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Microbiology Exam II (chapter 8 )

58 Questions
Microbiology Quizzes & Trivia

These are quiz question derived from the notes and book good luck! These Quiz Question only cover Chapter 8

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • A. 

      Mutation

    • B. 

      Natural selection

    • C. 

      Gene transfer

  • 2. 
    • A. 

      Diversity in Bacteria

    • B. 

      Mutation

    • C. 

      Spontaneous Mutation

    • D. 

      Induced Mutation

  • 3. 
    Define Mutation
    • A. 

      Is a change in the existing nucleotide sequence of a cell's DNA which is then passed on to daughter cells

    • B. 

      Bacteria have two general means by which they routinely adjust to new circumstances

    • C. 

      Is the acquistion of genes from another organism

  • 4. 
    What are mutations that occur in the cell's natural environment
    • A. 

      Induced Mutation

    • B. 

      Envrionmental Mutations

    • C. 

      Spontaneous Mutations

  • 5. 
    Spontaneous Mutations are...
    • A. 

      Mutation passed onto progeny: inherited

    • B. 

      Mutations are stable inheritable changes in the base sequence of DNA

    • C. 

      Change in a cell's genotype and phenotype to its orgignal state through a change in the mutated gene

  • 6. 
    Vertical gene transfer
    • A. 

      Transfer of gene

    • B. 

      Mutation passed onto progeny: inherited

    • C. 

      Chagne in a cell's genotype and phenotype to its original state through a change in the mutated gene

  • 7. 
    Reversion are...
    • A. 

      Change in a cell's genotype and phenotype to its original state through a change in the mutated gene

    • B. 

      When the cell reverse

    • C. 

      Mutation passed onto progeny; inherited

  • 8. 
    Spontaneous mutation can occur as a result of what?...
    • A. 

      Base substitution

    • B. 

      Acid

    • C. 

      Removal or addition of nucleotides

    • D. 

      Transposable elements

    • E. 

      A, C, D are correct

  • 9. 
    Base Substitution are.
    • A. 

      Most common type of mutation

    • B. 

      Results from mistakes during DNA synthesis

    • C. 

      Shifts the translational reading frame

    • D. 

      A and B are correct

    • E. 

      A, B, and C are correct

  • 10. 
    Point Mutations
    • A. 

      Occur when on base pair is changed

    • B. 

      Mutation resulting fromamino acid substitution

    • C. 

      Mutation that changes an amino acid codon to a stop codon

    • D. 

      Mutations that inactivates a gene results in a strain that is unable to grow

  • 11. 
    Missense mutation
    • A. 

      Occur when one base pair is changed

    • B. 

      Mutation resulting from amino acid substitution

    • C. 

      Mutation that changes an amino acid codon to a stop codon

    • D. 

      Mutation that inactivates a gene results in a strain that is unable to grow

  • 12. 
    Nonsense mutation
    • A. 

      Occur when one base pari is changed

    • B. 

      Mutation resulting from amino acid substituiton

    • C. 

      Mutation that chagnes an amino acid codon to a stop codon

    • D. 

      Mutation that inactivates a gene results in a strain that is unable to grow

  • 13. 
    Null or knockout mutation
    • A. 

      Occur when one basepair is changed

    • B. 

      Mutation resulting from amino acid substitution

    • C. 

      Mutation that changes an amino acid codon to a stop codon

    • D. 

      Mutation that inactivates a gene results in a strain that is unable to grow

  • 14. 
    What does the removal or addition of Nucleotides do?
    • A. 

      Shifts the translation reading frame

    • B. 

      Causes a frameshift mutation

    • C. 

      Shifts the codons of the DNA when it is transcribed into mRNA

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct

  • 15. 
    What are the effects of a frameshift mutation?
    • A. 

      Affects all amino acids downstream from addition or deletion (mutations frequently result in premature stop codons)

    • B. 

      Changes the reading frame, so that an entirely different set of codons is used

    • C. 

      Results in a protein that is truncated and probably non-fucntionl- (a knockout mutation)

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      None of the above is correct

  • 16. 
    What are transposable elements
    • A. 

      Special segments of DNA that move spontaneoulsy from gene to gene

    • B. 

