Child Development 3

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Child Development 3

  
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  • 1. 
    Tripp pretends to drink from a toy cup. Trippi's sister, Anna takes the same cup and tells Tripp "This is a hat" Tripp refuses to place the cup on his hand to pretend that it is a hat. Tripp is probably
    • A. 

      Younger than 2 years of age

    • B. 

      At least 4 years old

    • C. 

      Less than 1 year of age

    • D. 

      At least 6 years old


  • 2. 
    Four year old Marly is playing with her toy cars. She favors the blue car, but pays with the green car for at least a few minutes. She says "i dont want the green one to get lonely." this is an example of
    • A. 

      Dual representation

    • B. 

      Egocentrism

    • C. 

      Animistic thinking

    • D. 

      Centration


  • 3. 
    During a ________ task, a four year old marissa is asked whether there are more oranges or fruits in a group of two apples, one banana, and three oranges. She will most likely say ________.
    • A. 

      Class inclusion; there are more fruits

    • B. 

      Class inclusion; there are more oranges

    • C. 

      Conservation-of-number; there are more fruit

    • D. 

      Conservation-of-number; there are more oranges


  • 4. 
    Which of the following children is most likely to express disbelief in the Tooth Fairy
    • A. 

      Jacob, a 6 year old Jewish boy

    • B. 

      Frank a six year old Catholic boy

    • C. 

      Luke a six year old Methodist boy

    • D. 

      Glenn a six year old Baptist boy


  • 5. 
    In Dino's preschool classroom, teachers evaluate each child's educational progress in relation to his or her previous development, rather than on the basis of normative standards, or average performance of same-age peers. This preschool emphasizes the Piagtetian principle of
    • A. 

      Sensitivity to children's readiness to learn

    • B. 

      Assisted discovery

    • C. 

      Discovery learning

    • D. 

      Acceptance of individual differences


  • 6. 
    As Sunni plays, she says: "Where's the cup? I want the cup. Oh, there it is. Now, I need the spoon.." Sunni is engaging in what researchers now call _________ speech
    • A. 

      Egocentric

    • B. 

      Private

    • C. 

      Inner

    • D. 

      Social


  • 7. 
    In Mr. Naffie's Vygotskian classroom, he guides children's learning with explanations, demostrations, and verbal prompts, tailoring his interventions to each child's zone of proximal development. This is an example of the Vygotskian principle of
    • A. 

      Peer collaboration

    • B. 

      Discovery learning

    • C. 

      Independent exploration

    • D. 

      Assisted discovery


  • 8. 
    Compared to Yucatec Mayan preschoolers. Western preschoolers are
    • A. 

      Less sophisticated with make-believe play

    • B. 

      More able to sit quietly for long periods

    • C. 

      More autonomous

    • D. 

      Less competent at self-care


  • 9. 
    After a field trip to the mueseum, Leslie asks her son, "What was the first thing we did? why weren't the trains moving? I thought that the pink airplane was really big. What did you think?" Leslie is using an _________ style to elicit her son's autobiographical memory.
    • A. 

      Deliberative

    • B. 

      Repetitive

    • C. 

      Reconstructive

    • D. 

      Elaborative


  • 10. 
    Greta has just been shown two boxes-- a plain, unmarked box full of raisins and a familiar marked raisin box that is empty. Next, Greta is askd to predict where another child will look for raisins. This tasks assesses Greta's understanding of
    • A. 

      Class inclusion

    • B. 

      Conservation

    • C. 

      Irreversibility

    • D. 

      False belief


  • 11. 
    Three year old Evan recognizes and reads the words "pizza" on a familiar sign, but think that his name is spelled "E" This demonstrates Evan's
    • A. 

      Theory of mind

    • B. 

      Metacognition

    • C. 

      Emergent literacy

    • D. 

      Phonological awareness


  • 12. 
    Jay introduced a new ball to his two year old daughter, Kandi. He said, "I'm throwing the wiffle ball to you!" He then threw the new ball to Kandi. Kandi said, "Catch, wiffle, catch!" Kandi's connection of the term, "wiffle" to the bal is an example of
    • A. 

