Geology

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Geology Quizzes & Trivia

  
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  • 1. 
    All but which of the following distinguish hominids from other hominoids?
    • A. 

      Bipedal manner of locomotion

    • B. 

      Larger brain with internal segments

    • C. 

      Reduced face and canine teeth

    • D. 

      Only are carnivorous eaters

    • E. 

      Use and construction of sophisticated tools


  • 2. 
    The Laramide orogeny is distinctive because
    • A. 

      It only lasted 10 million years

    • B. 

      It affected an area farther inland than most arc orogenies

    • C. 

      It was accompanied by large volume granitic intrusions

    • D. 

      It was accompanied by voluminous volcanism

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 3. 
    The extinction of dinosaurs was important to the evolution of mammals because
    • A. 

      This opened many new habitats for mammals to move into

    • B. 

      With less competition, mammals were able to diversify

    • C. 

      With new adaptive opportunities, mammals were greatly able to increase in numbers

    • D. 

      None of the above

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 4. 
    All but which of the following mountain ranges could be considered part of the Alpine chain?
    • A. 

      Urals

    • B. 

      Pyrenees

    • C. 

      Alps

    • D. 

      Atlas

    • E. 

      Apennines


  • 5. 
    All of the following except which are features of primates?
    • A. 

      Increased brain size

    • B. 

      Stereoscopic vision

    • C. 

      Opposable thumb

    • D. 

      Less specialized teeth

    • E. 

      More specialized teeth


  • 6. 
    At the height of the Great Ice Age, the present desert regions of the southwestern United States
    • A. 

      Were covered with continental ice sheets

    • B. 

      Were drier than modern day conditions

    • C. 

      Had large lakes form in intermontane basins

    • D. 

      Were tropical rainforest environments

    • E. 

      Were covered with valley glaciers


  • 7. 
    During the maximum continental glaciation, the crust of Earth
    • A. 

      Was depressed as much as 300 m below modern levels

    • B. 

      Was depressed as much as 300 feet below modern levels

    • C. 

      Rose as much as 130 m above modern levels

    • D. 

      Rose as much as 130 feet above modern levels

    • E. 

      Became partially molten


  • 8. 
    The extinction at the end of the Pleistocene affected
    • A. 

      Only marine organisms

    • B. 

      Terrestrial mammals weighing more than 40 Kg

    • C. 

      Terrestrial mammals weighing less than 40 Kg.

    • D. 

      Marine mammals weighing more than 40 Kg

    • E. 

      All mammal groups equally.


  • 9. 
    During the Early Tertiary, the interior lowlands of the continent were the site of
    • A. 

      Local erosion

    • B. 

      Deposition in marine and terrestrial environments

    • C. 

      Minor volcanism

    • D. 

      A and B

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 10. 
    Eastern North America during the Cenozoic can be described as
    • A. 

      An active orogenic belt

    • B. 

      An area of uplift and erosion

    • C. 

      An active volcanic region

    • D. 

      A flat eroded plain

    • E. 

      A major marine basin


  • 11. 
    The abundance of marine diatoms may be related to increased volcanism because
    • A. 

      Volcanic activity resulted in decreased sunlight which affected the growth of all marine phytoplankton except diatoms

    • B. 

      Volcanic activity may have resulted in the increase in silica in seawater

    • C. 

      Increased volcanic activity warmed sea water creating a favorable habitat for diatoms

    • D. 

      Increased volcanism caused cooling of sea water which created optimal conditions for diatom growth

    • E. 

      Increased volcanism created new ecological habitats for diatoms


  • 12. 
    The Himalayas today are
    • A. 

      Volcanically active

    • B. 

      Seismically active

    • C. 

      A place of mountain building

    • D. 

      No longer tectonically active

    • E. 

      B and C


  • 13. 
    The Cascade Mountain Range is formed primarily of
    • A. 

      Basalt lava flows

    • B. 

      Rhyolite calderas

    • C. 

      Andesite stratovolcanoes

    • D. 