      The deletion or additon of nucleotides, which may occur in the courseof DNA replication, is another type of spontaneous mutation

    • C. 

      Jumping JACK FLASH

  • 17. 
    Another name for Transposable elements
    • A. 

      Insertional inactivation

    • B. 

      Transposons

    • C. 

      Transposition

    • D. 

      Roc nations in the building throw your dynasty sign

    • E. 

      Imma star

  • 18. 
    What happens to the gene after transposon inserts..
    • A. 

      Nothing

    • B. 

      It no longer encodes a functional protein because the insertion disrupts the gene

    • C. 

      Disrupt proper function of gene, gene or gene product generally non-functional

    • D. 

      Only B and C are correct

    • E. 

      Gene become alive

  • 19. 
    What are induced mutations?
    • A. 

      Modification of purines and pyrimidines

    • B. 

      Altered base pairing properties

    • C. 

      I gotta give a game proper spit it so she get it...

    • D. 

      Mutations essentialf or understanding genetics, mutations can be intentioanlly produced to demonstrate function of particular gene or set of gene (mutation induced)

    • E. 

      One of the above are correct

  • 20. 
    Mutations can be induced via...
    • A. 

      Chemical

    • B. 

      Transposition

    • C. 

      Radiation

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      Shorty grap hold of my hand pretend the floor was ours

  • 21. 
    Define chemical Mutagens
    • A. 

      I wanna be where you are ain't nothing wrong with dancing baby its so romantic...

    • B. 

      Any chemical treatment that alters the hydrogon-bonding properties of a purine or pyrimidine base in the DNA will increase the frequency of mutations as the DNA replicates

    • C. 

      Chemicals that are structurally similar to the nitrogenous bases but have slightly altered base pairing properties (base subsitution)

    • D. 

      Mutations can be intentionally produced to demonstrate function of particular gene or set of gene

    • E. 

      Molecules that insert themselves between adjacent bases

  • 22. 
    What are Base Analogs...
    • A. 

      Nobody wants to be alone if you're touched by the words of the song

    • B. 

      Intercalating agents

    • C. 

      Causes covalent bonding between adjacent thymine bases

    • D. 

      Opposite of Acid Analog

    • E. 

      Chemicals that are structurally similar to the nitrogenous bases but have slightly altered base pairing properties (base substitution)

  • 23. 
    What are intercalating agents?
    • A. 

      Agents of gene products that are generally non-functional

    • B. 

      Molecules that insert themselves between adjacent bases, increases the frequency of frameshift mutation

    • C. 

      Another type of secret agent

    • D. 

      The biggest group of chemical mutagens consists of alkylating agents

  • 24. 
    • A. 

      Put my number on your phone

    • B. 

      Purines

    • C. 

      Pyrimidines

    • D. 

      Hydrogen

    • E. 

      Ethidium bromide

  • 25. 
    Characteristic of Ethidium Bromide
    • A. 

      Potential carcinogen

    • B. 

      Used to stain DNA in gel electrophoresis

    • C. 

      A and B are both correct

    • D. 

      None of the above is correct

  • 26. 
    Transpositon...
    • A. 

      Baby ghel stop playin and put my number in your phone

    • B. 

      Common procedure used to induce mutation in laboratory

    • C. 

      Molecules that alter hydrogen-bonding properties

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct except A

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct

  • 27. 
    Genes that move from one replicon to another site in the same replicon, or to another replicon on the same cell
    • A. 

      Intercalating agents

    • B. 

      Alkylating agents

    • C. 

      I just wanna touch hold your body till you say yeah yeah...

    • D. 

      Transposon (transposable element)

    • E. 

      Insertion mutation

  • 28. 
    Genes that receives the transposon will undergo a knockout mutation termed?
    • A. 

      Insertion mutation

    • B. 

      Silent mutation

    • C. 

      Point mutation

    • D. 

      Nonsense mutation

    • E. 

      Neyo im so sick of love songs

  • 29. 
    Name two type of Radiaton in Induced Mutations
    • A. 

      X rays

    • B. 

      Microwave

    • C. 

      Ultraviolet light

    • D. 

      Heat

    • E. 

