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Human Development Test - Ch 2 & 3

57 Questions
Human Development Test - Ch 2 & 3

Human development

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
  • 2. 
    6 factors of resilence
  • 3. 
    3 parts of personality
  • 4. 
    Pre-conception
  • 5. 
    ID1.2.3.EGO1.2.3.SUPER EGO1.
  • 6. 
    DO'S & DON'TS OF A HEALTHY PREGNANCY
  • 7. 
    SIDS
  • 8. 
    The period of the zygote lasts about ________, beginning with __________.
    • A. 

      2 weeks; implantation

    • B. 

      3 months; implantation

    • C. 

      2 weeks; fertilization

    • D. 

      3 months; fertilization

  • 9. 
    The period of the fetus is primarily a time when
    • A. 

      Major organs first begin to function.

    • B. 

      Implantation in the uterus occurs.

    • C. 

      Basic structures are laid down.

    • D. 

      Growth and finishing take place.

  • 10. 
    By the end of the period of the embryo, the embryo does NOT
    • A. 

      Respond to touch

    • B. 

      Move strongly enough to be felt by the mother.

    • C. 

      Have a working circulatory system.

    • D. 

      Have arms, legs, fingers, and toes.

  • 11. 
    The period of the _____ is the time when serious defects from teratogens are most likely to occur because _________ this time.
    • A. 

      Zygote; implantation occurs during

    • B. 

      Fetus; the prenatal organism is developing most rapidly during

    • C. 

      Embryo; the foundations for all body parts are laid down during

    • D. 

      Fetus; birth takes place soon after

  • 12. 
    The likelihood of negative effects due to smoking during pregnancy
    • A. 

      Are reduced only if the mother stops before the period of the embryo.

    • B. 

      Are not reduced if the mother stops smoking, because the damage has likely already been done.

    • C. 

      Are reduced immediately if the mother decides to stop smoking.

    • D. 

      Are not reduced unless the mother stops before the placenta begins carrying food and oxygen to the prenatal organism.

  • 13. 
    Max weighed four pounds when he was born six weeks before his due date. Research shows that he is at increased risk of each of the following in adulthood EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Cancer

    • B. 

      Stroke

    • C. 

      Heart disease

    • D. 

      Diabetes

  • 14. 
    Prenatal malnutrition is related to each of the following outcomes EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Low intelligence and serious learning problems

    • B. 

      Physical defects, such as cleft palate and pyloric stenosis

    • C. 

      Central nervous system damage

    • D. 

      Pyloric stenosis

    • E. 

      Increased risk of hear disease and diabetes in adulthood

  • 15. 
    Infants of teenagers are born with a higher rate of problems because
    • A. 

      Many pregnant teenagers do not have access to medical care or are afraid to seek it

    • B. 

      A teenager's body is not physically strong enough to fully support pregnancy

    • C. 

      The uterus of a teenager is too small to maintain a pregnancy for the full 38 to 40 weeks

    • D. 

      The uterus of a teenager is not developed enough to maintain a pregnancy for the full 38 to 40 weeks

  • 16. 
    A serious illness of pregnancy in which the mother's blood pressure increases sharply and her face, hands, and feet swell is called
    • A. 

      Pyloric stenosis

    • B. 

      Ectopic pregnancy

    • C. 

      Rh blood incompatibility

    • D. 

      Toxemia/preclamsia

  • 17. 
    Which stage of labor is the longest?
    • A. 

      The first

    • B. 

      The second

    • C. 

      The third

    • D. 

      The fourth

  • 18. 
    High levels of stress hormones produced by the infants during childbirth
    • A. 

      Can lead to anoxia, or inadequate oxygen supply, during delivery

    • B. 

      Cause infants' heart rate and activity level to increase to dangerous high levels during childbirth

    • C. 

      Help infants withstand oxygen deprivation during contractions sending a rich supply of blood to the brain and heart

    • D. 