      Granite batholiths

    • E. 

      Deformed metamorphic rocks


  • 14. 
    The Himalayan Range formed as a result of
    • A. 

      Oceanic-oceanic plate collision

    • B. 

      Continent-continent transform faulting

    • C. 

      Continent-continent collision

    • D. 

      Continent-continent collision

    • E. 

      Continent-ocean subduction


  • 15. 
    The orogenic event of the North American Cordillera which began in the Late Cretaceous and extended into the Cenozoic is the
    • A. 

      Laramide orogeny

    • B. 

      Sevier orogeny

    • C. 

      Nevadan orogeny

    • D. 

      Antler orogeny

    • E. 

      Appalachian orogeny


  • 16. 
    The Columbia River volcanic field is related to
    • A. 

      Miocene fissure eruptions

    • B. 

      Eocene subduction

    • C. 

      Miocene to Recent mantle plume

    • D. 

      Oligocene extension

    • E. 

      Miocene subduction


  • 17. 
    Ungulates include orders of mammals which are all
    • A. 

      Three-toed

    • B. 

      Hoofed

    • C. 

      Herbivores

    • D. 

      Large

    • E. 

      B and C


  • 18. 
    The present interglacial began about
    • A. 

      150 years ago

    • B. 

      500 years ago

    • C. 

      10,000 years ago

    • D. 

      500,000 years ago

    • E. 

      1.6 million years ago


  • 19. 
    The development of the common features of hominids may have been in response to
    • A. 

      Predators

    • B. 

      Loss of forest habitat

    • C. 

      Loss of grasslands habitat

    • D. 

      Introduction of new plant species

    • E. 

      New sources of food


  • 20. 
    The angle of the subducted slab during the Laramide orogeny was
    • A. 

      Very steep resulting in volcanism near the trench

    • B. 

      Very shallow resulting in volcanism near the trench

    • C. 

      Very steep causing deformation far inland

    • D. 

      Very shallow causing deformation far inland

    • E. 

      Almost vertical


  • 21. 
    The last ice age began about
    • A. 

      150 years ago

    • B. 

      500 years ago

    • C. 

      10,000 years ago

    • D. 

      500,000 years ago

    • E. 

      1.6 million years ago


  • 22. 
    The Columbia River volcanic field can be described as
    • A. 

      Andesitic stratovolcanoes

    • B. 

      Voluminous basalt lava flows

    • C. 

      Voluminous rhyolite tuff eruptions

    • D. 

      Granite batholiths

    • E. 

      Layered mafic intrusions


  • 23. 
    The mammalian fauna of the Pleistocene is characterized by
    • A. 

      Few species

    • B. 

      Gigantism

    • C. 

      Being geographically restricted

    • D. 

      Being basically identical to today

    • E. 

      Being much smaller than today


  • 24. 
    The Early Tertiary sedimentary sequence of the Gulf Coastal Plain is
    • A. 

      A generally transgressive sequence

    • B. 

      A generally regressive sequence

    • C. 

      Completely nonmarine

    • D. 

      Completely eroded away

    • E. 

      Generally missing


  • 25. 
    Formation of basin and range mountains is a result of
    • A. 

      Thrust faulting

    • B. 

      Folding and faulting

    • C. 

      Normal faulting

    • D. 

      Volcanism

    • E. 

      Batholithic intrusions


  • 26. 
    Among the most abundant and diverse marine fauna in the Mesozoic was
    • A. 

      Brachiopods

    • B. 

      Mollusks

    • C. 

      Trilobites

    • D. 

      Mammals

    • E. 

      Seaweed


  • 27. 
    Greatly accelerated rates of extinction are called
    • A. 

      Disasters

    • B. 

      Punctuated equilibrium

    • C. 

      Mass extinctions

    • D. 

      Gradualisms

    • E. 

      Normal


  • 28. 
    The amalgamation of Pangaea served an important role in evolution because
    • A. 

      It allowed organisms to occupy broad areas of the landmass

    • B. 

      It led to isolation of habitats

    • C. 

