Environmental Science

90 Questions  I  By Mmmaxwell
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Environmental Science Quizzes & Trivia
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  • 1. 
     Inland wetlands are valuable for providing
    • A. 

      Wildlife habitat.

    • B. 

      Improved water quality.

    • C. 

      Regulated stream flow.

    • D. 

      All of these answers

    • E. 

      None of these answers


  • 2. 
     Which of the following statements best illustrates the tragedy of the commons?
    • A. 

      A factory pollutes a river as much as the law allows.

    • B. 

      Some levels of pollution are life threatening.

    • C. 

      Some activities harm the environment, but others do not.

    • D. 

      Irrigated cropland can be ruined by salinization.

    • E. 

      Cropland can decrease biodiversity.


  • 3. 
     In the United States, ______ of all urban transportation is by car.
    • A. 

      68%

    • B. 

      78%

    • C. 

      88%

    • D. 

      98%

    • E. 

      48%


  • 4. 
     The goal of even-aged management of a forest is
    • A. 

      Maintenance of maximum biological diversity.

    • B. 

      Production of high-quality timber.

    • C. 

      A long-term ecologically oriented approach.

    • D. 

      To grow and harvest monoculture forests.

    • E. 

      Multiple use of forest for timber, watershed protection and recreation.


  • 5. 
     Leaf mold, a humus-mineral mixture, and silty loam are indicative of
    • A. 

      Coniferous forest soil.

    • B. 

      Deciduous forest soil.

    • C. 

      Tropical forest soil.

    • D. 

      Grassland soil.

    • E. 

      Desert soil.


  • 6. 
     Since 1920, urban areas in the United States have seen improvements in
    • A. 

      Housing conditions.

    • B. 

      Medical care.

    • C. 

      Air and water quality.

    • D. 

      Sanitation.

    • E. 

      All of these answers.


  • 7. 
    Good wilderness management would do all of the following except
    • A. 

      Extensively patrol the accessible popular areas.

    • B. 

      Offer permits to selected area for those who have demonstrated wilderness skills.

    • C. 

      Leave some areas undisturbed by humans

    • D. 

      Allow citizens to camp anywhere at their own risk.

    • E. 

      Limit number of people using sites at any one time.


  • 8. 
     Which of the following is not a factor that leads to urban sprawl?
    • A. 

      High cost of gasoline

    • B. 

      State and local zoning

    • C. 

      Availability of mortgages

    • D. 

      Government loan guarantees to veterans

    • E. 

      Ample land for expansion


  • 9. 
     Which of the following is not appropriate to use in describing a tropical rain forest?
    • A. 

      Humid

    • B. 

      Rich soil

    • C. 

      Stratified

    • D. 

      Diversity

    • E. 

      Rainfall


  • 10. 
     The hydrologic cycle is driven primarily by
    • A. 

      Solar energy and gravity.

    • B. 

      Solar energy and the moon.

    • C. 

      Solar energy and the mechanical energy.

    • D. 

      Mechanical and chemical energy.

    • E. 

      Chemical energy and the moon.


  • 11. 
     Which of the following statements is false?
    • A. 

      When environmental conditions are changing rapidly, a generalist is usually better off than a specialist.

    • B. 

      The fundamental niche of a species is the full range of physical, chemical, and biological factors it could use if there were no competition.

    • C. 

      The competitive exclusive principle states that no two species with the same fundamental niche can indefinitely occupy the same habitat.

    • D. 

      Interspecific competition is competition between two members of the same species.

    • E. 

      Intraspecific competition is competition between two members of the same species.


  • 12. 
     To decay to what is considered to be a safe level a sample of radioisotope should be stored in a safe enclosure for approximately _____ half lives.
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      5

    • C. 

      10

    • D. 

      20

    • E. 

      30


  • 13. 
     Which of the following statements about the greenhouse effect is false?
    • A. 

      The amount of heat trapped in the troposphere depends on the concentrations of greenhouse gases.

