Geology Quiz - Study For Final

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 Geology Quiz - Study For Final
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  • 1. 
    The ___________ forms the relatively cool, brittle plates of plate tectonics.
    • A. 

      Asthenosphere

    • B. 

      Lithosphere

    • C. 

      Astrosphere

    • D. 

      Eosphere


  • 2. 
    A ______ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
    • A. 

      Hypothesis

    • B. 

      Generalization

    • C. 

      Law

    • D. 

      Theory


  • 3. 
    __________ rocks form by crystallization and consolidation of molten magma.
    • A. 

      Sedimentary

    • B. 

      Indigenous

    • C. 

      Primary

    • D. 

      Igneous


  • 4. 
    _________ rocks always originate at the surface of the solid Earth.
    • A. 

      Secondary

    • B. 

      Igneous

    • C. 

      Metamorphic

    • D. 

      Sedimentary


  • 5. 
    In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?
    • A. 

      Core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust

    • B. 

      Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust

    • C. 

      Inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere

    • D. 

      Core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere


  • 6. 
    The ____ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.
    • A. 

      Hydrosphere

    • B. 

      Atmosphere

    • C. 

      Biosphere

    • D. 

      Asthenosphere


  • 7. 
    ______ is often paraphrased as "the present is the key to the past".
    • A. 

      Biblical prophecy

    • B. 

      Uniformitarianism

    • C. 

      Aristotelian logic

    • D. 

      Catastrophism


  • 8. 
    The composition of the core of the Earth is though to be ___
    • A. 

      Basalt

    • B. 

      Granite

    • C. 

      Peridotite

    • D. 

      Solid iron-nickel alloy


  • 9. 
    The _____ is the thinnest layer of the Earth.
    • A. 

      Crust

    • B. 

      Outer core

    • C. 

      Mantle

    • D. 

      Inner core


  • 10. 
    Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2)?
    • A. 

      Calcite

    • B. 

      Diamond

    • C. 

      Olivine

    • D. 

      Quartz


  • 11. 
    Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?
    • A. 

      They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color, and they have metallic lusters.

    • B. 

      The are black to dark-green, silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium.

    • C. 

      They contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green.

    • D. 

      They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements magnesium and ferrium.


  • 12. 
    All silicate minerals contain which two elements?
    • A. 

      Iron, silicon

    • B. 

      Silicon, sodium

    • C. 

      Oxygen, carbon

    • D. 

      Silicon, oxygen


  • 13. 
    In which type of chemical bonding are electrons shared between adjacent atoms?
    • A. 

      Ionic

    • B. 

      Subatomic

    • C. 

      Covalent

    • D. 

      Isotopic


  • 14. 
    How do the electrons behave in a mineral with metallic bonding?
    • A. 

      They are tightly bound to certain atoms and cannot readily move

    • B. 

      They can move relatively easily from atom to atom inside the mineral

    • C. 

      They react with protons to make neutrons in the outer valence shells

    • D. 

      They move to adjacent negative ions, forming positive ions


  • 15. 
    Which group of minerals are the most abundant in the Earth's crust?
    • A. 

      Sulfides

    • B. 

      Carbonates

    • C. 

      Silicates

    • D. 

      Chlorides


  • 16. 
    Which of the following describes the light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral?
    • A. 

      Luster

    • B. 

      Color streak

    • C. 

      Virtual absorption

    • D. 

      Fluorescence


  • 17. 
    The sizes,shapes,and arrangements of mineral grains in an igneous rock are known as _______.
    • A. 

      Silica content

    • B. 

      Texture

    • C. 

      Mineral content

    • D. 

      Bowen 's reaction series


  • 18. 
    Visible quartz and potassium feldspar grains are the main constituents in a ______.
    • A. 

      Granite

    • B. 

      Gabbro

    • C. 

      Basalt

    • D. 

      Rhyolite


  • 19. 
    ________ has the same mineral composition as andesite?
    • A. 

      Basalt

    • B. 

      Granite

    • C. 

      Gabbro

    • D. 

      Diorite


  • 20. 
    The last minerals to crystallize on Bowen' s reaction series result in igenous rocks with a ______ composition.
    • A. 

