Motor Learning Final Exam

119 Questions  I  By Thephoenix on December 8, 2010

  

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1.  The action effect hypothesis suggests optimal performance results from
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D.
2.  When mental practice involves visual imagery, it can take the form of internal or external imagery.
A.
B.
3.  In a two-hand aiming task in which one must move to a target that has an ID of 4, and the other hand must simultaneously move to a target that has an ID of 2, when will each hand arrive at the target?
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B.
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D.
4.  Because we can write our signature relatively legibly with a pen held by either hand, either foot, or even by our teeth, researchers often describe handwriting as a good example of Bernstein’s concept of motor
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5.  According to Schmidt’s motor program-based theory of motor control, which of the following would be controlled by the same generalized motor program (GMP)? 
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6.  Which term is used in the motor learning research literature when referring to an observed behavior?
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7.  Central pattern generators, which are involved in the control of gait, are thought to be located primarily in the brain.
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8.  Which of the following is not a part of a motor unit?
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9.  The general rule of thumb for predicting positive transfer between two motor skills is that the degree of positive transfer is related to the
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10.  Studies comparing experts and novices in motor skill performance show that
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11.  A sensory neuropathy involving a limb provides a non-surgical technique for the investigation of deafferented humans.
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B.
12.  A limitation of the contextual interference effect is that it applies only to beginners and not to more skilled performers of motor skills.
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B.
13.  Fitts’ Law specifies that performance will show a speed-accuracy trade-off in a rapid manual aiming task according to the relationship between which two characteristics of the task?
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14.  Which of the following characteristics of learning best explains the description of the later stages of learning open skills in Gentile’s model?
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15.  Research has shown that the overlearning strategy benefits the learning of all types of motor skills.
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16.  When mental practice trials and physical practice trials are included in practice sessions, skill learning can be as good as when the same number of trials involve only physical practice.
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B.
17.  If a motor skill requires the use of large musculature but does not require precision of movement for successful performance, then the skill would best be classified as a
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18.  Which of the following is not classified as a “performance variable”?
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19.  The term practice variability refers to the variety of movement and context characteristics the learner experiences while practicing a skill.
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20.  Returning a serve in tennis is an example of which of the following types of motor skills?
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21.  The most common performance measure used for inferring the amount of time required for action preparation is
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22.  Before you determine whether to use a whole or part strategy to practice a skill, it is important to first do a task analysis to assess the complexity and organization characteristics of the skill.
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23.  Which of these is a way to measure performance production?
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24.  What does an increase in reaction time (RT) mean?
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25.  If you are standing with your arms at your side, and must move one arm as rapidly as possible to point to a target located at shoulder level in front of you, EMG would show that the muscles you activated first were the
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26.  If a novice and highly skilled typist were required to perform a verbal secondary task while typing on a keyboard the novice’s typing performance would be
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27.  Proprioceptors are not found in which of the following?
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28.  In dynamic pattern terminology, an attractor refers to a 
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29.  A limitation of the contextual interference effect is that it has been demonstrated in laboratory conditions but not in conditions outside the laboratory.
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30.  Research has shown that the segmentation part-practice strategy will facilitate the learning of a musical score on a piano.
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B.
31.  Before you determine whether to use a whole or part strategy to practice a skill, it is important to first do a task analysis to assess the complexity and organization characteristics of the skill.
A.
B.
32.  When a person learning handwriting moves the three arm segments as if two of the segments were one, this person demonstrates an early learning characteristic known as
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33.  Research has shown that beginners who observe other beginners practicing a skill will perform at a higher level when they begin to perform the skill than the beginners they observed.
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B.
34.  The terms modeling and observational learning often are used interchangeably with the term demonstration when they refer to the learning of motor skills.
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B.
35.  Which of the following areas of the cerebral cortex is primarily responsible for organizing movements before they are initiated?
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36.  Gentile’s learning stages model indicates that in the second stage of learning, one goal of the learner is related specifically to closed skills. This goal is called
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37.  The transfer-appropriate-processing theory accounts for why positive transfer occurs by stating that positive transfer is due to the similarity of the
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38.  Which type of performance curve shows larger increases in performance during early practice trials than in later trials?
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39.  For skills that involve a starting signal and require movement as quickly as possible after this signal (e.g., swimming, sprint), the amount of time between the warning and start signal should be
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40.  Which of the following is least likely to be evident about a performer from a performance curve?
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41.  If you see where your golf ball goes after you hit it, the visual feedback you receive is known as knowledge of results.
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42.  If you measure the distance achieved or the accuracy of a movement, you are measuring:
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43.  In lab 1 we used AE, VE and CE to measure performance in drawing 10cm lines blindfolded. Which of the following would represent a subject who always drew their line short with a high error?
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44.  Research evidence has shown that learning continues during a performance plateau.
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45.  Which of the following is not a potential benefit of motor control theories?
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46.  A recognition test is an example of an implicit memory test.
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47.  Which of the following will increase reaction time (RT)?
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48.  According to Fitts’ Law, a person’s movement time will be faster for a task with an ID of 6 than for an ID of 3.
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49.  Research has demonstrated that reaction time (RT) and movement time (MT) are
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50.  An important performance characteristic associated with learning is that the person becomes increasingly more capable of adapting performance of the skill to new performance contexts and situations.
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51.  The encoding specificity principle predicts that practicing basketball free-throws as they would be shot in an actual game increases the probability of successful free-throw shooting in a game.
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52.  The area of the cortex that is commonly considered to be the location for the transition between the perception of sensory information and the resulting action is the