    • B. 

      The greenhouse effect is a new theory that explains the warming of the atmosphere.

    • C. 

      Heat trapped by greenhouse gases keeps the planet warm enough for life.

    • D. 

      The two predominant greenhouse gases are water vapor and carbon dioxide.

    • E. 

      It has been confirmed by numerous lab experiments and measurements of atmospheric temperatures at different altitudes.


  • 14. 
     Sustainable agriculture is characterized by all of the following except
    • A. 

      Promoting monoculture.

    • B. 

      Lack of requirements of massive amounts of fossil fuels.

    • C. 

      Conserving and building topsoil.

    • D. 

      Lack of use of many artificial chemicals.

    • E. 

      Promoting polyculture.


  • 15. 
     The quickest, cheapest, and most effective way to reduce the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is to 
    • A. 

      Switch from fossil fuels to nuclear fuels.

    • B. 

      Increase the efficiency of energy use.

    • C. 

      Plant trees to trap more carbon dioxide.

    • D. 

      Stop deforestation.

    • E. 

      Slow population growth.


  • 16. 
    To qualify as a metropolitan area, a city must have a population of _______ people.
    • A. 

      25,000

    • B. 

      50,000

    • C. 

      75,000

    • D. 

      100,000

    • E. 

      500,000


  • 17. 
    Advantages of automobiles include all of the following except
    • A. 

      Freedom to go where you want when you want.

    • B. 

      Adventure.

    • C. 

      Energy efficiency.

    • D. 

      Provisions of jobs.

    • E. 

      Convenience of use.


  • 18. 
     Which of the following statements is false?
    • A. 

      The amount of solar energy reaching Earth's surface is dependent on latitude.

    • B. 

      Hot air rises.

    • C. 

      Air at the lower latitudes tends to cool and fall or sink downward.

    • D. 

      Cool air is denser than warm air.

    • E. 

      Cool air falls.


  • 19. 
     With 46% of the world's population, urban dwellers occupy about _____ of the planet's land area, but to meet their demands has required using or disturbing about _____ of the Earth's habitable land area.
    • A. 

      20%...73%

    • B. 

      20%...33%

    • C. 

      44%...88%

    • D. 

      4%...75%

    • E. 

      50%...50%


  • 20. 
    Since 1860, mean global temperature has risen ____ degree(s) centigrade.
    • A. 

      0.1-0.3

    • B. 

      0.6-0.8

    • C. 

      0.8-1.0

    • D. 

      1.0-1.5

    • E. 

      2.0-2.5


  • 21. 
     Today's cities are not self-sustaining because they import
    • A. 

      Minerals.

    • B. 

      Energy.

    • C. 

      Food.

    • D. 

      Manufactured goods.

    • E. 

      All of these answers.


  • 22. 
     The UNICEF program to sharply reduce childhood deaths from improper nutrition would include all of the following except
    • A. 

      Discouraging breastfeeding.

    • B. 

      Preventing dehydration by giving infants sugar and salt in water.

    • C. 

      Giving vitamin A supplements.

    • D. 

      Providing family planning services.

    • E. 

      Giving iron supplements.


  • 23. 
     Which of the following cutting methods leaves only a few mature seed-producing, wind-resistant trees for regeneration of forest?
    • A. 

      Selective cutting

    • B. 

      Seed-tree cutting

    • C. 

      Clear-cutting

    • D. 

      Shelterwood cutting

    • E. 

      Strip cutting


  • 24. 
     Of the following forms of birth control, the least effective is 
    • A. 

      IUD plus spermicide.

    • B. 

      An oral contraceptive.

    • C. 

      A hormonal implant.

    • D. 

      A condom (good brand).

    • E. 

      The rhythm method.


  • 25. 
     A form of clear-cutting that can allow a sustainable timer yield without widespread destruction is called
    • A. 

      Selective cutting.

    • B. 

      Seed-tree cutting.

    • C. 

      Strip cutting.

    • D. 

