Take Another Quiz

Edfd 121 Study Guide And Answers

50 Questions
Study Guide Quizzes & Trivia

Complete study guide from Xavier University's Human Development course. Answers are correct

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    If teachers consider Gardner's view of intelligence, they would be most likely to conclude that
    • A. 

      They can bring about dramatic improvements in students' IQs in a year or two if they provide a stimulating classroom environment.

    • B. 

      Regardless of cultural background, students with high intelligence will do well in school.

    • C. 

      Most students are likely to be "intelligent" in one way or another.

    • D. 

      Students who are fluent in two or three languages will be more intelligent than students who are fluent in just one.

  • 2. 
     A girl at an Inuit school in northern Canada is quite a chatterbox in the classroom; in fact, she is often found talking to a classmate when she should be working quietly. Based on their cultural beliefs, her Inuit teachers are likely to think that this girl
    • A. 

      Has low intelligence

    • B. 

      Has strong leadership skills

    • C. 

      Has little respect for authority figures

    • D. 

      Might benefit from special educational services for the gifted

  • 3. 
    Different theorists conceptualize intelligence differently, but most agree that intelligence
    • A. 

      Is largely the result of inherited abilities

    • B. 

      Involves many different cognitive processes

    • C. 

      Is an entity quite separate and distinct from learning ability

    • D. 

      Is almost exclusively a function of accumulated knowledge

  • 4. 
    Max is quite skilled in cartography, the art of making maps. Without knowing anything else about Max, in which of Gardner's multiple intelligences would you expect him to be strong?
    • A. 

      Bodily-kinesthetic

    • B. 

      Linguistic

    • C. 

      Naturalist

    • D. 

      Spatial

  • 5. 
    Which one of the following statements most accurately describes what developmental theorists mean when they talk about alanguage acquisition device?
    • A. 

      A built-in mechanism that makes language learning especially easy for human beings

    • B. 

      A culture-specific symbolic system that encompasses all the syntactic rules of a particular language

    • C. 

      A particular area of the human cortex that seems to "hold" all of the words that a child learns

    • D. 

      A hand held computer that enables people who speak very different languages to communicate easily with one another

  • 6. 
     Which one of the following statements is consistent with B. F. Skinner's view of language development?
    • A. 

      "Children initially use language primarily in their interactions with other people, but increasingly they also use it to help them think more effectively."

    • B. 

      "From a very early age, children are motivated to learn how to speak, because speech enables them to interact with other people and, ultimately, to get what they want."

    • C. 

      Although children can learn the specific vocabulary and syntax of their native language only by hearing the people around them speak it, they seem to have some built-in knowledge of the form that any language should take."

    • D. 

      "To foster children's language development, parents and other adults praise them first for making speech like sounds ('Da-da'), later for saying recognizable words ('More!'), and still later for forming understandable sentences ('Can I have candy?')."

  • 7. 
    As you work with 2-year-old Effie, you keep track of all the new words she uses. You find that, on average, Effie uses two or three new words every week over a period of several months. Based on this information, Effie's language development:
    • A. 

      Is slower than what you would expect for a 2-year-old

    • B. 

      Is about average for what you would expect for a 2-year-old

    • C. 

      Is slighter faster than what you would expect for a 2-year-old

    • D. 

      Indicates exceptionally high intelligence

  • 8. 
     Which one of the following statements is consistent with anativist view of language development?
    • A. 

      "Children initially use language primarily in their interactions with other people, but increasingly they also use it to help them think more effectively."

    • B. 

      "From a very early age, children are motivated to learn how to speak, because speech enables them to interact with other people and, ultimately, to get what they want."

    • C. 

      "Although children can learn the specific vocabulary and syntax of their native language only by hearing the people around them speak it, they seem to have some built-in knowledge of the form that any language should take."

    • D. 

      "To foster children's language development, parents and other adults praise them first for making speechlike sounds ('Da-da'), later for saying recognizable words ('More!'), and still later for forming understandable sentences ('Can I have candy?')."

  • 9. 
    Which one of the following statements best reflects Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence?
    • A. 

      Intelligent behavior is a function of how well people draw on prior experiences and cognitively process information in order to adapt to a new situation.

    • B. 

      Intelligence is due to heredity, environment, and a complex interaction between the two; ultimately, researchers can never disentangle the effects of these factors.

    • C. 

      Intelligent behavior evolves in three stages: concrete thought, abstract thought, and automatization

    • D. 

      To be truly intelligent, one must show competence in creativity and social skills as well as in traditional academic tasks.

  • 10. 
    If you were to apply the concept ofworking memory to language development, you would be most likely to suggest that:
    • A. 

      Producing adult like speech is virtually impossible before age 7.

    • B. 

      Children cannot be effective communicators until they learn the sociolinguistic conventions of their culture.

    • C. 

