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Microbiology Midterm Review

145 Questions  I  By Tgerdel
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Practice test for the microbiology midterm.

  
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1.  The movement of substances from lower to higher concentration across a semipermeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier and use energy is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  A microbiologist inoculates Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli into a culture medium.  Following incubation, only the E. coli grows in the culture.  What is the most likely explanation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  All of the following are correct about food irradiation except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  The various techniques by which scientists manipulate DNA in the lab is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Which common hospital pathogen is able to grow abundantly in soap dishes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide would be called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  Filamentous fungi are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  A bacterial genus that has waxy mycolic acid in the cell walls is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  A scientist collects grass clippings to find the source of an outbreak of tularemia is an example of working in the field of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  The specimen preparation that is best for viewing cell motility is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  What is the correct sequence for a Gram stain?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  Viruses that cause infection resulting in alternating periods of activity with symptoms and inactivity without symptoms are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  Chitin is a chemical component of the cell walls of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  Helminths are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  All bacterial cells have
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  In which pathway is the most NADH generated?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  Koch's postulates are criteria used to establish that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Analysis of DNA fragments in gel electrophoresis involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  These structures are used by bacteriophages to attach to host cell receptors
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  The microorganisms that do not have a nucleus in their cells are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  The deliberate removal of genetic material from one organism and combining it with the genetic material of another organism is a specific technique called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  Enzymes that can function at boiling water temperatures or other harsh conditions would be termed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  The time interval from parent cell to two new daughter cells is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery was
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  Which of the following is correct about viruses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  Host cells of viruses include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Which of the following is a scientific name?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  The core of every virus particle always contains
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  This microscope achieves the greatest resolution and highest magnification:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  All of the following is correct about treating viral diseases except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  The shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a sample at a specified temperature is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Which of the following diseases probably involves microbial infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial forms including bacterial endospores is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Cilia are found in certain
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  When a rod shaped bacteria is short and plump, it is called a
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  The function of bacterial endospores is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Sources for human infection with worms are all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Organisms called parasites are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  Which is mismatched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  Semiconservative replication refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  The use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Which of the following is not considered a microorganism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  Disease-causing microorganisms are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  The DNA of microorganisms is made up of subunits called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  Which of the following is a unique characteristic of viruses that distinguishes them from the other major groups of microorganisms?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  The organelle involved in intracellular digestion of food particles is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  Enzymes are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  Which of the following diseases is transmitted by mosquitoes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  The term phototroph refers to an organism that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Larvae and eggs are developmental forms of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  The easiest microbial forms to kill or inhibit are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  When buds remain attached, they form a chain of yeast cells called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  A microbiologist makes a fixed smear of bacterial cells and stains them with Loeffler's methylene blue.  All the cells appear blue under the oil lens.  This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  An organism with a temperature growth range of 45 degrees Celsius to 60 degrees Celsius would be called a/an
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  A microbiologist decides to use a nutrient medium that contains thioglycollic acid.  What type of microbe is she attempting to culture?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  All of the following are examples of different types of microbiological media except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  The use of energy by a cell to enclose a substance in its membrane by forming a vacuole and engulfing it is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  Creutzfeld-Jacob disease is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  Which of the following will not support viral cultivation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  All of the following are correct about agar except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Eucaryotic flagella differ from procaryotic flagella because only eucaryotic flagella
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  The Five I's of studying microorganisms include all of the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  The term heterotroph refers to an organism that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  Spontaneous generation is the belief that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  Which cell structure is an important agent in modern genetic engineering techniques?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  Microorganisms require small quantities of this nutrient for enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  Virus capsids are made from subunits called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  Satellite viruses are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  Viruses acquire envelopes around their nucleocapsids during
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  The motile, feeding stage of protozoa is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  The type of microscope in which you would see brightly illuminated specimens against a black background is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  The virus-induced, specific damage to the host cell that can be seen in a light microscope is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Endospores are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  When patient tissues are transfected with viruses carrying a needed, normal human gene, the technique is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  All of the following are correct about biofilms except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  A bacterial cell exhibiting chemotaxis probably has