      Shelterwood cutting.

    • E. 

      Straight cutting.


  • 26. 
     Developed countries
    • A. 

      A highly industrialized.

    • B. 

      Have a low GNP per person.

    • C. 

      Are generally located in Asia.

    • D. 

      Make up about 80% of the world's population.

    • E. 

      Use about 12% of the world's natural resources.


  • 27. 
     Which of the following is an example of low-quality energy?
    • A. 

      Electricity

    • B. 

      Heat in the ocean

    • C. 

      Nuclei of uranium-235

    • D. 

      Coal

    • E. 

      Oil


  • 28. 
     Which of the following principles would most environmentalists not want to see being a guide to governance of public lands?
    • A. 

      All users of public lands should be responsible for correcting any environmental damage they cause.

    • B. 

      Protection of biodiversity and ecological integrity should be the most important goal.

    • C. 

      Public lands should be used to enrich individual citizens to make a strong U.S. economy.

    • D. 

      No one should be given subsidies or tax brakes for extracting resources on public lands.

    • E. 

      The American people deserve fair compensation for the use of their properties.


  • 29. 
     The world's marine catch is not expected to increase significantly. The factor least responsible for this trend is 
    • A. 

      Increased population growth.

    • B. 

      Global warming.

    • C. 

      Overfishing.

    • D. 

      Water pollution.

    • E. 

      A decline for few years.


  • 30. 
     The surface litter horizon is described by the letter
    • A. 

      A.

    • B. 

      B.

    • C. 

      C.

    • D. 

      O.

    • E. 

      D.


  • 31. 
    Weather occurs
    • A. 

      In the troposphere.

    • B. 

      At a particular place.

    • C. 

      At a particular time.

    • D. 

      All of these answers.

    • E. 

      None of these answers.


  • 32. 
     Cities established on barrier islands are subject to 
    • A. 

      Beach erosion.

    • B. 

      Hurricanes.

    • C. 

      Flooding.

    • D. 

      All of these answers.

    • E. 

      None of these answers.


  • 33. 
    Based on the theory of island biogeography, you would predict that large islands near the mainland would have relatively
    • A. 

      High immigration and low extinction rates.

    • B. 

      High immigration and high extinction rates.

    • C. 

      Low immigration and low extinction rates.

    • D. 

      Low immigration and high extinction rates.

    • E. 

      Not enough information to predict.


  • 34. 
     Which of the following types of agriculture is most characteristic of developing countries?
    • A. 

      Plantation agriculture

    • B. 

      Traditional agriculture

    • C. 

      Industrialized agriculture

    • D. 

      Minimum-tillage agriculture

    • E. 

      High-input agriculture


  • 35. 
    According to pesticide proponents, pesticides
    • A. 

      Work faster than alternate controls.

    • B. 

      Increase profit for farmers.

    • C. 

      Save lives and money.

    • D. 

      Increase food supplies and lower costs.

    • E. 

      All of these answers.


  • 36. 
     What does integrated coastal management accomplish?
    • A. 

      Enlarges the exclusive economic zone

    • B. 

      Reduces the number of marine protected areas

    • C. 

      Supercedes the "Law of the Sea"

    • D. 

      Provides a variety of protection and use levels

    • E. 

      Allows for unlimited development


  • 37. 
    Which of the following is the most restricted of all public areas?
    • A. 

      National parks

    • B. 

      National forests

    • C. 

      National resource lands

    • D. 

      National wildlife refuges

    • E. 

      National wilderness areas


  • 38. 
    All of the following are abiotic factors except
    • A. 

      Light.

    • B. 

      Bacteria.

    • C. 

      PH.

    • D. 

      Size of soil particles.

    • E. 

      Water.


  • 39. 
     Which of the following choices would make the statement false? Economic growth
    • A. 

      Provides good and services for people's final use.

    • B. 

      Is accomplished by minimizing the flow of matter and energy through and economy.

    • C. 

      Is encouraged by population growth.