      Children acquire complex language abilities only after they automatize many of the simpler aspects of language.

    • D. 

      Over time, children's knowledge of vocabulary expands considerably, enabling them to express themselves with increasing precision.

  • 11. 
    Which strategy is most likely to be effective in promoting semantic development?
    • A. 

      Encouraging underextension in the preschool years

    • B. 

      Teaching children the meanings of words related to topics they are studying

    • C. 

      Allowing children to make up their own meanings for words to encourage invention and creativity

    • D. 

      Allowing children to use words incorrectly in the early elementary grades to promote linguistic self-efficacy

  • 12. 
    The original purpose of intelligence tests is still their main purpose today–that is, to:
    • A. 

      Assess youngsters' ability to solve abstract problems

    • B. 

      Measure people's innate ability to adapt to a complex environment

    • C. 

      Identify children who may require special services or interventions

    • D. 

      Predict how well youngsters are likely to perform in various professional careers

  • 13. 
     Most children in the early elementary grades think that being a "good listener" is:
    • A. 

      Asking the speaker a lot of questions

    • B. 

      Remembering what the speaker says

    • C. 

      Sitting quietly and looking at the speaker

    • D. 

      Being able to tell somebody else what the speaker has said

  • 14. 
    Which one of the following best illustrates babbling as developmental theorists typically use the term?
    • A. 

      "Eeeeeeeeee."

    • B. 

      "Buh-buh-buh-buh."

    • C. 

      "Allgone milk."

    • D. 

      Roscoe often talks to himself as he plays by himself in the sandbox.

  • 15. 
    Research indicates that a major advantage of giving children multiple experiences with books during the preschool years is that they:
    • A. 

      Develop greater awareness of syllables than they would otherwise

    • B. 

      Usually learn to read on their own before they reach school age

    • C. 

      Develop more advanced visual-spatial skills

    • D. 

      Learn to read more easily once they begin school

  • 16. 
    Mr. Simon is curious about the experiences the children in his preschool class have had with printed materials. Three of the following behaviors will give Mr. Simon useful information about the children's emergent literacy skills. Which behavior is least likely to yield useful information?
    • A. 

      Ability to handle book correctly

    • B. 

      Willingness to share books with peers

    • C. 

      Frequency of looking at books independently

    • D. 

      Degree of attentiveness as an adult reads a storybook

  • 17. 
    Phonological awareness can best be described as:
    • A. 

      A child's ability to hear the individual sounds within a spoken word

    • B. 

      A child's ability to distinguish between words that sound similar but have different meanings

    • C. 

      A child's knowledge that people who speak different dialects may pronounce the same word differently

    • D. 

      A child's ability to describe what letters typically represent different sounds in words and to apply them in sounding out written words

  • 18. 
     Imagine that you are a second-grade teacher. If you were looking for signs of possibledyslexia in one or more of your students, which one of the following would you be most likely to look for?
    • A. 

      Unusual difficulty hearing individual sounds in spoken words

    • B. 

      Grammatically incorrect speech (e.g., "Shegoed to the store")

    • C. 

      A tendency to read words backwards (e.g., readingball as "lab")

    • D. 

      Mispronunciations of everyday words (e.g., pronouncingschool as "schtool")

  • 19. 
    If we consider Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, then which one of the following issues would we expect high school students to be most concerned about?
    • A. 

      Wanting to form a close and intimate relationship with another human being

    • B. 

      Trying to decide who they really are and what role they will play in adult society

    • C. 

      Needing to gain the recognition of parents and teachers through their academic activities and achievements

    • D. 

      Finding a way to wiggle out of doing difficult tasks

  • 20. 
     Five-year-old Harry is blind. Which one of the following aspects of literacy is Harry likely to have the least knowledge about?
    • A. 

      Irregular verb forms

    • B. 

      Letter-sound relationships

    • C. 

      The left-to-right progression of words in print

    • D. 

      Common English idioms and expressions (e.g., "neat as a pin")

  • 21. 
    Which one of the following best describes Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development?
    • A. 

      A series of stages, each of which has a unique developmental task to be addressed

    • B. 

      A process of becoming increasingly self-confident through the years as one's competence improves

    • C. 

      A series of stages in which people develop increasingly more sophisticated social skills

    • D. 

      A progression of increasingly abstract understandings of social situations

  • 22. 
    Three of the following strategies are recommended for helping children acquire mathematical concepts and skills. Which one is not recommended?
    • A. 

      Illustrate abstract procedures with concrete objects

    • B. 

      Encourage children to do problems entirely in their heads whenever possible

    • C. 

      Encourage children to use their fingers if they find that their fingers help them.

    • D. 

      Encourage children to invent some of their own strategies for solving problems.

  • 23. 
    In Erik Erikson's view, children in the initiative versus guilt stage ideally learn to:
    • A. 