      It led to a decrease in the diversity of organisms

    • D. 

      It destroyed the existing plants

    • E. 

      B and C above


  • 29. 
    In addition to expansion of reptile species during the Mesozoic, other life groups which showed increase in diversity include
    • A. 

      Marine invertebrates

    • B. 

      Plants

    • C. 

      Mammals

    • D. 

      Birds

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 30. 
    The difference between a reptile’s lower jaw and a mammal’s lower jaw is that
    • A. 

      Mammals have 16 teeth in the lower jaw.

    • B. 

      The lower jaw of a reptile is a single bone

    • C. 

      The lower jaw of a reptile contains no teeth

    • D. 

      The lower jaw of a mammal is a single bone

    • E. 

      The lower jaw of a reptile contains 12 teeth


  • 31. 
    The method of flight for the pterosaurs was probably
    • A. 

      Similar to modern hummingbirds

    • B. 

      Similar to modern birds with exceptional take-off ability

    • C. 

      A form of gliding

    • D. 

      A and C

    • E. 

      Similar to modern penguins


  • 32. 
    The meteorite impact theory for the Cretaceous mass extinction is based on
    • A. 

      The immediate demise of the dinosaur

    • B. 

      The upsurge in insect populations in the Cenozoic

    • C. 

      The presence of an iridium-bearing clay layer at the K-T boundary

    • D. 

      The presence of meteorite fragments in all Late Cretaceous rocks

    • E. 

      Celestial calculations by astronomers


  • 33. 
    The two groups of marine reptiles were
    • A. 

      Plesiosaurs and pterosaurs

    • B. 

      Pterosaurs and ichthyosaurs

    • C. 

      Captorhinomorphs and plesiosaurs

    • D. 

      Plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs

    • E. 

      Plesiosaurs and crocodiles


  • 34. 
    The mammal-like reptiles at the end of the Paleozoic were
    • A. 

      Thecodonts

    • B. 

      Therapsids

    • C. 

      Protoavis

    • D. 

      Hesperonis

    • E. 

      Dinosaurs


  • 35. 
    A significant change in land-plant communities occurred in the Cretaceous with the evolution of
    • A. 

      Gymnosperms

    • B. 

      Mosses and liverworts

    • C. 

      Sperms

    • D. 

      Ferns

    • E. 

      Angiosperms


  • 36. 
    The major distinction between the ornithischian and saurischian dinosaurs is based on
    • A. 

      Being warm blooded or cold blooded

    • B. 

      Their pelvic structure

    • C. 

      Their size

    • D. 

      Their temperament

    • E. 

      Their leg and arm structure


  • 37. 
    Because of the nature of the world-wide climatic conditions in the Mesozoic, organisms
    • A. 

      Had few habitats to occupy

    • B. 

      Could occupy extensive geographic regions

    • C. 

      Could only occupy restricted geographic regions

    • D. 

      Were not affected

    • E. 

      Stayed where they were


  • 38. 
    Ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs differed in that  
    • A. 

      Ichthyosaurs were able to travel onto the land

    • B. 

      Ichthyosaur females probably gave birth to live young

    • C. 

      Plesiosaur females probably gave birth to live young

    • D. 

      Plesiosaurs were adapted only to the aquatic environment

    • E. 

      Ichthyosaurs ate fish and plesiosaurs did not


  • 39. 
    The effect of the meteorite impact at the end of the Cretaceous is thought to have been
    • A. 

      Great input of particulate matter into the atmosphere

    • B. 

      Blocking of the incoming solar radiation

    • C. 

      Cessation of photosynthesis

    • D. 

      Collapse of the food chains

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 40. 
    The pterosaur was adapted to flight with
    • A. 

      A membrane-covered hand-like structure with an elongated fourth finger

    • B. 

      Bird-like wings covered with hollow feathers

    • C. 

      Bird-like wings with no covering

    • D. 

      Bat-like wings covered with thick fur

    • E. 