      Both A and C are correct

  • 30. 
    • A. 

      Causes covalent bonding between adjacent thymine bases

    • B. 

      Double-strand breaks that often results in deletions that are lethal

    • C. 

      Forms thymine dimers which distorts DNA

    • D. 

      Causes single and double stranded breaks in DNA

    • E. 

      Prevents replication past the dimer (SOS repair system results in the incorporation of the wrong bases)

  • 31. 
    Define X-rays (please choose two of the correct answer)
    • A. 

      Causes covalent bonding between adjacent thymine bases

    • B. 

      Causes single and double stranded breaks in DNA, and alterations to the bases

    • C. 

      Forms thymine dimers which distorts DNA

    • D. 

      Breaks that occur on both strands are often lethal or Double-strand breaks often result in deletions that are lethal

    • E. 

      Prevents replication past the dimer (SOS repair system results in the incorporation of the wrong bases)

  • 32. 
    Major problem in induced mutation is identifying bacteria with desired mutation, name the techniques used...
    • A. 

      Direct selection

    • B. 

      Indirect selection

    • C. 

      Mutagenesis

    • D. 

      Both A and C are correct

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct

  • 33. 
    Define Direct Selection...
    • A. 

      Auxotrophic mutants

    • B. 

      Required to isolate organisms that require growth factors that parent strain does not have

    • C. 

      Involves inoculating population of bacteria on medium on which only mutants but not the parent, will grow/ used to select antimicrobial resistant or auxotrophic mutants reverted to prototrophic organisms

    • D. 

      Replica plating

  • 34. 
    Indirect selection...
    • A. 

      Is required to isolate organsisms that require growth factor that parent strain does not have (auxotrophic mutants)/ replica plating

    • B. 

      Involves inoculating cells onto a medium on which mutant, but not the parent can grow

    • C. 

      Selected directly by inoculating cells onto a medium containing streptomycin.

    • D. 

      Mutatnts that can grow under conditions in which the parent cells cannot are usually easy to isolate

    • E. 

      Both A and B are correct

  • 35. 
    Testing for cancer causing chemical (carcinogens), many mutagens are also carcinogens, microbes used to test potential carcinogenic activity, test are based on effect chemicals has on mibrobial DNA. What is a common chemical carcinogen test?
    • A. 

      Penicillin encrichment test

    • B. 

      Carcinogen Test

    • C. 

      Ames Test

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct

  • 36. 
    Ames test (check all that are correct/ more than one can be correct)
    • A. 

      Test assumes that the frequency of reversions is increaed by mutagens and that most carcinogens are mutagens

    • B. 

      Test rate of reversion of Salmonella auxotroph/ test potential lethality

    • C. 

      In cases where the parent cell is sensitive to penicillin, the propoertion of auxotrophic mutants in the population can be increased significantly be a technique...

    • D. 

      First one was devised in 1970's

    • E. 

      An ingenious test for indirect selection of carcinogens

  • 37. 
    Genes transferred from one cell to another...
    • A. 

      Vertical gene transfer

    • B. 

      Gene transfer

    • C. 

      Horizontal gene transfer

    • D. 

      Transfer of gene

  • 38. 
    Genes are naturally transferred between bacteria using mechanisms what are the mechanisms?
    • A. 

      DNA-mediated transformation

    • B. 

      Transduction

    • C. 

      Conjugation

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct

  • 39. 
    Involves the transfer of naked DNA from the environment to the recipent cell, cells rupture during the stationary and death phase, the chromosome breaks into small pieces and explodes through the ruptured cell wall, recipeitn "competent" cell picks up piece of the naked DNA, the naked DNA is integrated onto the recipeint chromosome, (replaces the homologous gene on the cromose to the recipeint cell). What type mechanisms of Gene transfer is that?
    • A. 

      Conjugation

    • B. 

      DNA-Mediated transformation

    • C. 

      Transduction

  • 40. 
    DNA-mediated transformation; natural transformation occurs when bacterial cells are compentent, bacterial cells are capable of taking up and integrating larger fragments of DNA. Natural transformtion occurs in stages what are they. (choose all that apply)
    • A. 

      Entry of the DNA

    • B. 

      Integrationof the donor DNA

    • C. 