      Overregularization

    • B. 

      Syntactic bootstrapping

    • C. 

      Fast mapping

    • D. 

      Semantic bootstrapping


  • 13. 
    When moses says "My Ball is a circle" his father replies "Yes, your basketball is round, just like a circle" Moses' father's response is an example of
    • A. 

      Fast mapping

    • B. 

      A recast

    • C. 

      An overregularization

    • D. 

      An expansion


  • 14. 
    When Sadie says "I goed to the store" her mother replies, "yes, you went to the store." Sadie's mother's responds is an example of
    • A. 

      Fast mapping

    • B. 

      A recast

    • C. 

      An overregularization

    • D. 

      An expansion


  • 15. 
    According to Erikson, play
    • A. 

      Allows young children to escape from the demands of their lives into a fantasy world

    • B. 

      Symbolically represents preschools' unconscious wishes and desires

    • C. 

      Is secondary to academic learning for preschoolers

    • D. 

      Permits preschoolers to try out new skills with little risk of criticism or failure


  • 16. 
    Three year old Sara says "i have three dolls. I have brown hair. I made a tall tower.." This demonstrates taht Sara is beginning to develop
    • A. 

      Self-esteem

    • B. 

      A self-concept

    • C. 

      A gender identity

    • D. 

      Gender typing


  • 17. 
    Five year old Anthony and his four year old sister Angela are engaged in a typical sibling dispute over a favorite child. In order to help them gain sensitivity to their sibling's feelings, their parents should
    • A. 

      Intervene with reasoning and negotiating

    • B. 

      Let them work through the dispute on their own, intervening only if there are tears involved

    • C. 

      Settle the dispute by making the children each take a turn in the chair for a set amount of time

    • D. 

      Totally ignore the dispute


  • 18. 
    At a parade, 3 year old Kyle puts his fingers in his ears when he hears the fire trucks coming down the street. Kyle is displaying
    • A. 

      Scaffolding

    • B. 

      Situational empathy

    • C. 

      Social problem-solving

    • D. 

      Emotional self regulation


  • 19. 
    When three year old Kaylee spills her water after filling her glass too full, her mother says "You filled the glass very full. Next time try putting less water in the glass" Assuming that Kaylee's mother repeatedly gives this sort of feedback which of the following is most likely to be true?
    • A. 

      Kaylee is likely to show little sympathy to others in distress

    • B. 

      Kaylee is likely to experience self-conscious emotions intensely

    • C. 

      Kaylee is likely to experience moderate, adaptive levels of shame and pride

    • D. 

      Kaylee is likely to experience a low level of pride after a success


  • 20. 
    Twins Jillian and Wesley 11 months old play near each other with similar materials. However they do not try to direct each other's activities. They are engaged in _______ play
    • A. 

      Parallel

    • B. 

      Cooperative

    • C. 

      Associative

    • D. 

      Nonsocial


  • 21. 
    Shelby and Sharon are four years old and are best friensd. They probably
    • A. 

      Count on each other's emotional support

    • B. 

      Have similar values and attitudes

    • C. 

      Feel lasting trust and caring for each other

    • D. 

      Have fun playing together


  • 22. 
    Most theories agree that
    • A. 

      A child's morality is regulated by inner standards from birth

    • B. 

      Truly moral individuals do the right thing to conform to other's expectations

    • C. 

      At first, a child's morality is externally controlled by adults

    • D. 

      Conscience does not begin to take shape until age 7


  • 23. 
    Three year old Connor is asked to choose the child who is the "most wrong" which child is Connor the most likely to choose?
    • A. 

      A child eating ice cream with her fingers

    • B. 

      A child who does not say "please" when she asks her friends to pass the water

    • C. 

      A child who hits his sister for no reason

    • D. 

      A boy who wears his long hair in a ponytail


  • 24. 
    To sit next to her mother at a restaurant, Diana pushes her little brother Mark out of the way. This is an example of __________ aggression
    • A. 

      Hostile

    • B. 

      Instrumental

    • C. 

