

      C)Personal document

    • D. 

      D) None

  • 79. 
    4. When the size of universe increses,then the percentage/ratio of samples ?
    • A. 

      A) Same as previous

    • B. 

      B) Decrease

    • C. 

      C) Increase

    • D. 

      D) Double

  • 80. 
    Tipped method of sampling named on the basis of :
    • A. 

      A) System

    • B. 

      B) Author of the book

    • C. 

      C) System and author of the book

    • D. 

      D) Introducer

  • 81. 
    6. Simple observations is :
    • A. 

      A) Controlled

    • B. 

      B) Un-controlled

    • C. 

      C) Good

    • D. 

      D) Systematic

  • 82. 
    8. In Reserch ,word "C" refers to :
    • A. 

      A) Coding data

    • B. 

      B) Critical observation

    • C. 

      C) Classification

    • D. 

      D) Current

  • 83. 
    9. Role of hypothesis is very important before:
    • A. 

      A) Selection of problem

    • B. 

      B) Data collection

    • C. 

      C) Preparing research report

    • D. 

      D) Drawn Conclusion

  • 84. 
    10. Result of 30 items out of 60 is a .................  Statistics
    • A. 

      A) Inferential

    • B. 

      B) Sampling

    • C. 

      C) Descriptive

    • D. 

      D) Time series

  • 85. 
    13. In a questionnaire Open-Ended questions are :
    • A. 

      A) The question are open to interpetation

    • B. 

      B) Those where long answers are required

    • C. 

      C) The answers may be incomplete

    • D. 

      D) The question are open completely

  • 86. 
    14. In a questionnaire close ended question are those where :
    • A. 

      A) The question and answer are close to each other

    • B. 

      B) The answer are given as option

    • C. 

      C) Short answer are required

    • D. 

      D) The question are clear and distinct

  • 87. 
    19. A big difference between the mean and median is an indication that :
    • A. 

      A) There is a mistake in the calculation

    • B. 

      B) The calculation is correct

    • C. 

      C) There is a wide variation in the data

    • D. 

      D) None of the above

  • 88. 
    20. Systematic sampling is also known as :
    • A. 

      A) Sample sampling

    • B. 

      B) Interval sampling

    • C. 

      C) Cluster sampling

    • D. 

      D) Preplan sampling

  • 89. 
    21. To studying ,panchayat system in country ,the best method of sampling is :
    • A. 

      A) Random sampling

    • B. 

      B) Clustory sampling

    • C. 

      C) Stratified sampling

    • D. 

      D) Multistage sampling

  • 90. 
    22. In Histogram the value of variables are presented in :
    • A. 

      A) Vertical Bars

    • B. 

      B) Horizental

    • C. 

      C) In both Fashion

    • D. 

      D) Line Bar

  • 91. 
    23. How many scale are used for measurement :
    • A. 

      A) Three scale

    • B. 

      B) Five scale

    • C. 

      C) Four Scale

    • D. 

      D) No limit

  • 92. 
    2. Under mean 10-15,15-20,20-25,25-30 is a ............... series
    • A. 

      A)Continuous

    • B. 

      B)Simple

    • C. 

      C) Discrete

    • D. 

      D) None

  • 93. 
    3.Published report is :
    • A. 

      A) Public document

    • B. 

      B) Grey literature

    • C. 

      C)Personal document

    • D. 

      D) None

  • 94. 
    4. When the size of universe increses,then the percentage/ratio of samples ?
    • A. 

      A) Same as previous

    • B. 

      B) Decrease

    • C. 

      C) Increase

    • D. 

      D) Double

  • 95. 
    Tipped method of sampling named on the basis of :
    • A. 

      A) System

    • B. 

      B) Author of the book

    • C. 

      C) System and author of the book

    • D. 

      D) Introducer

  • 96. 
    6. Simple observations is :
    • A. 

      A) Controlled

    • B. 

      B) Un-controlled

    • C. 

      C) Good

    • D. 

      D) Systematic

  • 97. 
    8. In Reserch ,word "C" refers to :
    • A. 

      A) Coding data

    • B. 

      B) Critical observation

    • C. 

      C) Classification

    • D. 

      D) Current

  • 98. 
    9. Role of hypothesis is very important before:
    • A. 

      A) Selection of problem

    • B. 

      B) Data collection

    • C. 

      C) Preparing research report

    • D. 

      D) Drawn Conclusion

  • 99. 
    10. Result of 30 items out of 60 is a .................  Statistics
    • A. 

      A) Inferential

    • B. 

      B) Sampling

    • C. 

      C) Descriptive

    • D. 

      D) Time series