Geology Quiz - Study For Final

148 Questions  I  By Wap05a
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1.  What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?
2.  Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  The ___________ forms the relatively cool, brittle plates of plate tectonics.
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  A ______ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  __________ rocks form by crystallization and consolidation of molten magma.
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  _________ rocks always originate at the surface of the solid Earth.
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  The ____ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  ______ is often paraphrased as "the present is the key to the past".
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  The _____ is not a part of the Earth's physical environment.
11.  _______ is the process by which rocks break down in place to produce soils and sediments.
12.  The composition of the core of the Earth is though to be ___
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The asthenosphere is acutally a part of the _____ of the Earth.
14.  The _____ is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the Earth's interior.
15.  The _____ is the thinnest layer of the Earth.
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ______.
17.  The most prominent feature on the ocean floor are the _____.
18.  Which of the following is an accurate description of ionic bonding?
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  All silicate minerals contain which two elements?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  In which type of chemical bonding are electrons shared between adjacent atoms?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  How do the electrons behave in a mineral with metallic bonding?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  Which group of minerals are the most abundant in the Earth's crust?
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  Which of the following has the highest specific gravity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Which of the following describes the light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  The sizes, shapes, and arrangements of mineral grains in an igneous rock are known as _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Visible quartz and potassium feldspar grains are the main constituents in a ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  ________ has the same mineral composition as andesite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  The last minerals to crystallize on Bowen's reaction series result in igenous rocks with a ______ composition.
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  ____________ magma is the most abundant type of erupted at oceanic spreading centers.
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  Why would a plume of solid silicate rock rising slowly from deep in the mantle begin melting as it neared the base of the lithosphere?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Which of the following best describes seamounts and islands of the deep ocean basins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  _______ are usually the most abundant gasses emitted during basaltic volcanism.
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Which type of basaltic lava flow has its surface covered with sharp-edged, angular blocks and rubble?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Which one of the following statements is not true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Mount St. Helens is ____
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  The 1943 eruption of Paricutin in Mexico was characterized by ____
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  The recent (geologically) volcanic activity in Yellowstone National Park is ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  What two factors speed up rates of chemical reaction and weathering in rocks and soils?
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  In the Rocky Mountain region of the United States, north-facing slopes (downhill direction is toward the north) are typically more moist and heavily forested than south-facing slopes. Why?
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Which of the following statements about acidic preciptation is likely to be false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Which of the following best describes the "Dust Bowl"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Which of the following is an important, mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulders and bedrock?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Which of the following best describes sets of fractures in relatively fresh bedrock, such as granite, that are roughly parallel to the land surface?
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Which one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathering is not true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Which one of the following statements best describes erosion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  What mineral particles are the dominant coloring agents in reddish, brownish, and yellowish soils?
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  In which area would weathering by frost wedging probably be most effective?
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  Which one of the following statements concerning soil erosion is not true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  From the land surface downward to the unweathered bedrock, which of the following is the correct order of the different soil horizons?
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  ___________, a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks.
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  What is the main difference between a conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Which type of limestone consists mainly of tiny, marine fossils composed of calcite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Coal beds originate in _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  What major change occurs during metamorphism of limestone to marble?
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  _______ forms from the metamorphism of limestone or dolostone.
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  What foliated, metamorphic rock is texturally intermediate between slate and schist?
60.  Which of the following metamorphic rocks could be used to meutralize acidic mine waters?
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  What is the major source of heat for contact metamorphism?
62.  During metamorphism, what is the major effect of chemically active fluids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Consider a weathered rock or soil particle lying on a slope. How will the gravitational force pulling the particle downward along the land surface vary with the inclination of the slope?
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Which one of the following operates primarily in areas of permafrost?
65.  Why was the Alaskan pipeline built above ground and insulated?
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Which statement best describes slumping, a mass wasting process?
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  All of the following are factors affecting mass wasting except for ______
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  The most rapid type of mass movement is a _______?
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  As an erosional process, how is mass wasting unique form wind, water, and ice?
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  ___________ is not part of the hydrologic cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Which of the following is the correct definition of stream gradient?
72.  _______ make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.
73.  ________ describes the total sediment load transported by a stream.
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  What is the drop in water surface elevation divided by the distance the water flows?
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  The ______ river has the largest discharge of any in the world.
76.  _________ generally constitutes the highest percentage of the annual sediment load moved by a stream.
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  Where is erosion concentrated along a meandering stream?
78.  The water table is ________
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  _________ controls the ease (or difficulty) of groundwater transmission through a porous material.
80.  ________ are characteristics found in all good aquifers.
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Excessive groundwater withdrawals can cause ________
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  A _______ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern.
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  __________ account for the largest usage of groundwater in the United States.