      Passive

    • D. 

      Relational


  • 25. 
    Research on biological influences on gender typing reveals that
    • A. 

      Sex differences in play and personality traits only appear in Western Cultures

    • B. 

      Aggression preference for same-sex playmates is widespread among mammalism species

    • C. 

      Preschool girls prefer to play in larger-group play with other girls, while boys prefer to play in pairs

    • D. 

      Prenatally administered androgens decrease active play


  • 26. 
    Kevin's parents make few or no demands. They permit Kevin to make many decisions before he is ready. Kevin's parents have a(n) __________ style of child rearing.
    • A. 

      Authoritarian

    • B. 

      Permissive

    • C. 

      Authoritative

    • D. 

      Uninvolved


  • 27. 
    A child who believes that all firefighters are boys
    • A. 

      Is a gender-aschematic child

    • B. 

      Has not yet attained gender constancy

    • C. 

      Has an incomplete gender identity

    • D. 

      Has well-formed gender schemas


  • 28. 
    Which of the following is supported by research on child abuse?
    • A. 

      A single abusive personality type is a common thread among abusers

    • B. 

      Most parents who were abused as children become child abusers

    • C. 

      Fathers engage in neglect more often than mothers

    • D. 

      Maternal and paternal rates of physical abuse are fairly similar


  • 29. 
    Which of the following is true about the judicial system and child maltreatment
    • A. 

      Fewer cases of child maltreatment reach the courts than in decades past

    • B. 

      Child maltreatment is a crime that is relatively easy to prove

    • C. 

      In the united states, government intervention into family life is viewed as a last resort

    • D. 

      Maltreated children and their parents are not usually attached to one another.


  • 30. 
    Seal is getting ready to start first grade. During the school years, his parents can expect him to add about ______ inches in height and _______ pounds in weight each year
    • A. 

      1 to 2; 3

    • B. 

      2 to 3; 5

    • C. 

      3 to 4; 10

    • D. 

      4 to 5; 15


  • 31. 
    Joey and Rachel are approaching adolescence. At this time, they are likely to grow out of their __________ more quickly than their __________.
    • A. 

      Hats; shoes

    • B. 

      Jeans; jacket

    • C. 

      Shirts; jeans

    • D. 

      Jackets; shoes


  • 32. 
    Milo's neurotransmitters are not present in appropriate balances. He has begun to experience seizures and loss of motor control. Milo may suffer from
    • A. 

      Epilepsy

    • B. 

      Cerebal palsy

    • C. 

      Muscular dystropy

    • D. 

      Autrism


  • 33. 
    Eating an eveing meal with parents leads to a diet
    • A. 

      Lower in fruits

    • B. 

      Higher in soft drinks

    • C. 

      Lower in fried foods

    • D. 

      Lower in vegetables


  • 34. 
    Willemina's mom is concerned that she is not eating a well balanced diet. One solution is to
    • A. 

      Make sure she eats three healthy meals a day, but allow at least one junk food snack between meals.

    • B. 

      Keep cheese, fruit, raw vegetables, and peanut butter available for snacks

    • C. 

      Make sure to have new, novel healthy food items available for snacks

    • D. 

      Allow her to make her own food choices because children naturally select balanced diets


  • 35. 
    Which of the following children is most likely to have myopia?
    • A. 

      Travis, who lives in a high ses household

    • B. 

      Devin whose parents have good eyesight

    • C. 

      Chen who weighed 8 pounds at birth

    • D. 

      Hallie whose lives in a low ses household


  • 36. 
    Mikkah is 8 year olds, and experiences nocturnal enuresis. His parents have decided against any type of treatment, feeling that he will "outgrow it" his parents should know that
    • A. 

      Treatment in middle childhood has immediate positive psychological consequences

    • B. 

      Enuresis is not something that can be outgrown

    • C. 

      Doing nothing is, in fact, the most effective treatment for enuresis

    • D. 

      Without medical intervention, he runs a high risk of having this problem reoccur throughout his life.


  • 37. 
    Which of the following is true about childhood injuries?
    • A. 