      Control their bodily functions so they don't feel guilty about having "accidents"

    • B. 

      Take initiative in feeding and dressing themselves

    • C. 

      Plan and carry out some of their own activities

    • D. 

      Persevere at difficult tasks

  • 24. 
    As children grow older, they are more likely to
    • A. 

      Be satisfied with low levels of performance

    • B. 

      Hold themselves to unrealistically high standards for performance

    • C. 

      Evaluate their own performance in terms of how it compares with that of their peers

    • D. 

      Evaluate their own performance in terms of how much improvement it shows over time

  • 25. 
    When do most youngsters begin to understand historical time and attach meaning to historical dates?
    • A. 

      Usually by kindergarten or first grade

    • B. 

      About second grade

    • C. 

      About fifth grade

    • D. 

      About ninth grade

  • 26. 
    Which one of the following best describes attachment in the early years?
    • A. 

      An enduring emotional bond between an infant and a caregiver

    • B. 

      A mother's innate tendency to protect her young offspring

    • C. 

      A predisposition by infants to behave in certain ways and not in others

    • D. 

      An affectionate relationship between marital partners, thought by ethological theorists to be important for young children's emotional well-being

  • 27. 
    Which one of the following appears earliest in the development of children's sense of self?
    • A. 

      Personal fable

    • B. 

      Imaginary audience

    • C. 

      An autobiographical self

    • D. 

      Recognition of oneself in the mirror

  • 28. 
    Which one of the following best describes empathy?
    • A. 

      Being able to "step into someone else's shoes"

    • B. 

      Understanding what another person must be thinking

    • C. 

      Feeling sorry for someone who faces exceptional life challenges

    • D. 

      Experiencing the same feelings as someone in unfortunate circumstances

  • 29. 
    The formation of children's sense of self is most strongly influenced by:
    • A. 

      The self-concepts of their parents

    • B. 

      Their inherited temperaments

    • C. 

      How other people treat them

    • D. 

      Their athletic ability

  • 30. 
    Which one of the following statements is most accurate regarding gender differences in emotion?
    • A. 

      On average, male infants are more emotionally volatile than female infants almost from birth.

    • B. 

      After age 2, girls are more likely to show anger than boys

    • C. 

      As early as age 4, more boys than girls show signs of serious depression.

    • D. 

      In the elementary school years, many boys begin to hide their true feelings.

  • 31. 
    Youngsters begin to think more systematically about what other people might be thinking about them during:
    • A. 

      Early childhood

    • B. 

      Middle childhood

    • C. 

      Early adolescence

    • D. 

      Late adolescence

  • 32. 
    Research on gender differences in children's and adolescents' sense of self tells us that:
    • A. 

      In adolescence, girls rate their physical appearance more positively than boys do.

    • B. 

      On average, girls have a better overall sense of self-worth than boys

    • C. 

      Boys are more likely than girls to overrate their abilities.

    • D. 

      Boys are more likely than girls to see themselves as being good readers.

  • 33. 
    Mike desperately wants to do well on the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), as his scores will affect his chances of getting into his first-choice college. He also knows that many students at his school think that SAT scores are good indicators of how "smart" a person is. Yet the night before the test, rather than get a good night's sleep, Mike goes out with his friends, has a few beers, comes home late, and wakes up with a hangover. With this information in mind, we might suspect that Michael:
    • A. 

      Is engaging in self-socialization

    • B. 

      Is engaging in self-handicapping

    • C. 

      Has fallen victim to the imaginary-audience phenomenon

    • D. 

      Has poorly developed social information processing skills

  • 34. 
     Which one of the following emotions are young infants least likely to feel?
    • A. 

      Pride

    • B. 

      Interest

    • C. 

      Distress

    • D. 

      Contentment

  • 35. 
    Which one of the following adolescents is displaying intrinsic motivation?
    • A. 

      Annette loves to play the viola and so practices for at least an hour every day.

    • B. 

      Bob works hard in his classes because his parents have promised to buy him a car if he gets at least a 3.5 grade-point-average this year.

    • C. 

      Cassie does her math homework faithfully every night because she likes her teacher and wants to please him.

    • D. 

      Dennis takes physics because he wants to become an engineer and make a lot of money.

  • 36. 
    Primary reinforcers are stimuli or events that:
    • A. 

      Satisfy biologically built-in needs

    • B. 

      Become especially effective after puberty

    • C. 

      Work only with students in the lower elementary grades

    • D. 

      Are effective only when presented before the desired response

  • 37. 
    In adolescence, ________ is increasingly replaced by ________ as a basis for choosing activities.
    • A. 

      Intrinsic appeal; future usefulness

    • B. 

      Personal interest; situational interest

    • C. 

      Self-efficacy; sense of self-determination

    • D. 

      Internalized motivation; personal interest

  • 38. 
    Which one of the following alternatives best describes differences between children with a mastery orientation and children with learned helplessness?
    • A. 