      Bat-like wings with no covering


  • 41. 
    Cretaceous marine transgressions onto the continents were caused by
    • A. 

      High sea level during interglacial times

    • B. 

      Inflated oceanic crust due to active seafloor spreading

    • C. 

      Subsidence of landmasses

    • D. 

      Choices A and C

    • E. 

      Choices B and C


  • 42. 
    In the early Mesozoic, the western margin of North America underwent a transition from a(n) _______ margin to a _______-_______ _______ plate boundary
    • A. 

      Active, continental-continental convergent

    • B. 

      Passive, continental-continental convergent

    • C. 

      Passive, oceanic-continental convergent

    • D. 

      Active, continental-continental convergent

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 43. 
    The mountain building events of the west coast that began in the Jurassic and continued into the Cenozoic are collectively called the
    • A. 

      Sonoma orogeny

    • B. 

      Antler orogeny

    • C. 

      Cordilleran orogeny

    • D. 

      Rocky Mountain orogeny

    • E. 

      Alleghenian orogeny


  • 44. 
    The Sevier orogeny was characterized by
    • A. 

      Extensive volcanism

    • B. 

      Batholith intrusion

    • C. 

      Folding and thrust faulting

    • D. 

      Fault-block mountain ranges

    • E. 

      Rifting


  • 45. 
    The shift in subduction-related igneous activity, from west to east during the Nevadan orogeny, was probably related to the
    • A. 

      Depletion of the crust in material that could be melted in the western zone

    • B. 

      Change in the angle of the subduction zone from low to high

    • C. 

      Change in the angle of the subduction zone from high to low

    • D. 

      Change from subduction to extensional tectonics

    • E. 

      B and D above


  • 46. 
    The three phases of the Cordilleran orogeny, in order from oldest to youngest, are
    • A. 

      Laramide, Sevier, Nevadan

    • B. 

      Sevier, Laramide, Nevadan

    • C. 

      Sonoma, Sevier, Laramide

    • D. 

      Nevadan, Sevier, Laramide

    • E. 

      Sevier, Nevadan, Laramide


  • 47. 
    The three time periods of the Mesozoic are, from oldest to youngest
    • A. 

      Triassic, Cretaceous, Jurassic

    • B. 

      Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic

    • C. 

      Jurassic, Triassic, Cretaceous

    • D. 

      Cretaceous, Triassic, Jurassic

    • E. 

      Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous


  • 48. 
    The separation of South America from Africa occurred during the
    • A. 

      Triassic

    • B. 

      Jurassic

    • C. 

      Cretaceous

    • D. 

      Permian

    • E. 

      Tertiary


  • 49. 
    The collision of an island arc with the western margin of North America in the Permian/Triassic was called the
    • A. 

      Antler orogeny

    • B. 

      Cordilleran orogeny

    • C. 

      Sonoma orogeny

    • D. 

      Franciscan orogeny

    • E. 

      Taconic orogeny


  • 50. 
    The Tethys Sea began to close in the Mesozoic as a result of the
    • A. 

      Collision of Africa and South America

    • B. 

      Counterclockwise motion of Laurasia and southward movement of Africa

    • C. 

      Clockwise rotation of Africa and southward movement of Laurasia

    • D. 

      Clockwise movement of Laurasia and northward movement of Africa

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 51. 
    This formation was created from sediments derived from uplifting mountains that were deposited into the retreating Sundance Sea; the formation is famous for dinosaur remains:
    • A. 

      Morrison Formation

    • B. 

      Sundance Formation

    • C. 

      Navajo Sandstone

    • D. 

      Franciscan Formation

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 52. 
    Triassic sedimentation in western North America consisted of
    • A. 

      Marine and nonmarine sedimentation

    • B. 

      Only marine sedimentation

    • C. 

      Only nonmarine sedimentation

    • D. 

      Evaporates

    • E. 

      Limestone and shale


  • 53. 
    The orogenic episode of the Cordilleran that occurred in the Jurassic
    • A. 

      Produced minimal effects

    • B. 

      Caused emplacement of batholiths

    • C. 