      Injury fatalities decrease from middle childhood into adolescence

    • B. 

      Injury rates for girls rise considerable above those for boys

    • C. 

      Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of injury fatalities in middle childhood

    • D. 

      Sports-related injuries are the second leading cause of injury in middle childhood.


  • 38. 
    As Bree gets older, how will her batting abilities change?
    • A. 

      Her speed will increase but accuracy will stay the same

    • B. 

      Her speed will stay the same but her accuracy will improve

    • C. 

      Batting motions will involve her entire body

    • D. 

      Batting motions will primarily involve her upper body


  • 39. 
    Boys have an edge over girls in
    • A. 

      Handwriting

    • B. 

      Drawing

    • C. 

      Skipping

    • D. 

      Throwing


  • 40. 
    Compared with past generations, school-age children today spend more time
    • A. 

      Gathering informally on sidewalks

    • B. 

      In adult-organized sports

    • C. 

      At playgrounds

    • D. 

      In spontaneous play


  • 41. 
    Which of the following is true about school recess?
    • A. 

      In recent years, recess time has increased.

    • B. 

      Recess periods tend to subtract from classroom learning

    • C. 

      Distributing cognitively demanding tasks over a longer time by introducing recess breaks enhances attention

    • D. 

      Classroom disruptive behavior increases for children who have more than 15 minutes of daily recess.


  • 42. 
    Mr. Carter's physical education class should emphasize
    • A. 

      Competitive sports

    • B. 

      Individual exercise

    • C. 

      Team success

    • D. 

      Athletic ability


  • 43. 
    School recess
    • A. 

      Is one of the few remaining contexts devoted to child-organized games

    • B. 

      Inhibits class learning

    • C. 

      Has no effect on classroom learning

    • D. 

      Boosts classroom learning, but only when provided as an incentive to get students to work harder


  • 44. 
    Maurice and Samson occansionally wrestle, roll, hit, and run after one another, alternating roles while smiling and laughing. Maurice and Samson are engaged in ________ play.
    • A. 

      Rough and tumble

    • B. 

      Parallel

    • C. 

      Nonsocial

    • D. 

      Constructive


  • 45. 
    Gains in ______ permit the transition to rule-oriented games
    • A. 

      Flexibility

    • B. 

      Agility

    • C. 

      Perspective taking

    • D. 

      Fine-motor ability


  • 46. 
    Eight year old Daniel focuses on several aspects of a problem and relates them rather than centering on just one. Daniel is capable of
    • A. 

      Decentration

    • B. 

      Conservation

    • C. 

      Reversibility

    • D. 

      Seriation


  • 47. 
    Camilla, age 5 often uses an empiricial approach instead of a logical approach to solve problems. After failing at a class inclusion task at school, her teacher provided a logical explanation for solving the problem correctly. Based on recent studies, Camilla's future performance on this task should
    • A. 

      Improve rapidly

    • B. 

      Be similar to that of an 8 year old child

    • C. 

      Decrease slightly

    • D. 

      Remain the same


  • 48. 
    Ten year old Annabelle has improved her ability to control internal and external distracting stimuli. Annabelle has made gains in
    • A. 

      Mindfulness

    • B. 

      Inhibition

    • C. 

      Prohibitive concentration

    • D. 

      Process regulation


  • 49. 
    Ten year old Gemma is presented with a stream of numbers on a computer screen. She is asked to press a button when the two digit sequence of a "5" followed by at "7" appears. gemma's __________ attention is being tested
    • A. 

      Adaptive

    • B. 

      Selective

    • C. 

      Planful

    • D. 

      Productive


  • 50. 
    Aili is aware that she should attend closely to her teacher's directions, group items when memorizing, and reread a complicated paragraph to make sure she understands it, but she does not always engage in these activities. Aili is not yet good at
    • A. 

      Sustained attention

    • B. 

      Applying memory strategies

    • C. 

      Cognitive self regulation

    • D. 

