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Human Development Test - Ch 2 & 3

57 Questions
Human Development Test - Ch 2 & 3

Human development

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
  • 2. 
    6 factors of resilence
  • 3. 
    3 parts of personality
  • 4. 
    Pre-conception
  • 5. 
    ID1.2.3.EGO1.2.3.SUPER EGO1.
  • 6. 
  • 7. 
    SIDS
  • 8. 
    The period of the zygote lasts about ________, beginning with __________.
    • A. 

      2 weeks; implantation

    • B. 

      3 months; implantation

    • C. 

      2 weeks; fertilization

    • D. 

      3 months; fertilization

  • 9. 
    The period of the fetus is primarily a time when
    • A. 

      Major organs first begin to function.

    • B. 

      Implantation in the uterus occurs.

    • C. 

      Basic structures are laid down.

    • D. 

      Growth and finishing take place.

  • 10. 
    By the end of the period of the embryo, the embryo does NOT
    • A. 

      Respond to touch

    • B. 

      Move strongly enough to be felt by the mother.

    • C. 

      Have a working circulatory system.

    • D. 

      Have arms, legs, fingers, and toes.

  • 11. 
    The period of the _____ is the time when serious defects from teratogens are most likely to occur because _________ this time.
    • A. 

      Zygote; implantation occurs during

    • B. 

      Fetus; the prenatal organism is developing most rapidly during

    • C. 

      Embryo; the foundations for all body parts are laid down during

    • D. 

      Fetus; birth takes place soon after

  • 12. 
    The likelihood of negative effects due to smoking during pregnancy
    • A. 

      Are reduced only if the mother stops before the period of the embryo.

    • B. 

      Are not reduced if the mother stops smoking, because the damage has likely already been done.

    • C. 

      Are reduced immediately if the mother decides to stop smoking.

    • D. 

      Are not reduced unless the mother stops before the placenta begins carrying food and oxygen to the prenatal organism.

  • 13. 
    Max weighed four pounds when he was born six weeks before his due date. Research shows that he is at increased risk of each of the following in adulthood EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Cancer

    • B. 

      Stroke

    • C. 

      Heart disease

    • D. 

      Diabetes

  • 14. 
    Prenatal malnutrition is related to each of the following outcomes EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Low intelligence and serious learning problems

    • B. 

      Physical defects, such as cleft palate and pyloric stenosis

    • C. 

      Central nervous system damage

    • D. 

      Pyloric stenosis

    • E. 

      Increased risk of hear disease and diabetes in adulthood

  • 15. 
    Infants of teenagers are born with a higher rate of problems because
    • A. 

      Many pregnant teenagers do not have access to medical care or are afraid to seek it

    • B. 

      A teenager's body is not physically strong enough to fully support pregnancy

    • C. 

      The uterus of a teenager is too small to maintain a pregnancy for the full 38 to 40 weeks

    • D. 

      The uterus of a teenager is not developed enough to maintain a pregnancy for the full 38 to 40 weeks

  • 16. 
    A serious illness of pregnancy in which the mother's blood pressure increases sharply and her face, hands, and feet swell is called
    • A. 

      Pyloric stenosis

    • B. 

      Ectopic pregnancy

    • C. 

      Rh blood incompatibility

    • D. 

      Toxemia/preclamsia

  • 17. 
    Which stage of labor is the longest?
    • A. 

      The first

    • B. 

      The second

    • C. 

      The third

    • D. 

      The fourth

  • 18. 
    High levels of stress hormones produced by the infants during childbirth
    • A. 

      Can lead to anoxia, or inadequate oxygen supply, during delivery

    • B. 

      Cause infants' heart rate and activity level to increase to dangerous high levels during childbirth

    • C. 

      Help infants withstand oxygen deprivation during contractions sending a rich supply of blood to the brain and heart

    • D. 

