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Motor Learning Final Exam

119 Questions  I  By Thephoenix
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1.  The action effect hypothesis suggests optimal performance results from
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2.  When mental practice involves visual imagery, it can take the form of internal or external imagery.
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B.
3.  Central pattern generators, which are involved in the control of gait, are thought to be located primarily in the brain.
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B.
4.  Verbal instructions that direct the performer’s attention to the intended movement outcomes will lead to better learning and performance than instructions that direct attention to the movements used to perform the skill.
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B.
5.  Which of the following characteristics of learning best explains the description of the later stages of learning open skills in Gentile’s model?
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B.
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6.  Only the brain activity hypothesis is generally accepted as an explanation of the effectiveness of mental practice for motor skill learning and performance.
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B.
7.  If a fatigue condition depresses practice performance but not retention test performance, then fatigue would be called a
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8.  Which of the following areas of the cerebral cortex is primarily responsible for organizing movements before they are initiated?
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9.  Which of the following is an essential component of the definition of learning?
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10.  Studies comparing experts and novices in motor skill performance show that
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11.  If you see where your golf ball goes after you hit it, the visual feedback you receive is known as knowledge of results.
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B.
12.  According to a dynamic pattern view of motor control, skilled action occurs on the basis of action units which
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13.  Which of the following do transfer tests in motor learning research not involve?
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14.  An important performance characteristic associated with learning is that the person becomes increasingly more capable of adapting performance of the skill to new performance contexts and situations.
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B.
15.  Giving augmented feedback to a beginner only when he or she requests it is better than giving the augmented feedback on every trial.
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B.
16.  Which of the following will increase reaction time (RT)?
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B.
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D.
17.  If you want to rapidly move the cursor on your computer screen to an icon, when during the movement of the cursor would you shift your visual point of gaze to the icon?
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18.  Telling a beginning golf student that the backswing should stop when the club is pointing at a certain clockface hour is an example of attaching a meaningful verbal label to a movement that must be remembered.
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B.
19.  A limitation of the contextual interference effect is that it has been demonstrated in laboratory conditions but not in conditions outside the laboratory.
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B.
20.  Which of the following is least likely to be evident about a performer from a performance curve?
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21.  Before you determine whether to use a whole or part strategy to practice a skill, it is important to first do a task analysis to assess the complexity and organization characteristics of the skill.
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B.
22.  In dynamic pattern terminology, an attractor refers to a 
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23.  If a person is required to perform a practiced skill in a new situation, which method of assessing learning is being used?
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D.
24.  Proprioceptors are not found in which of the following?
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B.
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D.
25.  Research has shown that beginners who observe other beginners practicing a skill will perform at a higher level when they begin to perform the skill than the beginners they observed.
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B.
26.  The encoding specificity principle suggests that
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D.
27.  What term is used when a performance reaches a steady state after showing steady improvement during practice and then begins to show improvement again?
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D.
28.  An important difference between the open- and closed-loop control systems is that the
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29.  If you are asked to demonstrate how you tie your shoes, you would base your demonstration on knowledge stored in long-term memory in the
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30.  Research evidence shows that you can hinder the learning of a motor skill by a beginner by delaying the augmented feedback too long.
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B.
31.  The Elaboration Hypothesis states that contextual interference improves learning because as learners create new skill variations during random practice they create a more distinct memory representation of the skill.
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B.
32.  One of the current views of how we control prehension is that the transport and grasp phases function
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33.  The identical elements theory for explaining why transfer occurs...
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34.  A schedule that organizes the practice of several skill variations in a serial order is an example of a practice schedule that involves a low amount of contextual interference.
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B.
35.  Because we can write our signature relatively legibly with a pen held by either hand, either foot, or even by our teeth, researchers often describe handwriting as a good example of Bernstein’s concept of motor
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36.  The generally accepted view about the direction of bilateral transfer between two limbs is that it is
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D.
37.  The motor control explanation for bilateral transfer has been supported by research evidence showing
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38.  Which of the following types of motor control theories emphasizes the role of a memory representation in the control of coordinated action?
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D.
39.  A sensory neuropathy involving a limb provides a non-surgical technique for the investigation of deafferented humans.
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B.
40.  Bilateral transfer occurred in lab if practice of a mirror tracing task with the preferred arm resulted in performance improvement of the non-preferred arm, which did not practice the task.
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B.
41.  The most common performance measure used for inferring the amount of time required for action preparation is
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D.