      Lead tot irritability and digestive disturbances in newborns

  • 19. 
    The Apgar Scale rates characteristics of a newborn, including the baby's
    • A. 

      Length and weight

    • B. 

      Vision, hearing, and sense of touch

    • C. 

      Heart rate, color, and muscle tone

    • D. 

      Reflexes, state changes, and responsiveness to physical and social stimull

  • 20. 
    How did childbirth customs change during the industrial revolution?
    • A. 

      Women began to use delivery mediation and instruments

    • B. 

      More women began to have natural, or prepared, childbrith

    • C. 

      More children were born at home than in hospitals

    • D. 

      Women's knowledge of child birth and family participation declined

  • 21. 
    In healthy pregnancies, fetal monitoring
    • A. 

      Does not reduce the rate of infant brain damage

    • B. 

      Reduces the likelihood of cesarean delivery

    • C. 

      Reduces the rate of infant death

    • D. 

      Is necessary to detect hidden problems with the baby

  • 22. 
    Cesarean delivery
    • A. 

      Must be used if a mother has had a previous cesarean birth

    • B. 

      Has become less common with invention of fetal monitoring

    • C. 

      Has become increasingly common in the United States, accounting for over one-fifth of all births

    • D. 

      Is much less likely to be used in the United States than in other countries

  • 23. 
    Both Marissa and Ashley weighed 4 pounds at birth. Marissa was two weeks before her due date, and Ashley was born two months before her due date. Which of the following would you predict about Marissa and Ashley?
    • A. 

      Ashley and Marissa are equally likely to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year

    • B. 

      Ashley is more likely than Marissa to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year

    • C. 

      There is no research evidence that either Ashley or Marissa is more likely to experience serious problems compared to full-term normal-both-weight babies

    • D. 

      Marissa is more likely than Marissa to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year

  • 24. 
    Research into the kinds of care given to preterm infants indicates that
    • A. 

      They are not likely to catch up to full-term infants during development in childhood

    • B. 

      Their appearance and behavior affect the kind of care-giving they receive from parents

    • C. 

      Compared with full-term infants, parents are more likely to cuddle and talk gently to preterm infants

    • D. 

      Physically stimulating these fragile babies could be harmful

  • 25. 
    Each of the following has been used successfully in countries that outrank the United States in infant survival EXCEPT
    • A. 

      National paid maternity leave

    • B. 

      Specially trained maternity helpers

    • C. 

      Federally funded child care

    • D. 

      Government-funded prenatal care

  • 26. 
    Which of these reflexes has immediate survival value to a newborn baby?
    • A. 

      Moro

    • B. 

      Tonic neck

    • C. 

      Palmar grasp

    • D. 

      Rooting

  • 27. 
    Newborn reflexes that persist beyond the point in development when they should normally disappear
    • A. 

      Can signal brain damage

    • B. 

      Suggest that the baby will learn motor skills more quickly than average

    • C. 

      Indicate nothing

    • D. 

      Indicate that the baby is unusually intelligent and persistent

  • 28. 
    Which of the following is NOT true concerning infant sleep?
    • A. 

      REM sleep in infants is associated with dreaming

    • B. 

      Fetuses and preterm babies spend more time in REM sleep than do full-term newborns

    • C. 

      REM sleep accounts for half of a newborn's sleep time

    • D. 

      Newborns are believed to have a need for the stimulation of REM sleep

  • 29. 
    _________ is the most common cause of crying in newborn infants.
    • A. 

      Gas

    • B. 

      Hunger

    • C. 

      Fatigue

    • D. 

      Soiled diaper

  • 30. 
    Which of the following sounds do newborn babies prefer?
    • A. 

      A heartbeat

    • B. 

      Classical music

    • C. 

      The human voice

    • D. 

      Breathing sounds

  • 31. 
    To measure a baby's ability to recover from the stress of birth using Brazelton's Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), you would most likely look at
    • A. 

      The score achieved several days after birth

    • B. 

      How the score changes over the first week or two of life

    • C. 

