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Geology 101 Quiz 1

25 Questions
Geology Quizzes & Trivia

Exam 1 study for final- exam A

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A particular country had a population of 250 million in 1970 and a population growth  rate of 1.75%. At this rate, what is the expected population for the year 2050? 
    • A. 

      300 million

    • B. 

      437.5 million

    • C. 

      500 million

    • D. 

      750 million

    • E. 

      1 billion

  • 2. 
    The most important aspect of a given population, in terms of predicting the rate of  growth of that population, is 
    • A. 

      The birthrate of the population.

    • B. 

      The death rate of the population.

    • C. 

      The percentage of the population between the ages of 14 and 49.

    • D. 

      The percentage of the population less than 14 years of age.

    • E. 

      The average life expectancy of the population.

  • 3. 
    A geological specimen has been analyzed and found to contain 200 million atoms of a  radioactive isotope whose half-life is known to be 300 million years. The same specimen  contains 600 million atoms of the daughter product produced by the decay of the  radioactive isotope. How old is this specimen? 
    • A. 

      100 million years

    • B. 

      200 million years

    • C. 

      300 million years

    • D. 

      600 million years

    • E. 

      900 million years

  • 4. 
    The advent of instruments that allowed earthquakes to be located precisely lead to the  conclusion that 
    • A. 

      Earthquakes and volcanoes are randomly scattered about the Earth.

    • B. 

      Earthquakes and volcanoes rarely occur in the same localities.

    • C. 

      Earthquakes occur mostly in narrowly defined zones but volcanoes are randomly distributed about the Earth.

    • D. 

      Earthquakes and volcanoes commonly occur in the same narrowly defined zones.

    • E. 

      Volcanoes occur mostly in narrowly defined zones but earthquakes are randomly distributed about the Earth.

  • 5. 
    The estimated global population in 1830 was 1 billion people. In 1930, it was  estimated that 2 billion people inhabited the planet. What was the average rate of  population growth during this 100-year interval? 
    • A. 

      0.5%

    • B. 

      0.7%

    • C. 

      1.0%

    • D. 

      1.2%

    • E. 

      2.0%

  • 6. 
    The inner “terrestrial planets”, including Earth, do not have the massive, dense  atmospheres of the “gas giants” such as Jupiter and Saturn; this is thought to be the result  of 
    • A. 

      Terrestrial planets forming earlier in the history of the solar system, before gases had condensed enough to form atmospheres.

    • B. 

      Terrestrial planets forming later in the history of the solar system, after most gases had been captured by the gas giants.

    • C. 

      A period in the early history of the sun’s formation, during which an immense solar wind was emitted, blowing most of the lighter gases away from the region in which the terrestrial planets would eventually form.

    • D. 

      The more rapid rate at which the terrestrial planets orbit the sun, causing the lighter gases to be blown away during the orbital cycles.

    • E. 

      The terrestrial planets are all too small to hold a massive atmosphere like the gas giants.

  • 7. 
    The geologic principle which states that, in a series of undisturbed sedimentary rocks,  the layers at the bottom are older than the layers on top, is called the 
    • A. 

      Principle of uniformitarianism.

    • B. 

      Principle of superposition.

    • C. 

      Principle of cross-cutting relationships.

    • D. 

      Principle of original horizontally.

    • E. 

      Principle of fossil succession.

  • 8. 
    Risk is evaluated as 
    • A. 

      The probability of a given event occurring.

    • B. 

      The consequences of a given event occurring.

    • C. 

      The product of the probability of an even occurring multiplied by the consequences of that event occurring.

    • D. 

      The ratio of the probability of an event occurring divided by the consequences of that event occurring.

    • E. 

      The length of time available from the time a warning of a given event occurs until the event actually happens.

  • 9. 
    True or False? Natural disasters that occur most frequently also have the greatest  magnitude in terms of energy and capacity to do damage. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    The average residence time of an item of interest in a given reservoir is determined by
    • A. 

      Measuring the actual size of the reservoir.

    • B. 

      Comparing the input flux with the output flux.

    • C. 

      Dividing the capacity of the reservoir by the flux rate.

    • D. 

      Comparing the actual size of the reservoir with the maximum size it can possibly attain.