    • D. 

      Is encouraged by increased consumption per capita

    • E. 

      All of these answers.


  • 40. 
    Which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      Exposure of a substance to alpha, beta, or gamma radiation makes it radioactive.

    • B. 

      All isotopes are radioactive.

    • C. 

      Radioactive isotopes give off radiation at a fixed rate.

    • D. 

      Only naturally occurring substances are radioactive.

    • E. 

      Radioactive isotopes give off radiation at variable rates.


  • 41. 
    Energy can be formally defined as
    • A. 

      The random motion of molecules.

    • B. 

      The ability to do work or produce heat transfer.

    • C. 

      A force that is exerted over some distance.

    • D. 

      The movement of molecules.

    • E. 

      The loss of matter.


  • 42. 
    The fragility of the desert ecosystem is indicated by 
    • A. 

      The high growth rate of plants.

    • B. 

      Moderate species diversity.

    • C. 

      Abundant groundwater.

    • D. 

      Long regeneration time from vegetation destruction.

    • E. 

      Having shallow roots.


  • 43. 
    A shark is least likely to be killed
    • A. 

      By a predator.

    • B. 

      For sport.

    • C. 

      Out of fear.

    • D. 

      For food.

    • E. 

      For their jaws.


  • 44. 
    In alley cropping,
    • A. 

      Crops are planted between hedgerows of trees or shrubs that are used for fruits or fuelwood.

    • B. 

      Terrace are built to prevent swift water runoff.

    • C. 

      Plowing runs across slopes.

    • D. 

      Special tillers are used so the topsoil is not disturbed.

    • E. 

      A row crops alternates in strips with another row crop.


  • 45. 
    To help protect the food supply and fight pests responsibly, individuals can
    • A. 

      Use larger amounts of pesticides when necessary.

    • B. 

      Dispose of unused pesticide where it will continue to kill pests.

    • C. 

      Allow native plants to cover most of their property.

    • D. 

      Use powerful synthetic to pesticides.

    • E. 

      Help eradicate all pests everywhere.


  • 46. 
    Characteristics that make amphibians particularly sensitive to pollution include
    • A. 

      Living part of their life cycle in water and part on land.

    • B. 

      Soft, permeable skin.

    • C. 

      Sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation.

    • D. 

      All of these answers.

    • E. 

      None of these answers.


  • 47. 
    Microclimates are least likely to be produced by
    • A. 

      Mountains.

    • B. 

      Bodies of water.

    • C. 

      Cities.

    • D. 

      Flat plains.

    • E. 

      Sand dunes.


  • 48. 
    Autotrophs
    • A. 

      Can live without heterotrophs.

    • B. 

      Are know as producers.

    • C. 

      Carry on photosynthesis.

    • D. 

      All of these answers.

    • E. 

      None of these answers.


  • 49. 
    The organisms that are classified as primary consumers are the 
    • A. 

      Detritivores.

    • B. 

      Omnivores.

    • C. 

      Carnivores.

    • D. 

      Decomposers.

    • E. 

      Herbivores.


  • 50. 
    Which of the following statements is the most logical way to cope with the problem of limitations imposed by the three basic laws governing matter?
    • A. 

      Use and waste less energy and matter.

    • B. 

      Shift to nonpolluting nuclear fusion power.

    • C. 

      Increase the output of low-quality heat.

    • D. 

      Increase the input of high-quality energy.

    • E. 

      All of these answers.


  • 51. 
    Which of the following statements is false?
    • A. 

      Clear-cutting increases the amount of timber produced per acre.

    • B. 

      Lumber companies prefer clear-cutting because it takes less skill and planning that other methods.

    • C. 

      Clear-cutting shortens rotation time.

    • D. 

      Clear-cutting requires more roads.

    • E. 

      Clear-cutting permits reforestation with genetically improved stocks of fast-growing trees.


  • 52. 
    About _____ of the world fish harvest is used primarily as animal feed, fish meal, and oils.
    • A. 