      Felsic

    • B. 

      Intermediate

    • C. 

      Mafic

    • D. 

      Ultramafic


  • 21. 
    Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth,unfragmented,ropy surface?
    • A. 

      Aa

    • B. 

      Pegmatitic

    • C. 

      Paheohoe

    • D. 

      Scoria


  • 22. 
    ____________ magma is the most abundant type of erupted at oceanic spreading centers.
    • A. 

      Basaltic

    • B. 

      Granitic

    • C. 

      Andesitic

    • D. 

      Pegmatitic


  • 23. 
    Why would a plume of solid silicate rock rising slowly from deep in the mantle begin melting as it neared the base of the lithosphere?
    • A. 

      The rock heats up and expands at lower pressures,causing it to liquefy

    • B. 

      Temperatures remain high as lowered pressures decrease melting temperatures.

    • C. 

      The lowered pressures cause rapid heat loss accompanied by melting.

    • D. 

      None of the above


  • 24. 
    _______ are usually the most abundant gasses emitted during basaltic volcanism.
    • A. 

      Chlorine and sodium

    • B. 

      Neon and ammonia

    • C. 

      Oxygen and nitrogen

    • D. 

      Water and carbon dioxide


  • 25. 
    Which one of the following statements is not true?
    • A. 

      Melting temperatures of silicate rocks increase with increased pressure

    • B. 

      Melting temperatures of silicate rocks are lowered by small amounts of water

    • C. 

      Basalt magmas in general have higher temperatures than rhyolite magmas

    • D. 

      When magma reaches the surface,its dissolved gas content increases


  • 26. 
    Mount St. Helens is ____
    • A. 

      A basaltic cinder cone

    • B. 

      An explosive stratovolcano

    • C. 

      A basaltic shield volcano

    • D. 

      A small,welded tuff cone


  • 27. 
    The 1943 eruption of Paricutin in Mexico was characterized by ____
    • A. 

      Mudflows and explosive ash eruptions

    • B. 

      Welded-tuff deposition and caldera formation

    • C. 

      Cinder cone building and basaltic lava

    • D. 

      Pyroclastic eruptions and nuee ardente flows


  • 28. 
    The recent (geologically) volcanic activity in Yellowstone National Park is ______.
    • A. 

      Related to plate subduction

    • B. 

      Related to a divergent plate boundary

    • C. 

      Related to a transform plate boundary

    • D. 

      Related to intraplate, hot spot volcanism


  • 29. 
    What two factors speed up rates of chemical reaction and weathering in rocks and soils?
    • A. 

      Low temperatures; very dry

    • B. 

      Low temperatures; very moist

    • C. 

      High temperatures; very dry

    • D. 

      Warm temperatures; very moist


  • 30. 
    In the Rocky Mountain region of the United States, north-facing slopes (downhill direction is toward the north) are typically more moist and heavily forested than south-facing slopes. Why?
    • A. 

      North-facing slopes receive more sunlight in the summer; snow melts faster and more soil moistures is available for the trees

    • B. 

      South-facing slopes receive more moisture and sunlight; rock weathering is slower

    • C. 

      North-facing slopes receive about the same amount of preciptation as south-facing slopes; less moisture evaporates from north-facing slopes

    • D. 

      South-facing slopes receive less moisture, yet rock weathering is faster.


  • 31. 
    Which of the following best describes the "Dust Bowl"?
    • A. 

      The long drought preceding the Irish potato famine of the 1840s

    • B. 

      The area covered by volcanic ash around Mt Pinatubo, 1991

    • C. 

      Areas of severe wind erosion on the Great Plains, 1930s

    • D. 

      A New Year's Day invitational soccer match in Tripoli, Libya


  • 32. 
    Which of the following is an important, mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulders and bedrock?
    • A. 

      Oxidation

    • B. 

      Eluviation

    • C. 

      Hydrologic cycling

    • D. 

      Frost wedging


  • 33. 
    Which of the following best describes sets of fractures in relatively fresh bedrock, such as granite, that are roughly parallel to the land surface?
    • A. 

      Thermal expansion cracks

    • B. 