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  The hot spring deposits at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, are travertine. What rock probably lies somewhere beneath the hot springs?
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  An aquifer is ________
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Which of the following best describes how geysers erupt?
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Which of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  The great, Southern Hemisphere glaciation that affected parts of Africa, South America, India, Australia, and Antarctica occurred _______
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  A fjord is _____
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  The ______ of the geologic time scale represents the time of the most recent "Ice Age".
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  A(n) ______ is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today.
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  How do icebergs in the North Atlantic Ocean originate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  Which one of the following statements concerning glacial deposits is not true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  What type of moraine is formed by the merging of two lateral moraines at a junction of two valley glaciers?
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  ______ have rainfall amounts and soil moisture contents between those of true deserts and humid lands.
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Most dry lands lie between ____ degrees north and south of the equator.
98.  Which one of the following statements concerning rock weathering is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  ________ refers to the "bouncing" mode of sand transport in a windstorm or stream.
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Which one of the following is the one best measure of the wetness or dryness of a region
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  Which one of the following concerning desert lands is false?
102.  All of the following statements concerning dry lands are true except for?
103.  Which of the following best describes the climatic factors that cause low latitude deserts like the Sahara in Africa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  A ____ is formed by abrasion of rocks by windblown sand.
105.  A ______ is a crescent-shaped dune whose tips point downward.
A.
B.
C.
D.
106.  Rainshadow deserts are common in _______
107.  Which one of the following is a low-latitude desert characterized by high atmospheric pressures and descending air masses (not rain shadow deserts)?
108.  ________ is thought to form by partial melting and in situ crystallization of the melted portion.
109.  Which of the following would exhibit sheared and mechanically fragmented rocks?
A.
B.
C.
D.
110.  Which of the following lists the rocks in the order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
111.  In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely?
112.  How do the strength and cohesion of clay-rich regolith or soil change with the addition of water?
A.
B.
C.
D.
113.  Which mass wasting process has the slowest rate of movement?
A.
B.
C.
D.
114.  Which of the following statements concerning mudflows is not true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
115.  At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
116.  __________ are components of the hydrologic cycle that release water vapor directly to the atmosphere.
A.
B.
C.
D.
117.  ___________ is a major dissolved volatile constituent in both magmas and volcanic gases.
118.  Volcanic bombs originate _________
A.
B.
C.
D.
119.  The ______ ocean basin is rimmed by the most subduction zones.
A.
B.
C.
D.
120.  __________ tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano.
A.
B.
C.
D.
121.  Which one of the following statements concerning volcanic blocks and bombs is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
122.  Which type of volcanism is typical of mid-oceanic ridge systems?
A.
B.
C.
D.
123.  A ____________ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows.
A.
B.
C.
D.
124.  Which of the following statements best describes the big Hawaiian volcanoes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
125.  What portion of an angular, fracture-bounded granitic block shows the highest rate of weathering?
A.
B.
C.
D.
126.  Assume that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statements is true?
127.  Compaction is a very important part of the lithification process for which of the following sediments?
128.  Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and halite?
129.  Studies of deep-sediment cores have contributed greatly to scientific knowledge of __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
130.  Which statement concerning sedimentary rocks is not true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
131.  _________ is not a common cementing agent for sandstones.
A.
B.
C.
D.
132.  Flint, chert, and jasper are microcrystalline forms of ________.
133.  Sedimentary rocks account for about what percentage of the Earth's outermost 10 kilometers of rock. Also, what percentage of the Earth's continental area is covered by sedimentary rocks?
A.
B.
C.
D.
134.  Which characteristic is absolutely necessary for a sedimentary rock to have potential as a possible reservoir for oil or gas?
135.  Which of the following best describes a mineral and a rock?
136.  Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?
A.
B.
C.
D.
137.  The ion at the center of a silicate tetrahedron is surrounded by _________.
138.  Which one of the following describes a mineral's response to mechanical impact?
A.
B.
C.
D.
139.  Which mineral is easily soluble in water at room temperature conditions?
140.  What element is the most abundant in the Earth's crust by weight?
A.
B.
C.
D.
141.  The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
142.  An atom's mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in its nucleus?
143.  _______ is a volcanic rock that is extremely vesicular and glassy.
A.
B.
C.
D.
144.  _____________ is composed mainly of ferromagnesian minerals.
A.
B.
C.
D.
145.  Which of the following minerals crystallize early in Bowen's reaction series?
146.  Which of the following best describes an aphanitic texture?
A.
B.
C.
D.
147.  A(n) ___________ texture would be most unlikely to occur in an extrusive igneous rock.
148.  _________ is the dominant lava erupted from volcanoes on Hawaii and Iceland.
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