      Affected the Gulf Coast

    • D. 

      Involved extensional tectonics

    • E. 

      B and C above


  • 54. 
    Mountain-building activity in the present-day Rocky Mountains occurred during this phase of the Cordilleran orogeny:
    • A. 

      Sonoma

    • B. 

      Laramide

    • C. 

      Nevadan

    • D. 

      Sevier

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 55. 
    The interior of the North American continent was flooded by the Middle Jurassic
    • A. 

      Navajo Sea

    • B. 

      Moenkopi Sea

    • C. 

      Morrison Sea

    • D. 

      Sundance Sea

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 56. 
    These mineral deposits were formed at great depths and brought to the surface during explosive volcanism during the Cretaceous Period:
    • A. 

      Carnotites

    • B. 

      Copper

    • C. 

      Diamonds

    • D. 

      Garnets

    • E. 

      Gold


  • 57. 
    The craton can be subdivided into
    • A. 

      A mobile belt and a sub-craton

    • B. 

      A sub-craton and a platform

    • C. 

      A platform and a mobile belt

    • D. 

      A shield and a platform

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 58. 
    Pennsylvanian rocks have a characteristic deposition sequence of marine and nonmarine sediments called
    • A. 

      Varves

    • B. 

      Dolostones

    • C. 

      Cyclothems

    • D. 

      Crinoids

    • E. 

      Evaporite-shale sequences


  • 59. 
    Which of the following is not essential in the formation of black shale units?
    • A. 

      Anaerobic bottom water

    • B. 

      Aerobic bottom water

    • C. 

      Little or no coarse detrital sediment

    • D. 

      High organic productivity in the overlying oxygen rich water

    • E. 

      A and C


  • 60. 
    The geologic history of the North American craton can be divided into two parts, which are
    • A. 

      Greenstone belt development and accretion

    • B. 

      Mountain building and shallow transgressive and regressive seas

    • C. 

      Transgressive and regressive mountain building

    • D. 

      Deep ocean basins and granite magmatism

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 61. 
    Which of the following is indicative of uniformly moist, warm climate during the Carboniferous on North America and Western Europe?
    • A. 

      Coal beds interlayered with tillite

    • B. 

      Evaporate deposits

    • C. 

      Fossil plants with well-developed growth rings

    • D. 

      Fossil plants with uniform growth rings

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 62. 
    The basal unit of the Tippecanoe sequence is an important source for
    • A. 

      Lime

    • B. 

      Copper

    • C. 

      Aluminum

    • D. 

      Silica sand

    • E. 

      Iron


  • 63. 
    The Silurian Clinton Formation is an important source for
    • A. 

      Rock salt

    • B. 

      Oil and gas

    • C. 

      Iron

    • D. 

      Silica

    • E. 

      Lime


  • 64. 
    The Taconic orogeny that began in the _______ _______ can be related to _______
    • A. 

      Middle Carboniferous, closing of Iapetus

    • B. 

      Late Ordovician, opening of Iapetus

    • C. 

      Middle Ordovician, closing of Iapetus

    • D. 

      Middle Ordovician, collision of North America and Gondwana

    • E. 

      Silurian, collision of North America and Australia


  • 65. 
    All of the following played a role in development of thick evaporite sequences in reef-fringed basins except
    • A. 

      Rise in sea level after reef formation

    • B. 

      Upward growth of the reef

    • C. 

      Drop in sea level after reef formation

    • D. 

      Evaporation

    • E. 

      Restriction of circulation


  • 66. 
    In the Cambrian, the major event for the North American continent was
    • A. 

      Epeiric sea transgression and regression

    • B. 

      Eastern and western orogenic activity

    • C. 

      Volcanic activity

    • D. 

      Emplacement of plutons along the southern margin

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 67. 
    Which of the following occurred during the Late Paleozoic Era?
    • A. 

      Amalgamation of Pangaea

    • B. 

      Glacial epochs

    • C. 

      Orogenic events

    • D. 