      Sheeting fractures

    • C. 

      Hydrolytic failures

    • D. 

      Columnar joints


  • 34. 
    Which one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathering is not true?
    • A. 

      Reduces grain sizes of rock particles

    • B. 

      Allows for faster rates of chemical weathering

    • C. 

      Is important in the formation of talus slopes

    • D. 

      Involves a major change in the mineral composition of the weathered material


  • 35. 
    Which one of the following statements best describes erosion?
    • A. 

      Disintegration and decomposition of rocks and minerals at the surface

    • B. 

      Movement of weathered rock and regolith toward the base of a slope

    • C. 

      The process by which weathered rock and mineral particles are removed from one area and transported elsewhere.

    • D. 

      The combined processes of leaching, eluviation, and mass wasting


  • 36. 
    In which area would weathering by frost wedging probably be most effective?
    • A. 

      In a moist, tropical forest

    • B. 

      In cool high desert areas

    • C. 

      Where the subsoil is permanently frozen

    • D. 

      In moist, temperate climates


  • 37. 
    Which one of the following statements concerning soil erosion is not true?
    • A. 

      Sheet erosion, rills, and gullies develop mainly during prolonged droughts.

    • B. 

      Soils form naturally by weathering; if protected form erosion, sound management can maintain or enhance their nutrient levels and textural characteristics

    • C. 

      Rates of soil erosion exceed rates of soil formation in some parts of the world

    • D. 

      Grasses and other vegetation, windbreaks, and contour cropping will help reduce losses of soil from cultivated lands


  • 38. 
    From the land surface downward to the unweathered bedrock, which of the following is the correct order of the different soil horizons?
    • A. 

      O,A,E,B,C, bedrock

    • B. 

      A,B,C,D,E,bedrock

    • C. 

      E,A,B,C,O, bedrock

    • D. 

      D,E,C,B,A, bedrock


  • 39. 
    ___________, a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks.
    • A. 

      Calcite

    • B. 

      Orthoclase

    • C. 

      Quartz

    • D. 

      Biotite


  • 40. 
    What is the main difference between a conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia?
    • A. 

      Breccia clasts are angular; conglomerate clasts are rounded

    • B. 

      A breccia is well stratified; a conglomerate is poorly stratified

    • C. 

      Breccia clasts are the size of baseball; conglomerate clasts are larger

    • D. 

      Breccia has a compacted, clay-rich matrix; conglomerate has no matrix


  • 41. 
    Which type of limestone consists mainly of tiny, marine fossils composed of calcite?
    • A. 

      Dolostone

    • B. 

      Chert

    • C. 

      Coquina

    • D. 

      Chalk


  • 42. 
    Coal beds originate in _______.
    • A. 

      Shallow lakes in a dry, desert region.

    • B. 

      Channels of fast-moving streams

    • C. 

      Deep, marine basins below wave action

    • D. 

      Freshwater coastal swamps and bogs


  • 43. 
    What major change occurs during metamorphism of limestone to marble?
    • A. 

      Calcite grains grow larger and increase in size

    • B. 

      Clays crystallize to micas, forming a highly foliated, mica-rich rock

    • C. 

      Limestone grains react to form quartz and feldspars

    • D. 

      Calcite grains are dissolved away leaving only marble crystals


  • 44. 
    _______ forms from the metamorphism of limestone or dolostone.
    • A. 

      Migmatite

    • B. 

      Amphibolite

    • C. 

      Marble

    • D. 

      Quartzite


  • 45. 
    Which of the following metamorphic rocks could be used to meutralize acidic mine waters?
    • A. 

      Granite Gniess

    • B. 

      Quartzite

    • C. 

      Slate

    • D. 

      Marble


  • 46. 
    During metamorphism, what is the major effect of chemically active fluids?
    • A. 

      Increase the pressures in deeply buried, regional-metamorphic zones

    • B. 

      Aid in the movement of dissolved silicate constituents and facilitate growth of the mineral grains

    • C. 

      Prevent partial melting so solid rocks can undergo very high temperature regional metamorphism

    • D. 