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  Which is incorrect about chocolate agar?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  The breakdown of peptidoglycan to N-acetylmuramic acid, N-acetylglucosamine and peptides is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Host range is limited by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  The duplication of a cell's DNA is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Sequences of DNA that are identical when read from the 5' to 3' direction on one strand and the 3' to 5' direction on the other strand are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  Transgenic animals
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  The outcome of the Gram stain is based on differences in the cell's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  The transfer of genes during bacterial conjugation involves rigid, tubular appendages called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  HEPA filters are used to remove microbes from
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Organelles found in algae but not found in protozoa or fungi are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  Protists include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  Which of the following is essential for development of discrete, isolated colonies?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Infectious protein particles are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
92.  Physical agents for controlling microbial growth include all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
93.  Microbiological contaminants are best described as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
94.  In the cell, energy released by electrons is often used to phosphorylate
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
95.  Bacterial conjugation involves
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
96.  The antiparallel arrangement within DNA molecules refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
97.  Which of the following is found in eucaryotic cells but not in procaryotic cells?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
98.  A microaerophile
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
99.  The most immediate result of destruction of a cell's ribosomes would be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
100.  The term that refers to the presence of flagella all over the cell surface is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
101.  A technique that separates a readable pattern of DNA fragments is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
102.  Which organelle contains cristae where enzymes and electron carriers for aerobic respiration are found?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
103.  Peptidoglycan is a unique macromolecule found in bacterial
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
104.  The RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
105.  Pasteur used swan-neck flasks in his experiments to prove that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
106.  Bacteria that require special growth factors and complex organic substances are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
107.  Helical and icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
108.  The primary purpose of staining cells on a microscope slide is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
109.  Fungi that grow as yeast at one temperature but will grow as mold at another temperature are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
110.  Which of the following is not associated with every virus?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
111.  Which type of medium is able to distinguish different species or types of microorganisms based on an observable change in the colonies or in the medium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
112.  The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
113.  A mutation that changes a normal codon to a stop codon is called a
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
114.  When humans manipulate the genes of microorganisms the process is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
115.  Which method often results in colonies developing down throughout the agar and some colonies on the surface?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
116.  During aerobic cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
117.  The term that refers to the purposeful addition of microorganisms into a laboratory nutrient medium is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
118.  Which term is not used to describe bacterial cell shapes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
119.  A microbiologist inoculates Staphylococcus aureus into a culture medium.  Following incubation, both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are determined to be growing in this culture.  What is the most likely explanation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
120.  If a microbiologist is studying a specimen at a total magnification of 950X, what is the magnifying power of the objective lens is 10X?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
121.  All of the following are correct about prokaryotes except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
122.  All of the following are found in some or all protozoa except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
123.  All of the following structures contribute to the ability of pathogenic bacteria to cause disease except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
124.  Which of the following characteristics refers to the microscope's ability to show two separate entities as separate and distinct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
125.  The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which newly inoculated cells are adjusting to their new environment, metabolizing but not growing is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
126.  Thermococcus litoralis and Thermus aquaticus are thermophilic bacteria that are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
127.  Sterilization is achieved by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
128.  Amplification of DNA is accomplished by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
129.  This is often used in forensic science to distinguish one sequence of DNA from another by comparing the sequence of the strands at specific loci:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
130.  During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
131.  Infectious naked strands of RNA are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
132.  In bacterial cells, the electron transport system is located in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
133.  Groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene have the code for one
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
134.  The movement of substances from higher to lower concentration across a semipermeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier but no energy expenditure is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
135.  Viruses have all the following except
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
136.  EcoRI and HindIII are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
137.  An organism's genotype includes all the following except they
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
138.  Which of the following is the correct way to write the scientific name of this bacterium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
139.  An organelle that is a stack of flattened, membranous sacs and functions to receive, modify, and package proteins for cell secretion is the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
140.  Visible, clear, well-defined patches in a monolayer of virus-infected cells in a culture are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
141.  Microorganisms require large quantities of this nutrient for use in cell structure and metabolism:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
142.  Which of the following are the main decomposers of the earth?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
143.  Spirochetes have a twisting and flexing locomotion due to appendages called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
144.  Among the microorganisms, various genomes can include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
145.  The cell's series of tunnel-like membranes functioning in transport and storage are the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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