      Metacognition


  • 51. 
    Mrs. Markie a first grade teacher believes that from the beginning children should be exposed to text in its complete form so that they can apprecaite the communicative function of written language. Mrs. Markie takes a _______ approach to teaching reading.
    • A. 

      Whole language

    • B. 

      Phonics

    • C. 

      Reciprocal

    • D. 

      Hierarchical


  • 52. 
    Noah thinks more skillfully than others when faced with novelty. Given a new task, Noah applies his information processing skills in exceptionally effective ways, rapidly making these skills automatic so that working memory is freed for more complex aspects of the situation. According to Sternberg's theory, Norha's strengths lie in _______ intelligence
    • A. 

      Analytical

    • B. 

      Creative

    • C. 

      Practical

    • D. 

      Experiential


  • 53. 
    The most powerful evidence on the role of heredity in IQ involves
    • A. 

      Adoption studies

    • B. 

      DNA testing

    • C. 

      Twin comparisons

    • D. 

      Nontwin comparisons


  • 54. 
    Javier's father works togeher with him in a coordinated, fluid way. Each focuses on the same aspect of a problem. Javier's father prefers a(n) _________ style of communication
    • A. 

      Collaborative

    • B. 

      Hierarchical

    • C. 

      Abstract

    • D. 

      Authoritarian


  • 55. 
    When asked to define "bicycle" Emi said, "iIts got wheels, a chain and handlebars". Emi is probably
    • A. 

      A preschooler

    • B. 

      A first grader

    • C. 

      A sixth grader

    • D. 

      Deficient in metalinguistic awareness


  • 56. 
    Miguel is bilingual. He sometimes speaks sentences in English that contain one or more Spanish words without violating the grammar of either language. Miguel engages is
    • A. 

      Topic-focused style

    • B. 

      Classic form

    • C. 

      Topic-associating style

    • D. 

      Code switching


  • 57. 
    Six year old Hector is about to start formal schooling. Hector's family life has not prepared him for school life.
    • A. 

      Shame

    • B. 

      Isolation

    • C. 

      Mistrust

    • D. 

      Inadequacy


  • 58. 
    Which of the following children is most likely to compare himself to just one other person and use that information as a basis for self evaluation
    • A. 

      Jessica age 5

    • B. 

      Estelle age 7

    • C. 

      Mariah age 9

    • D. 

      Shelly age 11


  • 59. 
    In which of the following scenarios is Henry, age 9 the most likely to experience guilt?
    • A. 

      He accidentally knocks his friend over while running on the playground

    • B. 

      He breaks his mother's favorite glass while trying to help her clean the dishes

    • C. 

      He forgets to clean up his toys before leaving for school

    • D. 

      He peeks at the answers of his classmate during a spelling quiz


  • 60. 
    Helena understands that different perspectives may result because people have access to different information. Helena is at the stage of ______ perspective taking.
    • A. 

      Undifferentiated

    • B. 

      Social-informational

    • C. 

      Self-reflective

    • D. 

      Third-party


  • 61. 
    In middle childhood, children realize that people's ________ and __________ affec the moral implications of violating a social convention
    • A. 

      Intentions; the context of their actions

    • B. 

      Age; intelligence

    • C. 

      Gender; the context of their actions

    • D. 

      Religion; nationality


  • 62. 
    Which of the following is most likely true about 8 year old Aja?
    • A. 

      She has a lot of friends of varying ages

    • B. 

      She has a few good friends, who do not resemble her personality

    • C. 

      She has only a handful of good friends, who, like Aja are popular and do well in school

    • D. 

      She has a lot of friends of diverse ethnic and SES groups


  • 63. 
    Charles received few positive and many negative votes on peer acceptance self report from the children in his class. How would Charles be classified.
    • A. 

      Popular

    • B. 

      Rejected

    • C. 

      Controversial

    • D. 

      Neglected


  • 64. 
    Jacob and Sarah are asked to rate the status of traditionally masculine and traditionally feminine occupantions. Which of the following is most likely to be true?
    • A. 

      Both jacob and sarah will rate traditionally masculine occupations as having a higher status than traditionally feminine occupations

    • B. 