      The score within a few minutes after birth

    • D. 

      How the score changes between one and five minutes after birth

  • 32. 
    An individual's ________ is the complex blend of genetic information that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics.
    • A. 

      Genotype

    • B. 

      Chromosome

    • C. 

      Zygote

    • D. 

      Gamete

  • 33. 
    A human chromosome contains ________ gene(s).
    • A. 

      23

    • B. 

      46

    • C. 

      Many thousands of

    • D. 

      1

  • 34. 
    ________ sperm and _________ oba/ovum are produced each time meiosis is completed.
    • A. 

      One; four

    • B. 

      Four; one

    • C. 

      Four; four

    • D. 

      One; one

  • 35. 
    Which of the following is NOT true concerning the sex cells?
    • A. 

      About 350 to 450 ova will mature during a woman's child bearing years

    • B. 

      A healthy man can father a child for three to four decades

    • C. 

      The female is born with all her ova already present in her ovaries

    • D. 

      The cells form which sperm arise are produced continuously throughout life

  • 36. 
    The most common type of multiple birth occurs when
    • A. 

      A zygote separates into two clusters of cells

    • B. 

      Two ova are released from the ovaries and fertilized

    • C. 

      Two different ova are fertilized by two different sperm

    • D. 

      One ovum is fertilized by two different sperm cells

    • E. 

      Both b and c

  • 37. 
    Eddie has brown eyes (BB), and EVA has blue eyes (bb). If they have four children, which scenario is most likely?
    • A. 

      Two children will have brown eyes, two children will have blue eyes

    • B. 

      Three children will have brown eyes, one child will have blue eyes

    • C. 

      All four children will have brown eyes

    • D. 

      All four children will have blue eyes

  • 38. 
    Carries of the sickle cell gene
    • A. 

      Can be treated if placed on a diet during infancy that is low in phenylalanine

    • B. 

      Develop sickle-shaped red blood cells that clog blood vessels and block the flow of blood

    • C. 

      Do not display symptoms until age 35 or late, often after the person has passed the gene on to his or her children

    • D. 

      Are more resistant to malaria than are individuals with two genes for normal red blood cells

    • E. 

      Both b and d

  • 39. 
    Which of the following is true regarding sex differences?
    • A. 

      X-linked disorders are more common among females than among males

    • B. 

      Rates of miscarriage and infant and childhood deaths are greater for females than for males

    • C. 

      Worldwide, more boys are born than girls

    • D. 

      Boys, with an X and a Y chromosome, benefit from a greater variety of genes than do girls, with two X chromosomes

  • 40. 
    Most chromosomal defects are the result of
    • A. 

      Mistakes during meiosis

    • B. 

      Recessive disorders

    • C. 

      X-linked disorders

    • D. 

      Mistakes during mitosis

  • 41. 
    Down syndrome is most commonly caused by
    • A. 

      Failure of the 23rd pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis

    • B. 

      A missing chromosome on the 23rd pair of chromosomes

    • C. 

      Failure of the 21st pair of chromosome to separate during mitosis

    • D. 

      An extra chromosome on the 21st pair of chromosomes

  • 42. 
    Genetic counselors use _____ to estimate the likelihood that parents will have a child with a hereditary disorder.
    • A. 

      A pedigree

    • B. 

      Chorinoic villus sampling

    • C. 

      Fetoscopy

    • D. 

      Amniocentesis

  • 43. 
    Which of the following is NOT true regarding reproductive technologies?
    • A. 

      Donor ova from younger woman in combination with in viro fertilization have been used to help post-menopausal women become pregnant

    • B. 

      Children conceived through in vitro fertilization may be genetically unrelated to both of their parents

    • C. 

      In the United States, individuals conceived with donated gametes have a legal right to information about their genetic origins.

    • D. 

      Surrogate motherhood is legal in the United States, but is banned in Australia, Canada, and many European countries.

  • 44. 
    Each of the following is a major goal of the Human Genome Project EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Deciphering the chemical makeup of human genetic material

    • B. 