      Lead tot irritability and digestive disturbances in newborns

  • 19. 
    The Apgar Scale rates characteristics of a newborn, including the baby's
    • A. 

      Length and weight

    • B. 

      Vision, hearing, and sense of touch

    • C. 

      Heart rate, color, and muscle tone

    • D. 

      Reflexes, state changes, and responsiveness to physical and social stimull

  • 20. 
    How did childbirth customs change during the industrial revolution?
    • A. 

      Women began to use delivery mediation and instruments

    • B. 

      More women began to have natural, or prepared, childbrith

    • C. 

      More children were born at home than in hospitals

    • D. 

      Women's knowledge of child birth and family participation declined

  • 21. 
    In healthy pregnancies, fetal monitoring
    • A. 

      Does not reduce the rate of infant brain damage

    • B. 

      Reduces the likelihood of cesarean delivery

    • C. 

      Reduces the rate of infant death

    • D. 

      Is necessary to detect hidden problems with the baby

  • 22. 
    Cesarean delivery
    • A. 

      Must be used if a mother has had a previous cesarean birth

    • B. 

      Has become less common with invention of fetal monitoring

    • C. 

      Has become increasingly common in the United States, accounting for over one-fifth of all births

    • D. 

      Is much less likely to be used in the United States than in other countries

  • 23. 
    • A. 

      Ashley and Marissa are equally likely to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year

    • B. 

      Ashley is more likely than Marissa to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year

    • C. 

      There is no research evidence that either Ashley or Marissa is more likely to experience serious problems compared to full-term normal-both-weight babies

    • D. 

      Marissa is more likely than Marissa to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year

  • 24. 
    Research into the kinds of care given to preterm infants indicates that
    • A. 

      They are not likely to catch up to full-term infants during development in childhood

    • B. 

      Their appearance and behavior affect the kind of care-giving they receive from parents

    • C. 

      Compared with full-term infants, parents are more likely to cuddle and talk gently to preterm infants

    • D. 

      Physically stimulating these fragile babies could be harmful

  • 25. 
    Each of the following has been used successfully in countries that outrank the United States in infant survival EXCEPT
    • A. 

      National paid maternity leave

    • B. 

      Specially trained maternity helpers

    • C. 

      Federally funded child care

    • D. 

      Government-funded prenatal care

  • 26. 
    Which of these reflexes has immediate survival value to a newborn baby?
    • A. 

      Moro

    • B. 

      Tonic neck

    • C. 

      Palmar grasp

    • D. 

      Rooting

  • 27. 
    Newborn reflexes that persist beyond the point in development when they should normally disappear
    • A. 

      Can signal brain damage

    • B. 

      Suggest that the baby will learn motor skills more quickly than average

    • C. 

      Indicate nothing

    • D. 

      Indicate that the baby is unusually intelligent and persistent

  • 28. 
    Which of the following is NOT true concerning infant sleep?
    • A. 

      REM sleep in infants is associated with dreaming

    • B. 

      Fetuses and preterm babies spend more time in REM sleep than do full-term newborns

    • C. 

      REM sleep accounts for half of a newborn's sleep time

    • D. 

      Newborns are believed to have a need for the stimulation of REM sleep

  • 29. 
    _________ is the most common cause of crying in newborn infants.
    • A. 

      Gas

    • B. 

      Hunger

    • C. 

      Fatigue

    • D. 

      Soiled diaper

  • 30. 
    Which of the following sounds do newborn babies prefer?
    • A. 

      A heartbeat

    • B. 

      Classical music

    • C. 

      The human voice

    • D. 

      Breathing sounds

  • 31. 
    To measure a baby's ability to recover from the stress of birth using Brazelton's Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), you would most likely look at
    • A. 

      The score achieved several days after birth

    • B. 

      How the score changes over the first week or two of life

    • C. 

      The score within a few minutes after birth

    • D. 

      How the score changes between one and five minutes after birth

  • 32. 
    An individual's ________ is the complex blend of genetic information that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics.
    • A. 