42.  Returning a serve in tennis is an example of which of the following types of motor skills?
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43.  Which of these is a way to measure performance production?
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44.  Research has demonstrated that reaction time (RT) and movement time (MT) are
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D.
45.  Reaction time is the interval of time between which two events?
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D.
46.  Which of the following techniques that researchers use to study the role of proprioception in motor control does not completely remove proprioceptive feedback but only distorts it? 
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D.
47.  “Transport”, “grasp”, and “manipulation” are three components of what?
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48.  When you walk across a street, the optical variable tau influences the initiation of your leg movement to step up onto the curb on the basis of the 
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D.
49.  The terms mental practice and meditation can be used interchangeably.
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B.
50.  The transfer-appropriate-processing theory accounts for why positive transfer occurs by stating that positive transfer is due to the similarity of the
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D.
51.  Consider the following performance situation: You are a basketball player guarding an opponent who has the ball. You know that about 80% of the time in this situation the player will move to your right and take a shot. So, you prepare to move in that direction. But, unexpectedly the player moves to your left. Which of the following describes your RT in this situation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  Research has shown that beginners who observe other beginners practicing a skill will perform at a higher level when they begin to perform the skill than the beginners they observed.
A.
B.
53.  To help beginning dancers learn the rhythmic structure of a dance routine, either auditory or visual demonstration will be similarly effective for learning.
A.
B.
54.  If a novice and highly skilled typist were required to perform a verbal secondary task while typing on a keyboard the novice’s typing performance would be
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C.
D.
55.  Gentile’s learning stages model indicates that in the first stage of learning, the learner must learn to discriminate between which two types of environmental context conditions?
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D.
56.  In addition to serving as a temporary storage system, working memory also serves as a
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57.  The brain areas that are active during the early stage of learning are typically
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58.  Suppose you did an experiment that compared the effect of two practice conditions (A & B) on learning a skill. The results showed that during practice, performance for condition B was better than for A. But, on the transfer test, A was better than B. What should you conclude about which practice condition is better for learning?
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59.  The encoding specificity principle predicts that practicing basketball free-throws as they would be shot in an actual game increases the probability of successful free-throw shooting in a game.
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B.
60.  Which type of performance curve shows larger increases in performance during early practice trials than in later trials?
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D.
61.  Which term is used in the motor learning research literature when referring to an observed behavior?
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62.  According to Fitts and Posner, the learner moves through three stages when learning a motor skill. These are the cognitive, the associative, and the
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63.  In a two-hand aiming task in which one must move to a target that has an ID of 4, and the other hand must simultaneously move to a target that has an ID of 2, when will each hand arrive at the target?
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64.  Which of the following was not a theory discussed in chapter 9 of how attention affects motor performance?
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65.  Quantitative KR leads to better motor skill learning than qualitative KR.
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B.
66.  Although researchers have reported various findings, the most reasonable estimate of the amount of time required for visual feedback to enable a movement correction during the performance of a simple manual aiming task is
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67.  When you perform a motor skill with your right arm, activity in the same muscles can be detected in your left arm.
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B.
68.  The terms modeling and observational learning often are used interchangeably with the term demonstration when they refer to the learning of motor skills.
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B.
69.  Before you determine whether to use a whole or part strategy to practice a skill, it is important to first do a task analysis to assess the complexity and organization characteristics of the skill.
A.
B.
70.  Measuring error helps indicate movement accuracy and also
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71.  Research has shown that mental practice is effective as a performance preparation strategy but not as an aid to learning a new motor skill.
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B.
72.  If a motor skill requires the use of large musculature but does not require precision of movement for successful performance, then the skill would best be classified as a
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D.
73.  Why does negative transfer of learning occur?
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74.  Gentile’s learning stages model indicates that in the second stage of learning, one goal of the learner is related specifically to closed skills. This goal is called
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75.  When mental practice trials and physical practice trials are included in practice sessions, skill learning can be as good as when the same number of trials involve only physical practice.
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B.
76.  Which of the following is not a part of a motor unit?
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77.  Fitts’ Law specifies that performance will show a speed-accuracy trade-off in a rapid manual aiming task according to the relationship between which two characteristics of the task?
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B.
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D.
78.  Which type of reaction time situation occurs when there are several signals but only one response is to be made to one signal; and other signals are ignored and no response made?
