DNA Repair And Mutation

21 Questions  I  By Clindo
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  • 1. 
    The flow of genetic material in microbial cells usually proceeds from
    • A. 

      Proteins through RNA to DNA

    • B. 

      RNA through DNA to proteins

    • C. 

      DNA through RNA to proteins


  • 2. 
    A new copy of a DNA molecule is precisely synthesized during a process called
    • A. 

      Translation

    • B. 

      Transcription

    • C. 

      Replication


  • 3. 
    The final step in gene expression is protein synthesis, or
    • A. 

      Translation

    • B. 

      Transcription

    • C. 

      Replication


  • 4. 
    The chromosome of almost all bacteria is in the shape of
    • A. 

      An open circle

    • B. 

      A closed circle

    • C. 

      A linear chromosome


  • 5. 
    The enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA is called
    • A. 

      Helicase

    • B. 

      DNA gyrase

    • C. 

      DNA polymerase


  • 6. 
    DNA polymerase catalyzes the synthesis of DNA in the
    • A. 

      3' to 5' direction

    • B. 

      5' to 3' direction

    • C. 

      5' to 7' direction

    • D. 

      7' to 5' direction


  • 7. 
    The actual process of protein synthesis takes place on ribosomes that serve as workbenches, with _____________ acting as the blueprint or template.

  • 8. 
    The bases of one strand of DNA match-up with the bases of the second strand according to base pairing rules, therefore, the two strands are said to be
    • A. 

      Oppositely charged

    • B. 

      Identical

    • C. 

      Complementary


  • 9. 
    The enzymes that unwind short stretches of DNA helix immediately ahead of a replication fork are
    • A. 

      DNA gyrase

    • B. 

      Topoisomerases

    • C. 

      Helicases

    • D. 

      Single-stranded binding proteins

    • E. 

      DNA ligase


  • 10. 
    The enzyme that repairs nicked DNA by forming a phosphodiester bond between adjacent nucleotides is
    • A. 

      DNA ligase

    • B. 

      DNA gyrase

    • C. 

      Topoisomerases

    • D. 

      Single-stranded binding proteins

    • E. 

      Helicases


  • 11. 
    Another name for the RNA polymerase recognition/binding site upstream of a gene is the

  • 12. 
    The ____________ is nontranslated sequence that is located between the transcription start site and the translation start site

  • 13. 
    The Shine-Dalgarno sequence is
    • A. 

      The reading frame of a gene

    • B. 

      A short sequence that acts as a ribosomal binding site

    • C. 

      Another name for a stop codon


  • 14. 
    Most procaryotic proteins begin with this modified amino acid
    • A. 

      N-formylmethionine

    • B. 

      N-formylleucine

    • C. 

      N-formylserine


  • 15. 
    Mutations that arise without exposure to external agents are called
    • A. 

      Induced mutations

    • B. 

      Analogous mutations

    • C. 

      Spontaneous mutations


  • 16. 
    A mutagen is
    • A. 

      A chemical or physical agent that induces mutations

    • B. 

      An enzyme that repairs mutations

    • C. 

      A molecule which stabilizes DNA thus prevents mutations from occurring


  • 17. 
    A mutation that affects only a single nucleotide is called
    • A. 

      A regional mutation

    • B. 

      A site mutation

    • C. 

      A point mutation


  • 18. 

    A nonsense mutation results in
    • A. 

      an abnormal elongation of a polypeptide

    • B. 

      A premature termination of the synthesis of a polypeptide

    • C. 

      A large deletion within the reading frame of a gene


  • 19. 
    The process by which thymine dimers are directly repaired with the help of visible light is called
    • A. 

      Photosynthesis

    • B. 

      Excision repair

    • C. 

      Photoreactivation


  • 20. 
    DNA repair mechanisms are able to distinguish newly synthesized DNA strands from older strands because
    • A. 

      New strands do not contain cytosine bases

    • B. 

      Old strands are methylated while new strands are not

    • C. 

      New strands are methylated while old strands are not


  • 21. 

    The ability of the anticodon of tRNA to interact with multiple codons of mRNA is called
    • A. 

      Wobble

    • B. 

      Stagger

    • C. 

      Promiscuity


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