The unofficial, and at times confidential,
person-to-person or person-to-group chain of verbal, or at times e-mail,
occurs when a person
believes that only their culture makes sense, has the “right” values, and
represents the “right” and logical way to behave.
team members diagnose how they work together and
plan changes to improve their effectiveness.
deliberate attempt by managers and employees to improve the functioning of
teams, departments, divisions, or an entire organization in some important way.
process of assessing the functioning of the organization, department, team, or
job to discover the sources of problems and areas for improvement.
Means that many markets are worldwide and are
served by international or multinational corporations.
Creating change for the purpose of creating
the disclosure by current or
former employees of illegal, immoral, or illegitimate organizational practices
to people or organizations that may be able to change the practice.
process by which older members of a society transmit to younger members the
social skills and knowledge needed to function effectively in that society.
The collective beliefs, assumptions, and
feelings about what things are good, normal, rational, and valuable.
Reflects the shared and learned values, beliefs,
and attitudes of its members.
by the achievement of measurable and demanding goals, especially those that are
financial and market-based (e.g.,
sales growth, profitability, and market share).
characterized by high levels
of risk taking, dynamism, and creativity.
The sender states what is believed to be false in order to seriously mislead one or more receivers.
Any interference with the intended message in the channel.
An individual’s ability to influence others’ behaviors because of recognized competencies, talents, or specialized knowledge.
A person who exhibits the key attributes of leadership—ideas, vision, values, influencing others, and making tough decisions.
The process of developing ideas and a vision, living by values that support those ideas and that vision, influencing others to embrace them in their own behaviors, and making hard decisions about human and other resources.
Is an individual’s ability to influence others’ behaviors because of the person’s formal position in the organization.
Directs, controls, and plans the work of others and is responsible for results.
An individual’s ability to influence others because she is respected, admired, or liked.
An individual’s ability to influence others’ behaviors by providing valued things.
Refers to individuals who (1) know and understand themselves, (2) know what they believe and value, and (3) act upon their values and beliefs through open and honest communications with subordinates and others.
Occurs when people together create new alternatives and solutions that are better than their individual efforts.
Involves motivating and directing followers primarily through appealing to their own self-interest.
Involves anticipating future trends, inspiring followers to understand and embrace a new vision of possibilities, developing others to be leaders or better leaders, and building the organization or group into a community of challenged and rewarded learners.
Expresses fundamental aspirations and purpose, usually by appealing to peoples’ emotions and minds.
Negative team or
group members who withhold effort, express negative feelings and attitudes, and
violate important team norms and behaviors.
strength of the members’ desire to remain in a team and their commitment to it.
from various work areas who identify and solve mutual problems.
employees who work together daily on similar tasks and must coordinate their
Members from a variety of countries who are,
therefore, often separated significantly by time, distance, culture, and
to any number of people who share goals, often communicate with one another
over a period of time, and are few enough so that each individual may
communicate with all the others, person-to-person.
agreement-at-any-cost mentality that results in ineffective group or team
decision making and poor decisions.
rules and patterns of behaviors that are accepted and expected by members of a
team or whole organization.
Members who focus on a specific issue, develop a
potential solution, and are often empowered to take action within defined
competent, and empowered members who work together effectively on a daily basis
to manufacture an entire product (or major identifiable component) or provide
an entire service to a set of customers.
small number of people with complementary competencies who are committed to
common performance goals and working relationships for which they hold
themselves mutually accountable.
The degree to which
its members perceive the group as (1) being competent and able to accomplish
work-related tasks (potency), (2) performing important and valuable tasks
(meaningfulness), (3) having choice (autonomy) in how they carry out their
tasks, and (4) experiencing a sense of importance and significance (impact) in
the work performed and goals achieved.
Members who collaborate through various
information technologies on one or more tasks while geographically dispersed at
two or more locations and who have minimal face-to-face interaction.
to cooperative and unassertive behaviors.
refers to unassertive and
Refers to strong cooperative and assertive
Refers to behaviors at an intermediate level of
cooperation and assertiveness.
process in which one party (person or group) perceives that its interests are
being opposed or negatively affected by another party.
The diagnostic processes, interpersonal styles,
and negotiation strategies that are designed to avoid unnecessary conflict and
reduce or resolve excessive conflict.
Assertive and uncooperative behaviors and
represents a win–lose approach to interpersonal conflict.
refers to opposition,
disagreements, and disputes between groups or teams.
when two or more individuals perceive that their attitudes, behaviors, or
preferred goals are in opposition.
to disputes among some or all of the group’s members, which often affect the
group’s dynamics and effectiveness.
within an individual and usually involves some form of goal, cognitive, or
A process in which two or more interdependent
individuals or groups, who perceive that they have both common and conflicting
goals, state and discuss proposals and preferences for specific terms of a
The set of interconnected tasks and behaviors
that others expect a person to perform.
uncertainty and lack of clarity surrounding expectations about a single role.
Occurs when a focal person responds with
behaviors that serve as inputs to the role senders’ process.