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79.  The reason we have difficulty tapping our heads and rubbing our stomachs at the same time with our two hands is that our motor control system is organized in such a way that our two hands prefer to move in the same way at the same time.
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B.
80.  Research evidence has shown that learning continues during a performance plateau.
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B.
81.  One of the reasons for negative transfer is the initial cognitive confusion that occurs when a person must make a different movement in a familiar environmental context.
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B.
82.  For skills that involve a starting signal and require movement as quickly as possible after this signal (e.g., swimming, sprint), the amount of time between the warning and start signal should be
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83.  Concurrent augmented feedback always has negative effects on motor skill learning.
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B.
84.  Performing a skill with a minimum expenditure of energy is usually associated with which stage of learning?
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B.
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D.
85.  Which of the following is generally not considered a characteristic of learning?
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E.
86.  The playing of a guitar is a good example of performing
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87.  Augmented feedback that tells a beginner those aspects of the performance that were correct can serve a motivational role to encourage the person.
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B.
88.  Hick’s Law states that reaction time (RT) will increase logarithmically as the
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D.
89.  The nerve fiber that transmits information from the neuron is known as the
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D.
90.  According to Fitts’ Law, a person’s movement time will be faster for a task with an ID of 6 than for an ID of 3.
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B.
91.  If you ask a person to perform a variation of a practiced skill, which method of assessing learning are you using?
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B.
C.
D.
92.  The guideline for implementing practice variability for the learning of open skills is to vary both regulatory and nonregulatory conditions.
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B.
93.  What does an increase in reaction time (RT) mean?
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D.
94.  A recognition test is an example of an implicit memory test.
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B.
95.  Practice performance provides a reliable means of determining how well a person will perform in a transfer test situation.
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B.
96.  Which method of assessing learning is used when people are required to perform a skill one week after they completed practicing that skill?
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D.
97.  Why is binocular vision superior to monocular vision for perceiving distance to objects and the size of objects?
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98.  Parkinson’s disease is the result of a dysfunction of which area of the brain?
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D.
99.  Shooting a free throw in basketball is an example of an open motor skill.
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B.
100.  Which of the following is not classified as a “performance variable”?
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D.
E.
101.  Research has shown that the segmentation part-practice strategy will facilitate the learning of a musical score on a piano.
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B.
102.  According to Schmidt’s motor program-based theory of motor control, which of the following would be controlled by the same generalized motor program (GMP)? 
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D.
103.  What is the difference between “motor ability” and “skill”?
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104.  The term practice variability refers to the variety of movement and context characteristics the learner experiences while practicing a skill.
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B.
105.  The area of the cortex that is commonly considered to be the location for the transition between the perception of sensory information and the resulting action is the
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D.
106.  Learners in the later stages of learning typically “freeze degrees of freedom” in their attempt to control the multiple degrees of freedom of a complex motor skill.
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B.
107.  If you are standing with your arms at your side, and must move one arm as rapidly as possible to point to a target located at shoulder level in front of you, EMG would show that the muscles you activated first were the
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D.
108.  Which of the following describes why verbal labels and visual metaphoric imagery aid the learning of complex motor skill? They
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D.
109.  When a person learning handwriting moves the three arm segments as if two of the segments were one, this person demonstrates an early learning characteristic known as
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D.
110.  Research has shown that people who practice in a blocked practice schedule tend to overestimate how well they are learning during practice.
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B.
111.  Research has demonstrated that mental imagery ability is an individual-difference variable that influences the success of mental practice.
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B.
112.  The most commonly accepted reason serial discrete motor skills seem to be forgotten more quickly than continuous motor skills is that serial discrete motor skills are
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D.
113.  Research has shown that the overlearning strategy benefits the learning of all types of motor skills.
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B.
114.  In a memory experiment, when information not to be recalled is presented after information to be recalled, the experiment is designed to test the effect of
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D.
115.  A limitation of the contextual interference effect is that it applies only to beginners and not to more skilled performers of motor skills.
A.
B.
116.  The general rule of thumb for predicting positive transfer between two motor skills is that the degree of positive transfer is related to the
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B.
C.
D.
117.  If you measure the distance achieved or the accuracy of a movement, you are measuring:
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B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Which of the following is not a potential benefit of motor control theories?
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D.
119.  In lab 1 we used AE, VE and CE to measure performance in drawing 10cm lines blindfolded. Which of the following would represent a subject who always drew their line short with a high error?
A.
B.
C.
D.
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