      One-half

    • B. 

      One-third

    • C. 

      One-fourth

    • D. 

      One-fifth

    • E. 

      One-sixth


  • 53. 
    During routine water testing on a level one stream, you find nitrates are present in higher concentrations than usual. You hypothesize that the nitrates are running into the stream from a chicken house in the stream's
    • A. 

      Floodplain.

    • B. 

      Source area.

    • C. 

      Watershed.

    • D. 

      Aquifer.

    • E. 

      Headwaters.


  • 54. 
    Climate and vegetation vary with
    • A. 

      Latitude only.

    • B. 

      Altitude only.

    • C. 

      Latitude and altitude.

    • D. 

      Latitude and longitude.

    • E. 

      Altitude and longitude.


  • 55. 
    Which of the following least characterizes U.S. immigration policy?
    • A. 

      The law prohibits hiring of illegal immigrants.

    • B. 

      Some environmentalists want to limit immigration to a small percentage of the U.S. population growth.

    • C. 

      Some citizens feel that limiting immigration diminishes the U.S. role in providing a place of opportunity for poor and oppressed people.

    • D. 

      Over the past decade, efforts to deport illegal immigrants have weakened.

    • E. 

      Some citizens are opposed to limiting immigration because immigrants pay taxes and take many menial, low-paying jobs.


  • 56. 
    The fact that increased skin cancer rates may not show up for 15-40 years following ozone depletion illustrates the concept of 
    • A. 

      Positive feedback.

    • B. 

      Negative feedback.

    • C. 

      Lag time.

    • D. 

      Suppression of the immune system.

    • E. 

      Synergistic interaction.


  • 57. 
    Environmental resistance is enhanced by
    • A. 

      The ability to compete for resources.

    • B. 

      The ability to resist disease and parasites.

    • C. 

      A specialized niche.

    • D. 

      A high reproductive rate.

    • E. 

      All of these answers.


  • 58. 
    A relationship in which both speicies benefit is best labeled
    • A. 

      Competion.

    • B. 

      Predation.

    • C. 

      Mutualism.

    • D. 

      Parasitism.

    • E. 

      Commensalism.


  • 59. 
    A tree grower using uneven-aged management most likely has the goal of 
    • A. 

      Decreasing biological diversity.

    • B. 

      Maintaining long-term production of high-quality timber.

    • C. 

      Producing quick economic return.

    • D. 

      Producing fiber for paper mills.

    • E. 

      Increasing erosion.


  • 60. 
    Sustainable agriculture
    • A. 

      Uses pesticides.

    • B. 

      Minimizes erosion.

    • C. 

      Requires high inputs of fossil fuel.

    • D. 

      Employs massive fertilization programs.

    • E. 

      Wastes water.


  • 61. 
    Which statement least characterizes laboratory research?
    • A. 

      It allows measurement of model ecosystems and populations under controlled conditions.

    • B. 

      It is faster than similar field research.

    • C. 

      It is cheaper than similar field research.

    • D. 

      It has been used to develop most of our knowledge about ecosystems.

    • E. 

      None of these answers.


  • 62. 
    Which of the following statements about amphibians is false?
    • A. 

      The older of today's amphibians were living as long as 150 million years ago.

    • B. 

      Amphibians are important indicator species.

    • C. 

      Amphibians are experiencing sharp population declines in variety of habitats.

    • D. 

      Amphibians eat many insects, second in number only to birds.

    • E. 

      They are often considered indicator species.


  • 63. 
    Which of the following ecosystems has the lowest productivity?
    • A. 

      Savanna

    • B. 

      Tropical rain forest

    • C. 

      Open ocean

    • D. 

      Lakes and streams

    • E. 

      Temperate forest


  • 64. 
    About _____ of the Earth's land area is tropical forest.
    • A. 

      1%

    • B. 

      6%

    • C. 

      12%

    • D. 

      16%

    • E. 