      Facilitate the formation of schistosity and gnessic banding in hornfels and slates


  • 47. 
    Consider a weathered rock or soil particle lying on a slope. How will the gravitational force pulling the particle downward along the land surface vary with the inclination of the slope?
    • A. 

      It will increase as the slope angle is lessened

    • B. 

      It will decrease as the slope angle is lessened

    • C. 

      It is not affected by the slope angle

    • D. 

      It will possibly increase or decrease as slope angle is lessened, depending upon other factors


  • 48. 
    Why was the Alaskan pipeline built above ground and insulated?
    • A. 

      To protect the pipeline against damage due to thawing ground and to keep the crude oil hot and fluid

    • B. 

      To keep the crude oil hot and fluid

    • C. 

      To protect against damage from herds of elk and deer

    • D. 

      To protect against damage from roots of large trees uprooted in windstorms


  • 49. 
    Which statement best describes slumping, a mass wasting process?
    • A. 

      A block or blocks of unconsolidated regolith slide downhill along a curved slip surface

    • B. 

      Blocks of hard bedrock rapidly slide downhill along fracture surfaces

    • C. 

      The soil and regolith move downhill very slowly

    • D. 

      A mass of soil or regolith becomes saturated with water and suddenly flows downhill to the base of the slope


  • 50. 
    All of the following are factors affecting mass wasting except for ______
    • A. 

      Gravity

    • B. 

      Water

    • C. 

      Slope angle

    • D. 

      Geologic age


  • 51. 
    The most rapid type of mass movement is a _______?
    • A. 

      Slump

    • B. 

      Lahar

    • C. 

      Rock avalanche

    • D. 

      Debris flow


  • 52. 
    As an erosional process, how is mass wasting unique form wind, water, and ice?
    • A. 

      Mass wasting affects particles of all sizes whereas the others affect only smaller particles

    • B. 

      Mass wasting does not require a transporting medium

    • C. 

      Mass wasting affects much larger geographic areas than does wind, water, and ice.

    • D. 

      All of the above make mass wasting unique compared to wind, water, and ice


  • 53. 
    ___________ is not part of the hydrologic cycle.
    • A. 

      Water evaporating from a lake

    • B. 

      Water infiltrating into the soil and bedrock

    • C. 

      Calcium carbonate dissolving in soil water and groundwater

    • D. 

      Water moving into creeks and streams following a rainstorm


  • 54. 
    ________ describes the total sediment load transported by a stream.
    • A. 

      Capacity

    • B. 

      Discharge

    • C. 

      Competence

    • D. 

      Hydro-load factor


  • 55. 
    What is the drop in water surface elevation divided by the distance the water flows?
    • A. 

      Stream discharge

    • B. 

      Hydraulic capacity

    • C. 

      Hydrologic resistance

    • D. 

      Stream gradient


  • 56. 
    _________ generally constitutes the highest percentage of the annual sediment load moved by a stream.
    • A. 

      Bed load

    • B. 

      Dissolved load

    • C. 

      Suspended load

    • D. 

      Saltation load


  • 57. 
    The water table is ________
    • A. 

      A boundary between unsaturated bedrock and an underground river

    • B. 

      A boundary between unsaturated bedrock below and saturated bedrock above

    • C. 

      An underground mass of partly saturated rock

    • D. 

      A boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above


  • 58. 
    ________ are characteristics found in all good aquifers.
    • A. 

      High porosity and high permeability

    • B. 

      Low permeability and high potability

    • C. 

      High potability and high portability

    • D. 

      Low porosity and low permeability


  • 59. 
    Excessive groundwater withdrawals can cause ________
    • A. 

      The water table drops or declines in elevation

    • B. 

      An influent stream becomes an effluent stream

    • C. 

      Expansion of the dewatered aquifer

    • D. 

      Porosity in the aquifer increases as the water is removed


  • 60. 
    A _______ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern.
    • A. 

      Stalandite

    • B. 

      Stalactite

    • C. 

      Stalagmite

    • D. 

      Slagdite


  • 61. 
    __________ account for the largest usage of groundwater in the United States.
    • A. 

      Water for livestock and poultry

    • B. 

      Domestic and municipal supplies

    • C. 

      Industrial uses

    • D. 