    • E. 

      Comparing the age of the reservoir with the length of time it will take to fill or drain it completely.

  • 11. 
    The brittle, outermost portion of Earth, composed of continental and oceanic crust  and the uppermost mantle, is called the 
    • A. 

      Asthenosphere

    • B. 

      Lithosphere

    • C. 

      Bathysphere

    • D. 

      Otosphere

    • E. 

      Ectosphere

  • 12. 
    The geological principle that processes operating on Earth today are the same as those  that have been operating throughout the history of the planet is called
    • A. 

      Environmental unity.

    • B. 

      Fossil succession.

    • C. 

      Average residence time.

    • D. 

      Uniformitarianism.

    • E. 

      Sustainability

  • 13. 
    Which of the following is classified as a hydrometeorological hazard?
    • A. 

      Tsunami

    • B. 

      Earthquake

    • C. 

      Volcanic eruption

    • D. 

      Flooding

    • E. 

      Infestation of airborne pathogens

  • 14. 
    Our solar system is believed to have formed 
    • A. 

      Immediately following the “Big Bang” as soon as particles cooled sufficiently to solidify.

    • B. 

      From a gaseous nebula that was produced by the collision of two or more ancient stars.

    • C. 

      From a gaseous nebula that was produced when a first-generation star became a super nova.

    • D. 

      From a gaseous nebula that was produced when a third- or fourth-generation star became a super nova.

  • 15. 
    True or False? In general, natural disasters that take the greatest number of human  lives also result in massive property damage. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    The ability of a system (or the whole Earth) to sustain its population in reasonably  healthy and comfortable conditions is known as the
    • A. 

      Population optimum

    • B. 

      Carrying capacity

    • C. 

      Rule of 70

    • D. 

      Environmental unity

    • E. 

      Flux rate

  • 17. 
    Factors which allow Earth to support life as we know it include 
    • A. 

      An atmosphere that is neither too dense or too sparse.

    • B. 

      Global conditions allowing H2O to exist as a liquid, solid, and vapor.

    • C. 

      A magnetic field that deflects harmful solar radiation.

    • D. 

      All the above

    • E. 

      B and c but not a

  • 18. 
    According to the Geo-2000 report of the United Nations Environmental Project,  problems requiring the most attention in North America are 
    • A. 

      Land and water management

    • B. 

      Resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

    • C. 

      Use and conservation of forests.

    • D. 

      Overpopulation and deforestation.

    • E. 

      Desertification and water scarcity.

  • 19. 
    The San Andreas fault in California is an example of what kind of plate boundary? 
    • A. 

      Continent-continent collision

    • B. 

      Transform fault

    • C. 

      Spreading center

    • D. 

      Continent-ocean subduction zone

    • E. 

      Ocean-ocean subduction zone

  • 20. 
    Accidental release of radioactive gases from a nuclear power plant would be which  type of hazard? 
    • A. 

      Hydrometeorologic

    • B. 

      Biologic

    • C. 

      Geologic

    • D. 

      Anthropogenic

  • 21. 
    Which of the following is NOT covered by the standard homeowner’s insurance  policy? 
    • A. 

      Wind damage

    • B. 

      Hail damage

    • C. 

      Fire damage

    • D. 

      Flooding

    • E. 

      Frozen water lines

  • 22. 
    Which of the following is NOT considered part of the Earth Systems? 
    • A. 

      Atmosphere

    • B. 

      Lithosphere

    • C. 

      Biosphere

    • D. 

      Ectosphere

    • E. 

      Hydrosphere

  • 23. 
    Which of the following was not presented as evidence that the southern continents were once connected into a single land mass? 
    • A. 

      Fossils of ferns

    • B. 

      Fossils of land reptiles

    • C. 

      Fossils of birds

    • D. 

      Fossils of freshwater reptiles

    • E. 

      Evidence of glaciation

  • 24. 
    True or False? Alfred Wegener’s theory of Continental Drift was not accepted by the  scientific community because the mechanism he proposed as the driving force was shown
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    True or False? The composition of gases in Earth’s atmosphere has remained  relatively constant throughout the history of the planet, varying by no more than  approximately 10% of the proportions currently present. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

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