      Climatic extremes

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 68. 
    The first mountain building episode of the Appalachians was the
    • A. 

      Acadian orogeny

    • B. 

      Caledonian orogeny

    • C. 

      Franklin orogeny

    • D. 

      Ouachita orogeny

    • E. 

      Taconic orogeny


  • 69. 
    The ocean off the western coast of Pangaea at the end of the Paleozoic was the
    • A. 

      Iapetus

    • B. 

      Pacific

    • C. 

      Panthalassa

    • D. 

      Sauk

    • E. 

      Tethys


  • 70. 
    The climatic extremes during the Late Paleozoic were related to
    • A. 

      Modification of atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns

    • B. 

      Movement of Gondwana to north polar regions

    • C. 

      Mountain building events

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      A and C above


  • 71. 
    Global transgressive and regressive cycles can be caused by
    • A. 

      Major tectonic events

    • B. 

      Meteorite impact

    • C. 

      Unusual lunar tidal cycles during early formation of Moon

    • D. 

      Major glacial events

    • E. 

      A and D


  • 72. 
    With movement of Gondwana over the South Pole, extensive glaciation occurred during the  
    • A. 

      Carboniferous

    • B. 

      Permian

    • C. 

      Devonian

    • D. 

      Silurian

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 73. 
    The presumed causes for transgressions and regressions of shallow seas during the Paleozoic were
    • A. 

      Greenhouse effect and glaciation

    • B. 

      Tectonic activity and continental rifting

    • C. 

      Glaciation and tectonic events

    • D. 

      Bolide impact and glaciation

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 74. 
    The Queenston Delta formed in response to
    • A. 

      Erosion of the Taconic Highlands

    • B. 

      Subduction of the Iapetus plate

    • C. 

      Uplift of the Caledonides

    • D. 

      Carbonate deposition on a passive margin

    • E. 

      Delta deposition of a Paleozoic fluvial system


  • 75. 
    Extremely large scale lithostratigraphic units bounded by transgressive-regressive unconformities are called
    • A. 

      Cratonic sequences

    • B. 

      Mobile belts

    • C. 

      Facies

    • D. 

      Supergroups

    • E. 

      Cratonic unconformities


  • 76. 
    During the Cambrian, most of the continents were
    • A. 

      Together in one landmass

    • B. 

      Dispersed around polar regions

    • C. 

      Dispersed in low latitude regions

    • D. 

      Covered by ice

    • E. 

      Regions of extreme volcanic activity


  • 77. 
    The orogenies that made the Appalachian Mountains along the eastern United States occurred as a result of
    • A. 

      Transform faulting

    • B. 

      Ocean-ocean collision

    • C. 

      Oceanic-continent collision

    • D. 

      Continent-continent collision

    • E. 

      None of the above


  • 78. 
    Organic reefs are useful paleoecological indicators because modern reef builders only  
    • A. 

      Form limestone reefs in cold, tropic waters

    • B. 

      Form limestone reefs where there is a great abundance of mineral matter in the water

    • C. 

      Only form limestone reefs in warm, clear, shallow water

    • D. 

      Only form limestone reefs between 30 degrees north and south of the equator

    • E. 

      C and D


  • 79. 
    During the Permian, scientists think that arid conditions existed in much of Pangaea, based on the presence of
    • A. 

      Widespread red beds

    • B. 

      Widespread evaporites

    • C. 

      Widespread sand dune deposits

    • D. 

      A and B above

    • E. 

      All of the above


  • 80. 
    One of the economic resources to come from the black shales is
    • A. 

      Coal

    • B. 

      Gold

    • C. 

      Salt

    • D. 

      Clean sands

    • E. 

      Uranium


  • 81. 
    The clastic wedge that formed off of the uplifted Caledonian Highlands is known as the
    • A. 

      Old Caledonian Sandstone

    • B. 

      Old Catskill Sandstone

    • C. 

      Oriskany Sandstone

    • D. 

      St. Peters Sandstone

    • E. 

      Old Red Sandstone


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