      Agriculture and irrigation


  • 62. 
    The hot spring deposits at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, are travertine. What rock probably lies somewhere beneath the hot springs?
    • A. 

      Shale

    • B. 

      Rhyolite

    • C. 

      Limestone

    • D. 

      Quartzite


  • 63. 
    An aquifer is ________
    • A. 

      The porous and permeable, saturated cone of depression in an aquitard

    • B. 

      A layer or stratum in which groundwater flows downward to the water table

    • C. 

      A saturated, porous, and permeable layer or stratum

    • D. 

      An unsaturated, influent-flow bed or stratum below a spring


  • 64. 
    Which of the following best describes how geysers erupt?
    • A. 

      Water suddenly boils in disconnected voids and cracks above the water table, causing the aquifer to explosively fragment

    • B. 

      Water slowly boils in a network of vertical cracks above the water table, sending up a plume of steam and hot water

    • C. 

      Water below the water table slowly boils in a vertical crack or natural conduit, causing a plume of condensed water vapor to rise above the vent

    • D. 

      With a slight reduction in pressure, water in a saturated, natural conduit suddenly boils, sending a plume of steam and hot water into the air above the vent


  • 65. 
    Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?
    • A. 

      Greenland

    • B. 

      Russia, Siberia

    • C. 

      Iceland

    • D. 

      Antarctica


  • 66. 
    Which of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years?
    • A. 

      Wastage exceeds accumulation

    • B. 

      Accumulation exceeds wastage

    • C. 

      Accumulation and wastage are about equal

    • D. 

      None of the above


  • 67. 
    The great, Southern Hemisphere glaciation that affected parts of Africa, South America, India, Australia, and Antarctica occurred _______
    • A. 

      In late Paleozic time

    • B. 

      In late Proterozoic time

    • C. 

      In early Cenozoic time

    • D. 

      In middle Mesozoic time


  • 68. 
    A fjord is _____
    • A. 

      A stream valley, deepened by glacial erosion, that floods as sea level rises

    • B. 

      A glacier-cut valley that is dammed by an end moraine and alarge lake is formed

    • C. 

      A glacier-cut valley which sinks below sea level due to glacial rebound after the ice melts

    • D. 

      A large, kettle-pocked moraine left as an island when sea level rises following melting of the ice


  • 69. 
    The ______ of the geologic time scale represents the time of the most recent "Ice Age".
    • A. 

      Pleistocene era

    • B. 

      Pliocene epoch

    • C. 

      Pleistocene epoch

    • D. 

      Pliocene era


  • 70. 
    A(n) ______ is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today.
    • A. 

      Outwash plain

    • B. 

      Hanging valley

    • C. 

      Striated drumlin

    • D. 

      Horn peak


  • 71. 
    How do icebergs in the North Atlantic Ocean originate?
    • A. 

      By calving of large piedmont glaciers in Greenland

    • B. 

      As large masses of sea ice that float northward from Antarctica

    • C. 

      As masses of sea ice that float southward from the Arctic Ocean

    • D. 

      As calved blocks of glacial ice that float northward from Antarctica


  • 72. 
    Which one of the following statements concerning glacial deposits is not true?
    • A. 

      Till is deposited directly from the ice; outwash is deposited by meltwater streams

    • B. 

      Glacial erratics are blocks of rock that are too large for the glacier to move

    • C. 

      Tills are poorly sorted and the fragments are mostly angular

    • D. 

      Outwash is mainly stratified sand and gravel


  • 73. 
    What type of moraine is formed by the merging of two lateral moraines at a junction of two valley glaciers?
    • A. 

      Medial

    • B. 

      Recessional

    • C. 

      Ground

    • D. 

      Kettle


  • 74. 
    ______ have rainfall amounts and soil moisture contents between those of true deserts and humid lands.
    • A. 

      Tundras

    • B. 

      Steppes

    • C. 

      Sundras

    • D. 

      Sabkhas


  • 75. 
    Which one of the following statements concerning rock weathering is true?
    • A. 

      Warm temperatures and high soil moisture contents accelerate chemical weathering

    • B. 

      Low temperatures and high soil moisture contents accelerate chemical weathering but inhibit mechanical weathering

    • C. 

