Humanities Test 1 Ch 5

13 Questions  I  By Meowmeowbark on March 5, 2011


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1.  __________ (the combining of individual parts to form a whole) describes the first phase of this era, when three distinctive cultures—________, ________, and ________—came together to fuel the rise of the West.
2.  GERMANIC TRIBES- Political and social organization: 1.       The _______ weren’t as civilized as the _______; the _______ believed them to be inferior so they were called “________.” The Germanic language family, dialects of which differed from tribe to tribe, included East Goths (_______) West Goths (______) and many others. The _______ occupied the steppe region between the Black and Baltic seas, while the ______  settled in territories closer to the Danube River. Soon, an alliance was forged: the Romans allowed the _________ to settle on the borders of Rome, but in exchange the Germanic tribes had to protect Rome against other _______. Antagonism between Rome and the West Goths (_______) led to a military showdown. At the Battle of ________, the _______ defeated the ______ army, killing the East Roman emperor Valens and dispersing his army. Then, the ________ raided many cities across the border, including ____ itself. To the Germans, _______ was a way of life. They fought on foot and were very good at fighting on _____back. Every Germanic chieftain retained a band of warriors that followed him into battle, and every ______ anticipated sharing his _______ the spoils of victory. The bond of fealty, or loyalty between the Germanic warrior and his chieftain and the practice of rewarding the warrior would become fundamental to the medieval practice of _______. Germanic law was just customs passed _____ throughout the generations. Penalties for crimes varied according to the ______ standing of the guilty party.
3.  Religion: _______ people believed in _______ deities. Some of these god’s names became the days of the ____, like Wednesday and Thursday.
4.  Literature (the three great epic poems): Germanic traditions are reflected in the epic poems of the early Middle Ages. The 3 most famous of these are _______, The Song of the _______, and the Song of ______ were transmitted orally for 100s of yrs before they were written down. _______ was recorded in Old ______—the Germanic language spoken in the British Isles between the 5th and 11th centuries. The Song of the _______, a product of the Burgundian tribes, was recorded in Old ______, and the Frankish Song of ______, in Old ______. These epic poems have much in common w/ the Illiad. ______ is a 3000 line epic about the Scandinavian prince, ______. It has 3 major adventures: ______’s encounter w/ the monster ______, his destruction of Grendel’s hideous and vengeful _____, and his efforts to destroy the fire-breathing ______ which threatens his people. The ____ __ ______ is written about _______ vs. ______. The _______ win. ______ is _________'s nephew. The ideals of fighting nobility in a ______ age are best captured in the oldest and greatest French epic poem, the ____ __ ______. It is based on the ambush at the “____ of _____”. The ambush was led by Charlemagne’s nephew ______ as they returned from an expedition against the ______.This 4000 line chanson de geste (“song of heroic deeds”) was passed orally for 3 centuries before it was finally written. The Song of the _______ is about a ______-slayer and how he was _______ or something, and how his ____ got ______.
5.  CHARLEMAGNE- Political organization/ Cultural artifacts/ accomplishments: The Frankish chieftain Charles the Great (in French, “__________”, pursued the dream of restoring the Roman Empire under ______ leadership. He was a great warrior and leader who conquered vast areas of land. He forced many to convert to ________ through holy ____. Pope Leo III crowned __________ “Emperor of the Romans,” thus establishing a firm relationship between ______ and _____. __________ created a Christian or “____” Roman Empire. He controlled conquered lands by placing them in the hands of local administrators—on whom he made the titles “_____” and “____”. He also revived trade w/ the East, stabilized the currency, & pursued diplomatic ties w/ Baghdad, whose caliph, Harun al-Rashid, graced ________'s court w/ the gift of an elephant. _________’s mission was driven by his passionate interest in _______ and ____. He barely could read and write like most ________ warrior chieftains. He had a bad hand. Nevertheless, he sponsored a renaissance, or rebirth, of ______ and literacy in Rome. This was called the “________ _______”. To oversee his educational program, he invited scholars from all over Europe. The most notable of these was _____ of York, a monk whose work as a teacher and translator fostered a glorious revival of learning. W/ _____'s help, ________ made a school at his palace in ______, and similar schools at Benedictine _________ throughout the Empire. The heart of ________'s educational revival was the ______ complex. _______ authorized the construction of numerous Benedictine _______, or abbeys—communities for prayer and the preservation of Christian and classical learning. _________ copyists replaced the difficult-to-decipher Roman script, which lacked punctuation & spaces between words w/ a neat, uniform writing style known as the ________ _______—the model for modern typography.
6.  1.       The Middle Ages was the great era of ____ production. Carolingian books were prepared for and by monks and clerics, rather than for _____ people who couldn’t read/write. Manuscripts were handwritten on parchment (sheepskin), or vellum (calfskin) and hand decorated (w/ gold paint and brightly colored pigments). The opening letter of each section of a book was often ________—embellished by a narrative representation appropriate to the subject of the text. The integration of stylistic traditions evident here typifies the Carolingian Renaissance!!!