      Jacob wil rate traditionally masculine occupations as having a higher status than traditionally feminine occupations, and sarah will do the opposite

    • C. 

      Both jacob and sarah will rate traditionally feminine occupations as having a higher status than traditionally masculine occupations

    • D. 

      Jacob will rate traditionally feminine occupations as having a higher status than traditionally masculine occupations, and sarah will do the opposite.


  • 65. 
    Differential treatment of siblings increases when
    • A. 

      Silbings strive to be different from one another

    • B. 

      Parents spend more time with children

    • C. 

      Parents are dealing with financial or emotional stress

    • D. 

      There are fewer children in the family


  • 66. 
    Lily's parents are gay. Research shows that she is likely to
    • A. 

      Be confused about her gender identity

    • B. 

      Suffer from poor mental health

    • C. 

      Have inadequate peer relations

    • D. 

      Be as well adjusted as other children


  • 67. 
    Franca, age 11 recently started contradicting and disagreeing with her parents. She is self conscious and often geos to her room and closes the door. Franca is a head taller and several pounds heavier than most girls in her sixth grade class. Franca has probably
    • A. 

      Developed an eating disorder

    • B. 

      Entered adolescence

    • C. 

      Reached full maturation

    • D. 

      Developed a social phobia


  • 68. 
    Which of the following is true about sex hormones
    • A. 

      Boys have only male hormones called androgens

    • B. 

      Girls have only female hormones called estrogens

    • C. 

      Neither androgens nor estrogens are present in the average boy

    • D. 

      Both androgens and estrogens are present in different amounts in boys and girls.


  • 69. 
    Gemma eats very little. She is likely to experience puberty
    • A. 

      Much earlier than other girls

    • B. 

      Slightly earlier than other girls

    • C. 

      Around the same time as the average girl

    • D. 

      Later than other girls


  • 70. 
    Sleep rebound on weekends
    • A. 

      Helps teenagers perform better in school during the weekdays

    • B. 

      Is vitally important to teenage sleep patterns

    • C. 

      Can lead to difficulty falling asleep on subsequent evenings

    • D. 

      Decreases the sleep phase delay


  • 71. 
    Janelle, a teenager is chronically tired but she appears to be growing normally. She should have a medical checkup because she might be suffering from
    • A. 

      Anemia

    • B. 

      Obesity

    • C. 

      Diabetes

    • D. 

      Anorexia nervosa


  • 72. 
    Girls who develop anorexia nervosa typically have
    • A. 

      At least one overweight parent

    • B. 

      A long history of yo yo dieting

    • C. 

      Poor academic performance at school

    • D. 

      Unrealistically high standards for their own performance.


  • 73. 
    Which of the following adolescents is most likely to have parents with a permissive attitude about sex?
    • A. 

      Iryana, an Iranian

    • B. 

      Kirsten, a Canadian

    • C. 

      Madison, an american

    • D. 

      Fau, a Papua New Guinean


  • 74. 
    When Monica's parents sit down to talk to her about sex, she laughs an tells them they are too late. She assures them that she already knows everything she needs to know. Chances are high that
    • A. 

      Monica is right, and they do not need to have "the talk"

    • B. 

      Monica will abstain from sex until she reaches adulthood

    • C. 

      Monica will adopt her parents' sexual values

    • D. 

      Monica's actual knowledge is far less than her perceived knowledge.


  • 75. 
    Suzanne responded to her daughter's coming out positively. She is understanding tand accpeting of the teenager's same sex relationship. However, Suzanne is concerned about her daughter's self-acceptance. Suzanne should know that
    • A. 

      Coming out to family impedes a young person's view of homosexuality as a valid fulfilling identity

    • B. 

      Contact with other gays and lesbians can interfere with a young person's self acceptance

    • C. 

      Coming out to friends often brings a backlash that impedes many aspects of adolescent development

    • D. 

      The strongest predictor of favorable adjustment for gay and lesbian youths is parental understanding


  • 76. 
    An experimenter hides a poker chip in her hand and asks children to indicate whether the following statement is false, true or uncertain; "Either the chip in my hand is green or it is not green." A concrete operational child will say the statement is ________. A formal operational adolescent will say the statement is _________.
    • A. 