      Mismatch Repair

    • D. 

      Cell Multiplication

    • E. 

      SOS repair

  • 41. 
    In Natural transformation this "stage"... only single strands enter, double strands are degraded
    • A. 

      Cell multiplication

    • B. 

      Entry of the DNA

    • C. 

      Integration of the donor DNA

    • D. 

      Mismatch repair

    • E. 

      SOS Repair

  • 42. 
    In Natrural transformation this "stage"... donor DNA is integrated by hydrogen bonding, enzymes cleave recipient DNA, Donor DNA is put in place
    • A. 

      Entry of the DNA

    • B. 

      Integration of the Donor DNA

    • C. 

      SOS repair

    • D. 

      Mismatch repair

    • E. 

      Cell multiplication

  • 43. 
    In Natural transformation this "stage"... repair mechanism removes either donor or recipient DNA that doesn't match, repairs with correct nucleotides
    • A. 

      SOS repair

    • B. 

      Mismatch repair

    • C. 

      Entry of the DNA

    • D. 

      Integration fo the Donor DNA

    • E. 

      Cell multiplication

  • 44. 
    In Natural transformation this "stage"... transformed cells multiply under selective conditions in which non-transfored cells will not grow
    • A. 

      Cell multiplication

    • B. 

      Mismatch repair

    • C. 

      SOS repair

    • D. 

      Entry of the DNA

    • E. 

      Integration of the donor DNA

  • 45. 
    Mechanisms of Gene Transfer... Bacterial DNA that is transferred from donor to recipeint via a bacterial virus (bacteriophage)
    • A. 

      R plasmids

    • B. 

      Transduction

    • C. 

      Conjugation

    • D. 

      DNA-mediated transformation

  • 46. 
    Is a mispackaging of DNA during viral replication, the mis-packaged phage infects a new bacterial cell and inserts the donor DNA inot the recipient cell, the donor DNA is integrated into the cell by homologous recombination. Is what type of mechanisms of gene transfer?
    • A. 

      Transduction

    • B. 

      R Plasmids

    • C. 

      Conjugation

    • D. 

      DNA-Mediated transformation

  • 47. 
    Mechanisms of Gene transfer; only form ofgene exchagne in which donor survives
    • A. 

      R plasmids

    • B. 

      Transduction

    • C. 

      DNA-Mediated transformation

    • D. 

      Conjugations

  • 48. 
    Conjuagtion is mediated by a plasmid
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 49. 
    Plasmid is self replication extrachromosomal piece of DNA (can code for traits that give bacteria advantage)
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 50. 
    Conjugation requires direct contact between cells, cells must be of opposite mating types
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 51. 
    Mechanisms of Gene Transfer: Group of plasmids that confer resistance to many antimicrobial agents
    • A. 

      Conjugation

    • B. 

      R plasmids

    • C. 

      Transduction

    • D. 

      DNA-Meditated transformation

  • 52. 
    Self- transmissible
    • A. 

      Encodes some but not all of the inforamtion needed for transfer

    • B. 

      Carry all of the genetic information they need for transfer

  • 53. 
    Mobilizable
    • A. 

      Encodes some but not all of the information needed for transfer

    • B. 

      Carry all of the genetic information they need for transfer

  • 54. 
    During conjugation, the plasmid is replicated in the donor cell and is transferred to the recipient
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 55. 
    After, plasmid is transferred F-cell becomes F+ some cells can be cured, spontaneously lose thier plasmid.
    • A. 

      False

    • B. 

      True

  • 56. 
    In some F+ cell, the F factor integrates onto the host chromosome (converts F+ Hfr)
    • A. 

      False

    • B. 

      True

  • 57. 
    Conjuagtion between Hfr adn F- cell results in only a portion of the F factor being replicated and transferred (F- remain F-, F- has new information but may not have the F factor gene)
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 58. 
    Plasmid of HFr strain can be excised from chromosome resulting in the excision of a small section of the bacterial chromosome, has transfer properties of the F plasmid but carries chromosomal DNA.
    • A. 

      F' Plasmid

    • B. 

      R' Plasmid

    • C. 

      Plasmid

    • D. 

      None of the above are correct