7.  Geography: Charlemagne’s empire was in much of ______ ______.
8.  FEUDALISM- Feudal contract/ chivalry: 1.       When Charlemagne died, the unity he had brought to Western Europe died with him. He failed to establish any legal and administrative machinery comparable with that of imperial Rome. There was no ____, no _____, and no code of ___. After he died, the Carolingian Empire was shattered by Scandinaviana seafarers aka ______. Charlemagnes 3 grandsons divided the empire among themselves, separating French from German-speaking territories. The fragmentation of the Empire and the insecurity generated by the ______ invasions caused people at all social levels to before part of a military nobility who were capable of providing protection. These circumstances enhanced the growth of a unique system of political and military organization known as _______. 2.       ________ involved the exchange of land for military service. Fief, or feudum= ____/ property. In return for the grant of land, a ______ owed his ____ a certain number of fighting days (usually fourty) per year. The contract between ____ and ______ also included the ____'s provision of a court of _____, the _____’s contribution of _______ if his ____ were captured, and the reciprocation of hospitality between the two. The feudal nobility was _______ by men and women at birth. A male member of the nobility was a chevalier (horse) or _____(soldier). _______ were protected by chain mail (flexible armor made of interlinked metal rings). They also had swords and shields. The ______'s conduct and manners in all aspects of life were guided by a strict code of behavior called _______. _______ demanded that the knight be _______ in battle, ____ to his lord and fellow warriors, and reverent towards ______. Medieval warfare was both a profession and a pastime, as ______ entertained themselves with _____ (personal combat between men on horseback) or war games.
9.  Serfdom: The feudal class represented only a tiny percentage of the total population. The majority of people (over 90%) were unfree peasants or _____, who, along with freemen, ______ the soil. They provided ____ in exchange for military _______ furnished by the nobility. They owned no property and were forbidden to _____ the manor (on the plus side, they couldn’t be evicted). During the Middle Ages, the reciprocal obligations of _____ and lords and the ____’s continuing tenure on the land—a system known as ________—became firmly fixed. Serfs needed _______, and feudal lords needed ____. Medieval people made landmark advances in technology. They made the heavy-wheeled plow which enhanced agricultural productivity, the spinning wheel, and the widespread construction of wind and watermills.
10.  Norman Conquest: 1.       The seafarers aka _____ (aka _______) moved beyond the bounds of their Scandinavian homelands. The _____ came to control the North Atlantic bc they were expert ____ builders. The ______ began their raids on England w/ an attack on the Lindisfarne monastery, and they eventually settled throughout northern Europe. These aggressive ______ made _______ one of the strongest fiefs in France. Under the leadership of _______ of _______, some 5,000 men crossed the English Channel; at the _____ of ______, ______ defreated the Anglo-Saxon Duke ______ and seized the throne of ______. The ______ conquest had enormous consequences for the histories of ______ and ______, and it marked the transfer of power in England from _____-_____ rulers to ______ noblemen who were already vassals of the king of _____. The _______ brought ______ to England. To raise money, ______ ordered a detailed census of all property in the realm—the Domesday Book—which laid the basis for the collection of ____. King ______ controlled all aspects of government with the aid of the Curia Regis—the royal court and council consisting of his feudal barons. 
11.  Crusades: 1.       The ________ pushed the _______ out of the Mediterranean Sea, which brought security. Rising agricultural productivity encouraged trade and travel. The ______ were directly related to these changes. They were a cause of economic revitalization and a symptom o the increased freedom and new mobility of Western Europeans during the High Middle Ages. The ______ began in an effort to rescue _______ from _____ _____ who were threatening the Byzantine Empire and denying Christian pilgrims access to the ____ Land. The _____ ______ ______ launched a series of military expeditions designed to regain territories dominated by the _____. The _____ _______, called by Pope Urban OO in 1095, began in the spirit of a holy ___, but unlike the Muslim jihad, the intention was to recover ____, not to ______ pagans. While the eldest son of an upper-class family inherited his father’s fief under the principle of primogeniture, his _______ brothers were left to seek their own fortunes. The _______ stirred the ambitions of these disenfranchised young men. Equally ambitious were the _____ city-states. In order to expand their commercial activities, they encouraged the _______ to become middlemen in the _____ between Italy and the East. During the _____ ______, Venetian profit seekers persuaded the Crusaders to sack _________ and capture _____ ports in the Aegean. Most inhibitions failed to restrain their greed and the _____ ______ deteriorated into a contest for personal _____. A disastrous postscript to the _____ _____ was the ______'s ______ of 1212, in which thousands of ______ aged 10-14 set out to recapture _______. Almost all died or were taken into slavery before reaching _______. The gains made by the _______ were slight. The Crusaders did retake some important cities, including _______, but by 1291, all recaptured lands were lost again to the ______. In over 200 yrs of fighting, the Crusaders didn’t secure any territory permanently, nor did they stop the westward advance of the _____. Constantinople finally fell in 1453 to a later wave of Muslim Turks. Despite all that, the _______ revived _____ between East and West and enhanced European _________ life. Feudal lords seized every opportunity to establish greater authority over the lands w/in their domains. Finally, renewed contact w/ Byzantium promoted an atmosphere of _________ and cultural receptivity that hadn’t existed since the Roman times.
12.  __________: To entertain the French nobility trouveres (north) and ________ (south) composed and performed _____ devoted to courly love, chivalry, religion, and politics. ________ were usually of _____ birth. Often, ________ (professional _______ who recited their _____) accompanied themselves on a lyre or a lute.
13.  Medieval Romance/ Courtly love: The Crusades also contributed to the birth of the medieval _______, a fictious tale of ____ and adventure that became the most popular form of literacy entertainment in the west. During the ______ ____, marriage among members of the nobility was usually an alliance formed in the interest of securing land. Noble families might ______ marriages for offspring who were still in the cradle .In such circumstances, romantic love was more likely to flourish _______ marriage. An adulterous affair between ______, a knight of King _____’s court, and _______, the king’s wife, is central to the popular verse romance ______. Written in vernacular _____ by ______ de Troyes, ______ belongs to a cycle of stories associated w/ a semilegendary Welsh chieftain named ______. ______'s poem stands at the beginning of a long tradition of Arthurian romance literature. Women were considered _____, particularly objects of reward for the performance of brave deeds. The lady of the medieval ______ had no counterpart in the _____ classes of society, where women worked side by side w/ men in the fields and in a variety of trades.
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