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53.  The guideline for implementing practice variability for the learning of open skills is to vary both regulatory and nonregulatory conditions.
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54.  Research has shown that mental practice is effective as a performance preparation strategy but not as an aid to learning a new motor skill.
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B.
55.  One of the reasons for negative transfer is the initial cognitive confusion that occurs when a person must make a different movement in a familiar environmental context.
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56.  The generally accepted view about the direction of bilateral transfer between two limbs is that it is
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57.  Verbal instructions that direct the performer’s attention to the intended movement outcomes will lead to better learning and performance than instructions that direct attention to the movements used to perform the skill.
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58.  What is the difference between “motor ability” and “skill”?
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59.  Parkinson’s disease is the result of a dysfunction of which area of the brain?
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60.  “Transport”, “grasp”, and “manipulation” are three components of what?
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61.  The nerve fiber that transmits information from the neuron is known as the
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62.  According to a dynamic pattern view of motor control, skilled action occurs on the basis of action units which
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63.  Quantitative KR leads to better motor skill learning than qualitative KR.
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64.  Which of the following is generally not considered a characteristic of learning?
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65.  In addition to serving as a temporary storage system, working memory also serves as a
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66.  Performing a skill with a minimum expenditure of energy is usually associated with which stage of learning?
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67.  The encoding specificity principle suggests that
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68.  Which of the following was not a theory discussed in chapter 9 of how attention affects motor performance?
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69.  Although researchers have reported various findings, the most reasonable estimate of the amount of time required for visual feedback to enable a movement correction during the performance of a simple manual aiming task is
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70.  Concurrent augmented feedback always has negative effects on motor skill learning.
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71.  The motor control explanation for bilateral transfer has been supported by research evidence showing
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72.  Research has shown that people who practice in a blocked practice schedule tend to overestimate how well they are learning during practice.
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73.  Why does negative transfer of learning occur?
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74.  An important difference between the open- and closed-loop control systems is that the
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75.  Which of the following techniques that researchers use to study the role of proprioception in motor control does not completely remove proprioceptive feedback but only distorts it? 
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76.  If a person is required to perform a practiced skill in a new situation, which method of assessing learning is being used?
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77.  Research evidence shows that you can hinder the learning of a motor skill by a beginner by delaying the augmented feedback too long.
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78.  Consider the following performance situation: You are a basketball player guarding an opponent who has the ball. You know that about 80% of the time in this situation the player will move to your right and take a shot. So, you prepare to move in that direction. But, unexpectedly the player moves to your left. Which of the following describes your RT in this situation?
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79.  The Elaboration Hypothesis states that contextual interference improves learning because as learners create new skill variations during random practice they create a more distinct memory representation of the skill.
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80.  According to Fitts and Posner, the learner moves through three stages when learning a motor skill. These are the cognitive, the associative, and the
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81.  If you are asked to demonstrate how you tie your shoes, you would base your demonstration on knowledge stored in long-term memory in the
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82.  Research has shown that beginners who observe other beginners practicing a skill will perform at a higher level when they begin to perform the skill than the beginners they observed.
A.
B.
83.  Which of the following do transfer tests in motor learning research not involve?
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84.  If you ask a person to perform a variation of a practiced skill, which method of assessing learning are you using?
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85.  If a fatigue condition depresses practice performance but not retention test performance, then fatigue would be called a
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86.  Gentile’s learning stages model indicates that in the first stage of learning, the learner must learn to discriminate between which two types of environmental context conditions?
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87.  Giving augmented feedback to a beginner only when he or she requests it is better than giving the augmented feedback on every trial.
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88.  Which type of reaction time situation occurs when there are several signals but only one response is to be made to one signal; and other signals are ignored and no response made?
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89.  Which of the following describes why verbal labels and visual metaphoric imagery aid the learning of complex motor skill? They
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90.  Hick’s Law states that reaction time (RT) will increase logarithmically as the
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91.  Reaction time is the interval of time between which two events?
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92.  In a memory experiment, when information not to be recalled is presented after information to be recalled, the experiment is designed to test the effect of
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93.  Practice performance provides a reliable means of determining how well a person will perform in a transfer test situation.
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94.  The identical elements theory for explaining why transfer occurs...
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95.  The playing of a guitar is a good example of performing
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96.  Augmented feedback that tells a beginner those aspects of the performance that were correct can serve a motivational role to encourage the person.
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97.  One of the current views of how we control prehension is that the transport and grasp phases function
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98.  The most commonly accepted reason serial discrete motor skills seem to be forgotten more quickly than continuous motor skills is that serial discrete motor skills are
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99.  When you perform a motor skill with your right arm, activity in the same muscles can be detected in your left arm.
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100.  Learners in the later stages of learning typically “freeze degrees of freedom” in their attempt to control the multiple degrees of freedom of a complex motor skill.
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B.
101.  What term is used when a performance reaches a steady state after showing steady improvement during practice and then begins to show improvement again?
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102.  Why is binocular vision superior to monocular vision for perceiving distance to objects and the size of objects?
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103.  Which method of assessing learning is used when people are required to perform a skill one week after they completed practicing that skill?
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104.  Bilateral transfer occurred in lab if practice of a mirror tracing task with the preferred arm resulted in performance improvement of the non-preferred arm, which did not practice the task.
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B.
105.  When you walk across a street, the optical variable tau influences the initiation of your leg movement to step up onto the curb on the basis of the 
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