      Warm temperatures and low soil moisture contents both promote rapid rates of mechanical weathering

    • D. 

      Temperature has no effect on rock weathering


  • 76. 
    ________ refers to the "bouncing" mode of sand transport in a windstorm or stream.
    • A. 

      Saltation

    • B. 

      Ventifaction

    • C. 

      Siltation

    • D. 

      Deflation


  • 77. 
    Which one of the following is the one best measure of the wetness or dryness of a region
    • A. 

      Total annual precipitation

    • B. 

      Mean annual temperature

    • C. 

      Difference between annual precipitation ad evaporation potential

    • D. 

      Percentage of precipitation that falls during the summer months


  • 78. 
    Which of the following best describes the climatic factors that cause low latitude deserts like the Sahara in Africa?
    • A. 

      Cool, dry air aloft is descending, surface winds are blowing toward the equator

    • B. 

      Warm, humid air aloft is descending; surface winds blow away from the equator

    • C. 

      Warm, humid air is rising; surface winds are calm

    • D. 

      Cool, dry air at the surface is rising causing winds to blow away from the equator


  • 79. 
    A ______ is a crescent-shaped dune whose tips point downward.
    • A. 

      Parabarcal

    • B. 

      Transverse

    • C. 

      Barchan

    • D. 

      Star


  • 80. 
    Which of the following would exhibit sheared and mechanically fragmented rocks?
    • A. 

      Fault movement at shallow depths

    • B. 

      Intense compression in a deep-seated, regional metamorphic zone

    • C. 

      Heating of shales and mudstones near a pluton

    • D. 

      Regional metamorphism of pyroclastic volcanic rocks


  • 81. 
    Which of the following lists the rocks in the order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism?
    • A. 

      Phyllite, slate, schist

    • B. 

      Schist, slate, phyllite

    • C. 

      Slate, phyllite, schist

    • D. 

      Slate, schist, phyllite


  • 82. 
    How do the strength and cohesion of clay-rich regolith or soil change with the addition of water?
    • A. 

      Water does not affect the cohesion but lowers the strength

    • B. 

      Water reduces the strength of clays but raises the cohesion of the soil

    • C. 

      Water increases the strength and cohesion

    • D. 

      Water lowers the strength and cohesion


  • 83. 
    Which mass wasting process has the slowest rate of movement?
    • A. 

      Slump

    • B. 

      Rock avalanche

    • C. 

      Solifluction

    • D. 

      Creep


  • 84. 
    Which of the following statements concerning mudflows is not true?
    • A. 

      Mudflows may be caused by heavy rains or melting snow

    • B. 

      In hilly areas, mudflows move down the canyons and stream valleys

    • C. 

      Mudflows deposit talus slopes

    • D. 

      Mudflows can move and carry very large boulders and other coarse debris


  • 85. 
    At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as ______.
    • A. 

      Endotributaries

    • B. 

      Exotributaries

    • C. 

      Distributaries

    • D. 

      Contributaries


  • 86. 
    __________ are components of the hydrologic cycle that release water vapor directly to the atmosphere.
    • A. 

      Runoff and infiltration

    • B. 

      Evaporation and transpiration

    • C. 

      Precipitation and runoff

    • D. 

      Discharge and transportation


  • 87. 
    Volcanic bombs originate _________
    • A. 

      As laser-guided, granite blocks launched from a supersonic jet

    • B. 

      As blocks of volcanic rock ejected from an erupting volcanic crater

    • C. 

      As erupted magma blobs that partly congeal before falling to the ground

    • D. 

      As ash particles that join together in the eruptive plume and fall as cobble-sized objects


  • 88. 
    __________ tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano.
    • A. 

      High viscosity and dissolved gas

    • B. 

      High viscosity; low dissolved gas content

    • C. 

      Low silica content, low viscosity

    • D. 

      Low viscosity; low dissolved gas content


  • 89. 
    Which one of the following statements concerning volcanic blocks and bombs is true?
    • A. 

      Blocks are broken fragments of solid rocks; bombs have smaller sizes than lapilli

    • B. 