      Developing methodologies for cloning human genes

    • C. 

      Examining the legal, ethical, and social implications of new genetic technologies

    • D. 

      Identifying all 50,000 to 100,000 human genes

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 45. 
    According to the ecological systems theory, the behaviors of each family member affect those of others. This represents the concept of ________ influences.
    • A. 

      Bidirectional

    • B. 

      Learned

    • C. 

      Predetermined

    • D. 

      Universal

  • 46. 
    The largest proportion of homeless families consists of
    • A. 

      Unemployed women living by themselves

    • B. 

      Men or women earning the minimum wage

    • C. 

      Unemployed fathers with school-age children

    • D. 

      Single women with preschool children

  • 47. 
    Neighborhoods have _______ impact on the development of young people in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods compared to those in well-to-do neighborhoods.
    • A. 

      A lesser

    • B. 

      No measurable

    • C. 

      A greater

    • D. 

      A similar

  • 48. 
    One important reason that the American people have been reluctant to accept the idea of publicly support child care is that
    • A. 

      Few mothers of very young children work outside the home

    • B. 

      Most grandparents regularly participate in child rearing

    • C. 

      American values emphasize independence and self-reliance

    • D. 

      It is widely believed that daily separation from the mother is harmful to young children

  • 49. 
    Among African-Americans, living within an extended family tends to produce
    • A. 

      Higher levels of divorce and teenage pregnancy

    • B. 

      Children with confused attachments to many adults

    • C. 

      Improved childrearing and reduced stress

    • D. 

      More people on welfare and fewer with jobs

  • 50. 
    Compared with other nations, how does the United States stand on indicators of child health and well-being?
    • A. 

      Is about the same as other nations

    • B. 

      Lags behind virtually all other nations

    • C. 

      Is ahead of almost all other nations

    • D. 

      Lags behind other industrialized nations

  • 51. 
    A ________ measures the extent to which individual differences in complex traits, such as intelligence and personality, are due to genetic factors.
    • A. 

      Heritability estimate

    • B. 

      Kinship rate

    • C. 

      Factor analysis

    • D. 

      Concordance rate

  • 52. 
    In the United States, _________ of custodial mothers do not receive the full court-ordered allowance from the child's father.
    • A. 

      10 percent

    • B. 

      Two-thirds

    • C. 

      One-half

    • D. 

      Three-fourths

  • 53. 
    Suppose the heritability estimate for a certain trait, such as liking spicy foods, is 1.00. If true, this would mean that all the differences in food tastes between children results from differences in their
    • A. 

      Environmental experiences

    • B. 

      Culture or society

    • C. 

      Genetic makeup

    • D. 

      Family patterns

  • 54. 
    The concept of range of reaction explains that children who are exposed to the same environmental conditions
    • A. 

      Will tend to show the same pattern of responses over time

    • B. 

      May respond to them differently because of their genetic makeup

    • C. 

      Tend to overcome their inheritance, so their genes have no effect

    • D. 

      Will become genetically more similar than other children are

  • 55. 
    If a behavior is strongly canalized, then
    • A. 

      It is highly responsive to environmental factors

    • B. 

      Only extreme genetic factors can modify it

    • C. 

      It is relatively unaffected by genetic influences

    • D. 

      Only powerful environmental forces can change it

  • 56. 
    A friendly, cheerful child will probably receive more social stimulation than a shy, reserved child. This is an example of a(n) _________ genetic-environmental correlation.
    • A. 

      Passive

    • B. 

      Dynamic

    • C. 

      Evocative

    • D. 

      Critical

  • 57. 
    Which of the following is NOT true regarding HIV and AIDS?
    • A. 

      HIV has infected an increasing number of women over the past decade

    • B. 

      AIDS progresses more rapidly in infants than in older children and adults

    • C. 

      Women with HIV who become pregnant invariably pass HIV to their babies

    • D. 

      Zidovydine greatly reduces prenatal AIDS transmission