      20%


  • 65. 
    All of the following harmful effects have been linked to prolonged exposure to excessive noise except
    • A. 

      Gastric ulcers.

    • B. 

      Psychological disorders and irritability.

    • C. 

      High blood pressure and higher cholesterol levels.

    • D. 

      Skin cancer.

    • E. 

      Hearing loss.


  • 66. 
    The actual average replacement-level fertility for the whole world is slightly higher than
    • A. 

      1 child per couple.

    • B. 

      2 children per couple.

    • C. 

      3 children per couple.

    • D. 

      4 children per couple.

    • E. 

      6 children per couple.


  • 67. 
    The crude birth rate is the number of live births per _____ persons in a given year.
    • A. 

      50

    • B. 

      100

    • C. 

      500

    • D. 

      1,000

    • E. 

      10,000


  • 68. 
    Species that migrate or are accidentally introduced into an ecosystem are called
    • A. 

      Indicator species.

    • B. 

      Native species.

    • C. 

      Keystone species.

    • D. 

      Specialist species.

    • E. 

      Nonnative species.


  • 69. 
    Which of the following statements is false?
    • A. 

      The estimated number of malnourished people fell form 940 million in 1970 to 825 million in 2001.

    • B. 

      Approximately 80% of deaths from malnutrition and undernutrition are children younger than five.

    • C. 

      Approximately 250,000 children younger than age six go blind each year.

    • D. 

      One of every ten people in developing countries is undernourished or malnourished.

    • E. 

      People who are underfed and underweight, like those overweight and overfed, have a lower life expectancy.


  • 70. 
    Which of the following statements best describes the scientific enterprise?
    • A. 

      There is one scientific method used to advance our understanding of science.

    • B. 

      Intuition has no place in the scientific process.

    • C. 

      Controlled experiments are the only way of advancing scientific understanding.

    • D. 

      Consensus science is more widely accepted by the scientific community than pioneer science.

    • E. 

      Scientists use data to prove that their models, theories, and laws are absolutely true.


  • 71. 
    Biomes are affected by ocean currents and water flow.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False


  • 72. 
    There are significantly more disadvantages than advantages to clear-cutting forests.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 73. 
    As in a human body, the Earth's capacity to repair itself is critical to its survival.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 74. 
    Home gardeners customarily use organic fertilizers more than commercial farmers do because of their high cost per pound of actual nutrient element.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 75. 
    Soil pH affects the nutrients that may or may not be available for native vegetation.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 76. 
    A region's life expectancy is inversely related to crude death rate of that region.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 77. 
    The declining economic health of cities often reduces services to their residents: water, electricity, open spaces, timely garbage collection, etc.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 78. 
    In the stratosphere, temperature increases with altitude, due to absorption of UV light by oxygen and ozone.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 79. 
    The size of a species' population, be that animal or human, is influenced by births, deaths, immigration, and emigration.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 80. 
    Overall, the air quality is poorer and drinking water more polluted today than in the 1970s.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 81. 
    Reducing illegal immigration into the United States would increase the rate of economic growth.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 82. 
    The United States, China, and Russia, three of the world's major emitters, agreed in 2001 to participate in a cap-and-trade program to slow global warming.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 83. 
    Man's ability to expand into new habitats increases man's population growth but does so at the expense of the environment. 
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 84. 
    Public lands (parks, zoos, national forests, national seashores, etc.) help sustain biodiversity.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 85. 
    The world's economies are not affected by climate change.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 86. 
    Logging in the United States National Forests has no clear advantages because it provides only 3% of our lumber needs and has little impact on lubmer prices.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 87. 
    When a nonrenewable resource is completely exhausted, it is referred to as economically depleted.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 88. 
    The effect of a population increase or environmental resistance is not felt instantly in most cases.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 89. 
    Urban areas are attracting more and more residents, partly because of the hope for employment.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


  • 90. 
    When a country's GDP decrease, the per capita GDP must also decrease.
    • A. 

      True.

    • B. 

      False.


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