      Genotype

    • B. 

      Chromosome

    • C. 

      Zygote

    • D. 

      Gamete

  • 33. 
    A human chromosome contains ________ gene(s).
    • A. 

      23

    • B. 

      46

    • C. 

      Many thousands of

    • D. 

      1

  • 34. 
    ________ sperm and _________ oba/ovum are produced each time meiosis is completed.
    • A. 

      One; four

    • B. 

      Four; one

    • C. 

      Four; four

    • D. 

      One; one

  • 35. 
    Which of the following is NOT true concerning the sex cells?
    • A. 

      About 350 to 450 ova will mature during a woman's child bearing years

    • B. 

      A healthy man can father a child for three to four decades

    • C. 

      The female is born with all her ova already present in her ovaries

    • D. 

      The cells form which sperm arise are produced continuously throughout life

  • 36. 
    The most common type of multiple birth occurs when
    • A. 

      A zygote separates into two clusters of cells

    • B. 

      Two ova are released from the ovaries and fertilized

    • C. 

      Two different ova are fertilized by two different sperm

    • D. 

      One ovum is fertilized by two different sperm cells

    • E. 

      Both b and c

  • 37. 
    Eddie has brown eyes (BB), and EVA has blue eyes (bb). If they have four children, which scenario is most likely?
    • A. 

      Two children will have brown eyes, two children will have blue eyes

    • B. 

      Three children will have brown eyes, one child will have blue eyes

    • C. 

      All four children will have brown eyes

    • D. 

      All four children will have blue eyes

  • 38. 
    Carries of the sickle cell gene
    • A. 

      Can be treated if placed on a diet during infancy that is low in phenylalanine

    • B. 

      Develop sickle-shaped red blood cells that clog blood vessels and block the flow of blood

    • C. 

      Do not display symptoms until age 35 or late, often after the person has passed the gene on to his or her children

    • D. 

      Are more resistant to malaria than are individuals with two genes for normal red blood cells

    • E. 

      Both b and d

  • 39. 
    Which of the following is true regarding sex differences?
    • A. 

      X-linked disorders are more common among females than among males

    • B. 

      Rates of miscarriage and infant and childhood deaths are greater for females than for males

    • C. 

      Worldwide, more boys are born than girls

    • D. 

      Boys, with an X and a Y chromosome, benefit from a greater variety of genes than do girls, with two X chromosomes

  • 40. 
    Most chromosomal defects are the result of
    • A. 

      Mistakes during meiosis

    • B. 

      Recessive disorders

    • C. 

      X-linked disorders

    • D. 

      Mistakes during mitosis

  • 41. 
    Down syndrome is most commonly caused by
    • A. 

      Failure of the 23rd pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis

    • B. 

      A missing chromosome on the 23rd pair of chromosomes

    • C. 

      Failure of the 21st pair of chromosome to separate during mitosis

    • D. 

      An extra chromosome on the 21st pair of chromosomes

  • 42. 
    Genetic counselors use _____ to estimate the likelihood that parents will have a child with a hereditary disorder.
    • A. 

      A pedigree

    • B. 

      Chorinoic villus sampling

    • C. 

      Fetoscopy

    • D. 

      Amniocentesis

  • 43. 
    Which of the following is NOT true regarding reproductive technologies?
    • A. 

      Donor ova from younger woman in combination with in viro fertilization have been used to help post-menopausal women become pregnant

    • B. 

      Children conceived through in vitro fertilization may be genetically unrelated to both of their parents

    • C. 

      In the United States, individuals conceived with donated gametes have a legal right to information about their genetic origins.

    • D. 

      Surrogate motherhood is legal in the United States, but is banned in Australia, Canada, and many European countries.

  • 44. 
    Each of the following is a major goal of the Human Genome Project EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Deciphering the chemical makeup of human genetic material

    • B. 

      Developing methodologies for cloning human genes

    • C. 

