Geology Quiz - Study For Final

148 Questions  I  By Wap05a
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1.  What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?
2.  Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?
A.
B.
C.
D.
3.  The ___________ forms the relatively cool, brittle plates of plate tectonics.
A.
B.
C.
D.
4.  A ______ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
A.
B.
C.
D.
5.  __________ rocks form by crystallization and consolidation of molten magma.
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.  _________ rocks always originate at the surface of the solid Earth.
A.
B.
C.
D.
7.  In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?
A.
B.
C.
D.
8.  The ____ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.
A.
B.
C.
D.
9.  ______ is often paraphrased as "the present is the key to the past".
A.
B.
C.
D.
10.  The _____ is not a part of the Earth's physical environment.
11.  _______ is the process by which rocks break down in place to produce soils and sediments.
12.  The composition of the core of the Earth is though to be ___
A.
B.
C.
D.
13.  The asthenosphere is acutally a part of the _____ of the Earth.
14.  The _____ is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the Earth's interior.
15.  The _____ is the thinnest layer of the Earth.
A.
B.
C.
D.
16.  Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ______.
17.  The most prominent feature on the ocean floor are the _____.
18.  Which of the following is an accurate description of ionic bonding?
A.
B.
C.
D.
19.  Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
20.  Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?
A.
B.
C.
D.
21.  All silicate minerals contain which two elements?
A.
B.
C.
D.
22.  In which type of chemical bonding are electrons shared between adjacent atoms?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23.  How do the electrons behave in a mineral with metallic bonding?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.  Which group of minerals are the most abundant in the Earth's crust?
A.
B.
C.
D.
25.  Which of the following has the highest specific gravity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
26.  Which of the following describes the light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral?
A.
B.
C.
D.
27.  The sizes, shapes, and arrangements of mineral grains in an igneous rock are known as _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
28.  Visible quartz and potassium feldspar grains are the main constituents in a ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
29.  ________ has the same mineral composition as andesite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
30.  The last minerals to crystallize on Bowen's reaction series result in igenous rocks with a ______ composition.
A.
B.
C.
D.
31.  Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface?
A.
B.
C.
D.
32.  ____________ magma is the most abundant type of erupted at oceanic spreading centers.
A.
B.
C.
D.
33.  Why would a plume of solid silicate rock rising slowly from deep in the mantle begin melting as it neared the base of the lithosphere?
A.
B.
C.
D.
34.  Which of the following best describes seamounts and islands of the deep ocean basins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
35.  _______ are usually the most abundant gasses emitted during basaltic volcanism.
A.
B.
C.
D.
36.  Which type of basaltic lava flow has its surface covered with sharp-edged, angular blocks and rubble?
A.
B.
C.
D.
37.  Which one of the following statements is not true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
38.  Mount St. Helens is ____
A.
B.
C.
D.
39.  The 1943 eruption of Paricutin in Mexico was characterized by ____
A.
B.
C.
D.
40.  The recent (geologically) volcanic activity in Yellowstone National Park is ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
41.  What two factors speed up rates of chemical reaction and weathering in rocks and soils?
A.
B.
C.
D.
42.  In the Rocky Mountain region of the United States, north-facing slopes (downhill direction is toward the north) are typically more moist and heavily forested than south-facing slopes. Why?
A.
B.
C.
D.
43.  Which of the following statements about acidic preciptation is likely to be false?
A.
B.
C.
D.
44.  Which of the following best describes the "Dust Bowl"?
A.
B.
C.
D.
45.  Which of the following is an important, mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulders and bedrock?
A.
B.
C.
D.
46.  Which of the following best describes sets of fractures in relatively fresh bedrock, such as granite, that are roughly parallel to the land surface?
A.
B.
C.
D.
47.  Which one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathering is not true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
48.  Which one of the following statements best describes erosion?
A.
B.
C.
D.
49.  What mineral particles are the dominant coloring agents in reddish, brownish, and yellowish soils?
A.
B.
C.
D.
50.  In which area would weathering by frost wedging probably be most effective?
A.
B.
C.
D.
51.  Which one of the following statements concerning soil erosion is not true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
52.  From the land surface downward to the unweathered bedrock, which of the following is the correct order of the different soil horizons?
A.
B.
C.
D.
53.  ___________, a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks.
A.