      Children with a mastery orientation expect that they will have to work extremely hard to master new tasks. Children with learned helplessness usually overestimate their abilities.

    • B. 

      Children with a mastery orientation set easily attainable goals and become frustrated when they don't attain those goals effortlessly. Children with learned helplessness set goals that are almost impossible to attain.

    • C. 

      Children with a mastery orientation attribute their successes to external, uncontrollable factors. Children with an attitude of learned helplessness attribute failures to internal, controllable factors.

    • D. 

      Children with a mastery orientation set high goals and seek challenges. Children with learned helplessness underestimate their ability and set low goals.

  • 39. 
    Curtis works hard at school because he knows it will lead to good grades, praise from his mother, and money from his father. It is clear that ________ are effective with Curtis.
    • A. 

      Primary reinforcers

    • B. 

      Situational interests

    • C. 

      Vicarious reinforcers

    • D. 

      Secondary reinforcers

  • 40. 
     Which one of the following statements best describes vicarious reinforcement?
    • A. 

      Anticipating future reinforcement

    • B. 

      Receiving reinforcement after behaving inappropriately

    • C. 

      Watching someone else receive reinforcement for a behavior

    • D. 

      Remembering reinforcement that one has previously received

  • 41. 
     When we see signs that a child feels ashamed or guilty about something that he or she has done, we can reasonably conclude that the child:
    • A. 

      Has a poor sense of self-worth

    • B. 

      Has developed a sense of right and wrong

    • C. 

      Will show a temporary increase in aggressive behavior

    • D. 

      Will become socially withdrawn unless an adult intervenes

  • 42. 
    A student who has developed learned helplessness about his or her spelling ability is most likely to say which one of the following?
    • A. 

      "I have to work harder than my friends to learn to spell."

    • B. 

      "I can learn how to spell words correctly without even trying."

    • C. 

      "No matter how much I study words, I can't remember how to spell them."

    • D. 

      "I would learn to spell eventually, but it's not worth the time it would take to do so."

  • 43. 
    Behaviors that are clearly interpersonal in nature are first seen:
    • A. 

      In infancy (before age 2)

    • B. 

      Somewhere around a child's second birthday

    • C. 

      After age 21/2 at the earliest

    • D. 

      At around age 2 if children have one or more older siblings; otherwise, at around age 3

  • 44. 
    Adults can most effectively enhance children's sense of self when they:
    • A. 

      Talk about the advantages of having high self-esteem

    • B. 

      Encourage children to think more positively about themselves

    • C. 

      Hold high yet achievable expectations for children's performance

    • D. 

      Hold expectations for performance that they know children can achieve with little or no effort

  • 45. 
    Youngsters at Kohlberg's preconventional level of moral reasoning are likely to define "right" behavior in terms of:
    • A. 

      What people expect of them

    • B. 

      What they can get away with

    • C. 

      Abstract principles of morality

    • D. 

      Society's standards regarding what's right or wrong

  • 46. 
    Judging from what you have learned about how intelligence is typically measured, which one of the following would you be least likely to find on an intelligence test?
    • A. 

      How many friends do you have?

    • B. 

      What does the word candid mean?

    • C. 

      In what way are a tree and a flower alike?

    • D. 

      What does the expression Leave no stone unturned mean?

  • 47. 
    Which one of the following statements is most accurate regarding the origins of prosocial and aggressive behavior?
    • A. 

      Prosocial and aggressive behaviors are primarily determined by genetic heritage

    • B. 

      Prosocial and aggressive behaviors are primarily determined by environmental influences.

    • C. 

      Prosocial and aggressive behaviors are influenced by both genetic heritage and environmental influences.

    • D. 

      Prosocial behaviors spring from environmental influences while aggressive behaviors are largely genetic in origin.

  • 48. 
    Which one of the following forms of aggression are you most apt to see ingirls' behavior?
    • A. 

      Pulling someone's hair

    • B. 

      Poking a nearby classmate

    • C. 

      Spreading a malicious rumor

    • D. 

      Throwing a pencil at someone across the room

  • 49. 
    Carol Gilligan's theory of moral development differs from Lawrence Kohlberg's theory in that it:
    • A. 

      Focuses more on a "human rights" perspective of moral development

    • B. 

      Proposes that girls exhibit more rapid moral development than boys

    • C. 

      Proposes that boys exhibit more rapid moral development than girls

    • D. 

      Focuses more on the development of caring and compassion

  • 50. 
     Which one of the following is most typical of the moral development of high school students?
    • A. 

      Reluctance to share possessions with others

    • B. 

      Tendency to disregard rules if no authority figure is present

    • C. 

      Empathy for the victims of a widespread famine or epidemic

    • D. 

      Shame, but not guilt, about harm that one has unintentionally caused another