      Examining the legal, ethical, and social implications of new genetic technologies

    • D. 

      Identifying all 50,000 to 100,000 human genes

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 45. 
    According to the ecological systems theory, the behaviors of each family member affect those of others. This represents the concept of ________ influences.
    • A. 

      Bidirectional

    • B. 

      Learned

    • C. 

      Predetermined

    • D. 

      Universal

  • 46. 
    The largest proportion of homeless families consists of
    • A. 

      Unemployed women living by themselves

    • B. 

      Men or women earning the minimum wage

    • C. 

      Unemployed fathers with school-age children

    • D. 

      Single women with preschool children

  • 47. 
    Neighborhoods have _______ impact on the development of young people in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods compared to those in well-to-do neighborhoods.
    • A. 

      A lesser

    • B. 

      No measurable

    • C. 

      A greater

    • D. 

      A similar

  • 48. 
    One important reason that the American people have been reluctant to accept the idea of publicly support child care is that
    • A. 

      Few mothers of very young children work outside the home

    • B. 

      Most grandparents regularly participate in child rearing

    • C. 

      American values emphasize independence and self-reliance

    • D. 

      It is widely believed that daily separation from the mother is harmful to young children

  • 49. 
    Among African-Americans, living within an extended family tends to produce
    • A. 

      Higher levels of divorce and teenage pregnancy

    • B. 

      Children with confused attachments to many adults

    • C. 

      Improved childrearing and reduced stress

    • D. 

      More people on welfare and fewer with jobs

  • 50. 
    Compared with other nations, how does the United States stand on indicators of child health and well-being?
    • A. 

      Is about the same as other nations

    • B. 

      Lags behind virtually all other nations

    • C. 

      Is ahead of almost all other nations

    • D. 

      Lags behind other industrialized nations

  • 51. 
    A ________ measures the extent to which individual differences in complex traits, such as intelligence and personality, are due to genetic factors.
    • A. 

      Heritability estimate

    • B. 

      Kinship rate

    • C. 

      Factor analysis

    • D. 

      Concordance rate

  • 52. 
    In the United States, _________ of custodial mothers do not receive the full court-ordered allowance from the child's father.
    • A. 

      10 percent

    • B. 

      Two-thirds

    • C. 

      One-half

    • D. 

      Three-fourths

  • 53. 
    Suppose the heritability estimate for a certain trait, such as liking spicy foods, is 1.00. If true, this would mean that all the differences in food tastes between children results from differences in their
    • A. 

      Environmental experiences

    • B. 

      Culture or society

    • C. 

      Genetic makeup

    • D. 

      Family patterns

  • 54. 
    The concept of range of reaction explains that children who are exposed to the same environmental conditions
    • A. 

      Will tend to show the same pattern of responses over time

    • B. 

      May respond to them differently because of their genetic makeup

    • C. 

      Tend to overcome their inheritance, so their genes have no effect

    • D. 

      Will become genetically more similar than other children are

  • 55. 
    If a behavior is strongly canalized, then
    • A. 

      It is highly responsive to environmental factors

    • B. 

      Only extreme genetic factors can modify it

    • C. 

      It is relatively unaffected by genetic influences

    • D. 

      Only powerful environmental forces can change it

  • 56. 
    A friendly, cheerful child will probably receive more social stimulation than a shy, reserved child. This is an example of a(n) _________ genetic-environmental correlation.
    • A. 

      Passive

    • B. 

      Dynamic

    • C. 

      Evocative

    • D. 

      Critical

  • 57. 
    Which of the following is NOT true regarding HIV and AIDS?
    • A. 

      HIV has infected an increasing number of women over the past decade

    • B. 

      AIDS progresses more rapidly in infants than in older children and adults

    • C. 

      Women with HIV who become pregnant invariably pass HIV to their babies

    • D. 

      Zidovydine greatly reduces prenatal AIDS transmission