B.
C.
D.
54.  What is the main difference between a conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia?
A.
B.
C.
D.
55.  Which type of limestone consists mainly of tiny, marine fossils composed of calcite?
A.
B.
C.
D.
56.  Coal beds originate in _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
57.  What major change occurs during metamorphism of limestone to marble?
A.
B.
C.
D.
58.  _______ forms from the metamorphism of limestone or dolostone.
A.
B.
C.
D.
59.  What foliated, metamorphic rock is texturally intermediate between slate and schist?
60.  Which of the following metamorphic rocks could be used to meutralize acidic mine waters?
A.
B.
C.
D.
61.  What is the major source of heat for contact metamorphism?
62.  During metamorphism, what is the major effect of chemically active fluids?
A.
B.
C.
D.
63.  Consider a weathered rock or soil particle lying on a slope. How will the gravitational force pulling the particle downward along the land surface vary with the inclination of the slope?
A.
B.
C.
D.
64.  Which one of the following operates primarily in areas of permafrost?
65.  Why was the Alaskan pipeline built above ground and insulated?
A.
B.
C.
D.
66.  Which statement best describes slumping, a mass wasting process?
A.
B.
C.
D.
67.  All of the following are factors affecting mass wasting except for ______
A.
B.
C.
D.
68.  The most rapid type of mass movement is a _______?
A.
B.
C.
D.
69.  As an erosional process, how is mass wasting unique form wind, water, and ice?
A.
B.
C.
D.
70.  ___________ is not part of the hydrologic cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
71.  Which of the following is the correct definition of stream gradient?
72.  _______ make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.
73.  ________ describes the total sediment load transported by a stream.
A.
B.
C.
D.
74.  What is the drop in water surface elevation divided by the distance the water flows?
A.
B.
C.
D.
75.  The ______ river has the largest discharge of any in the world.
76.  _________ generally constitutes the highest percentage of the annual sediment load moved by a stream.
A.
B.
C.
D.
77.  Where is erosion concentrated along a meandering stream?
78.  The water table is ________
A.
B.
C.
D.
79.  _________ controls the ease (or difficulty) of groundwater transmission through a porous material.
80.  ________ are characteristics found in all good aquifers.
A.
B.
C.
D.
81.  Excessive groundwater withdrawals can cause ________
A.
B.
C.
D.
82.  A _______ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern.
A.
B.
C.
D.
83.  __________ account for the largest usage of groundwater in the United States.
A.
B.
C.
D.
84.  The hot spring deposits at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, are travertine. What rock probably lies somewhere beneath the hot springs?
A.
B.
C.
D.
85.  An aquifer is ________
A.
B.
C.
D.
86.  Which of the following best describes how geysers erupt?
A.
B.
C.
D.
87.  Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?
A.
B.
C.
D.
88.  Which of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years?
A.
B.
C.
D.
89.  The great, Southern Hemisphere glaciation that affected parts of Africa, South America, India, Australia, and Antarctica occurred _______
A.
B.
C.
D.
90.  A fjord is _____
A.
B.
C.
D.
91.  The ______ of the geologic time scale represents the time of the most recent "Ice Age".
A.
B.
C.
D.
92.  A(n) ______ is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today.
A.
B.
C.
D.
93.  How do icebergs in the North Atlantic Ocean originate?
A.
B.
C.
D.
94.  Which one of the following statements concerning glacial deposits is not true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
95.  What type of moraine is formed by the merging of two lateral moraines at a junction of two valley glaciers?
A.
B.
C.
D.
96.  ______ have rainfall amounts and soil moisture contents between those of true deserts and humid lands.
A.
B.
C.
D.
97.  Most dry lands lie between ____ degrees north and south of the equator.
98.  Which one of the following statements concerning rock weathering is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
99.  ________ refers to the "bouncing" mode of sand transport in a windstorm or stream.
A.
B.
C.
D.
100.  Which one of the following is the one best measure of the wetness or dryness of a region
A.
B.
C.
D.
101.  Which one of the following concerning desert lands is false?
102.  All of the following statements concerning dry lands are true except for?
103.  Which of the following best describes the climatic factors that cause low latitude deserts like the Sahara in Africa?
A.
B.
C.
D.
104.  A ____ is formed by abrasion of rocks by windblown sand.