      Bombs are guided to Earth by laser beams; blocks fall anywhere

    • C. 

      Bombs are ejected as magma lumps; blocks are ejected as solid fragments

    • D. 

      Bombs and blocks are both smaller than lapilli and cinders


  • 90. 
    Which type of volcanism is typical of mid-oceanic ridge systems?
    • A. 

      Explosive; composite cones

    • B. 

      Submarine, basaltic lava flows

    • C. 

      Fissure eruptions; flood basalts fields

    • D. 

      Explosive; rhyolitic, pyroclastic flows


  • 91. 
    A ____________ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows.
    • A. 

      Composite

    • B. 

      Stratosphere

    • C. 

      Cinder cone

    • D. 

      Shield


  • 92. 
    Which of the following statements best describes the big Hawaiian volcanoes?
    • A. 

      Lie directly above a transform plate boundary that cuts deeply into the mantle

    • B. 

      Lie directly above an active subduction zone where the Pacific plate is sinking into the mantle

    • C. 

      Lie along the crest of the East Pacific Rise, a mid-oceanic ridge or spreading center

    • D. 

      Are situated in the interior of a large, Pacific plate above a hot spot deep in the mantle


  • 93. 
    What portion of an angular, fracture-bounded granitic block shows the highest rate of weathering?
    • A. 

      The unfractured interior

    • B. 

      The edges and corners

    • C. 

      The crack surfaces not including edges and corners

    • D. 

      All of the above show equal rates


  • 94. 
    Studies of deep-sediment cores have contributed greatly to scientific knowledge of __________.
    • A. 

      Climactic changes during the last four million years

    • B. 

      How soft-bodied organisms are carbonized

    • C. 

      The origin of oscillation ripple marks in deep-sea muds

    • D. 

      The biological impacts of pollution on parts of the continental shelves


  • 95. 
    Which statement concerning sedimentary rocks is not true?
    • A. 

      They may contain fossils that provide clues about ancient life forms

    • B. 

      They probably show some evidence of stratification

    • C. 

      They were originally deposited at depth below the bottom of the sea

    • D. 

      They are composed of particles and constituents derived from weathering and erosion of other rocks


  • 96. 
    _________ is not a common cementing agent for sandstones.
    • A. 

      Quartz

    • B. 

      Calcite

    • C. 

      Fluorite

    • D. 

      Iron Oxides


  • 97. 
    Sedimentary rocks account for about what percentage of the Earth's outermost 10 kilometers of rock. Also, what percentage of the Earth's continental area is covered by sedimentary rocks?
    • A. 

      5% and 75%

    • B. 

      3.5% and 100%

    • C. 

      65% and 10%

    • D. 

      85% and 100%


  • 98. 
    Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?
    • A. 

      The atoms have different numbers of protons and the same number of neutrons

    • B. 

      The atoms have the same number of electrons and different numbers of protons

    • C. 

      The atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons

    • D. 

      The atoms have different numbers of electrons but the same number of neutrons


  • 99. 
    Which one of the following describes a mineral's response to mechanical impact?
    • A. 

      Luster

    • B. 

      Cleavage

    • C. 

      Streak

    • D. 

      Crystal form


  • 100. 
    What element is the most abundant in the Earth's crust by weight?
    • A. 

      Carbon

    • B. 

      Chlorine

    • C. 

      Oxygen

    • D. 

      Sodium


  • 101. 
    _______ is a volcanic rock that is extremely vesicular and glassy.
    • A. 

      Obsidian

    • B. 

      Pegmatite

    • C. 

      Tuff

    • D. 

      Pumice


  • 102. 
    _____________ is composed mainly of ferromagnesian minerals.
    • A. 

      Peridotite

    • B. 

      Rhyolite

    • C. 

      Andesite

    • D. 

      Granite


  • 103. 
    Which of the following best describes an aphanitic texture?
    • A. 

      The rock is crystalline; mineral grains are too small to be visible without a magnifying lens or microscope

    • B. 

      The mineral grains have glassy textures

    • C. 

      The rock consists of broken, volcanic-rock and mineral fragments

    • D. 

      The rock is crystalline; mineral grains are of distinctly different sizes


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