      Uncertain; true

    • B. 

      True; uncertain

    • C. 

      Uncertain; false

    • D. 

      True; false


  • 77. 
    Twelve year old Alicia hears the following "A spoon is something that can be used to stir. Suppose something is not a spoon. Can it be used to stir?" Alicia will
    • A. 

      Say that she needs to see the object in question

    • B. 

      Be able to reason correctly after hearing the statement

    • C. 

      Say "no"

    • D. 

      Say "only if it is a fork"


  • 78. 
    Cristina feels that she is a fairly objective person, but she knows there are times when her opinions are completely biased and fail to take into account factual evidence. In all likelihood, Cristina
    • A. 

      Has difficulty solving abstract problems

    • B. 

      Tends to be more fair-minded rather than self serving

    • C. 

      Is generally disliked by her peers for being selfish

    • D. 

      Is still a concrete thinker


  • 79. 
    Gina has a bruise on her leg. She turned down an invitiation to a swim party explaining "I can't possibly wear a swim suit with this ugly bruise. Everyone will notice how ugly I look!" Gina's response reveals that her thinking is characterized by
    • A. 

      Paranoia

    • B. 

      Argumentativeness

    • C. 

      The imaginary audience

    • D. 

      The personal fable


  • 80. 
    With regard to computer use, Angelique is more likely to ________, while Brendan is more likely to ____________.
    • A. 

      Write computer programs; use email

    • B. 

      Use instant messaging; use graphics software

    • C. 

      Analyze data; gather information for homework assignments

    • D. 

      Use email; use instant messaging.


  • 81. 
    Joshua recently switched from elementary school to middle school. He feels less academically competent and his liking for school has declined. Which of the following best explains the cause of his feelings?
    • A. 

      He comes from a high ses background

    • B. 

      The class sizes are bigger and the school work is more challenging

    • C. 

      Middle school teachers tend to be less caring and supportive than elementary school teachers

    • D. 

      Boys more so than girls tend to struggle with school transitions


  • 82. 
    Alan's elementary school has been labeled a "failing" school according to No Child Left Behind standards. Alan's parents will probably
    • A. 

      Have the option of transferring him to a higher-performing school

    • B. 

      Be asked to provide additional tutoring for Alan, at their own expense

    • C. 

      Hear that his school has received additional federal funding to improve student achievement.

    • D. 

      Learns that his teachers have received financial bonuses


  • 83. 
    Typically, parents of students who drop out of school
    • A. 

      Encourage achievement but just are not successful

    • B. 

      Completed high school themselves

    • C. 

      Show little involvement in their child's education

    • D. 

      Have serious emotional problems


  • 84. 
    Leilani thinks that she wants to be an actress or a ballerina when she grows up. Her brother Reilly wants to be a football player or a motorcycle racer. Leilani and Reilly are currently in the _________ period of vocational development
    • A. 

      Fantasy

    • B. 

      Tentative

    • C. 

      Realistic

    • D. 

      Decisive


  • 85. 
    American high school students who work many hours a week and hold a heavy commitment to their job
    • A. 

      Usually have stimulating, well paid jobs

    • B. 

      Do better in school than their unemployed counterparts

    • C. 

      Tend to be depressed and dislike by peers

    • D. 

      Earn lower grades and report more drug and alcohol use


  • 86. 
    High school work-study programs are related to
    • A. 

      Positive school and work attitudes

    • B. 

      Good teacher and peer relations

    • C. 

      Poor achievement

    • D. 

      High dropout rates among low income youths


  • 87. 
    Jos age 16 thinks "What am I really like?" Who will I become?" These remarks
    • A. 

      Are signs of identity development

    • B. 

      Indicate that Jos lacks self-confidence

    • C. 

      Reveal that Jos has a serious adjustment problem

    • D. 

      Indicate that Jos is ready for Erikson's intimacy stage


  • 88. 
    As Milee transitions from childhood to adolescence she will likely add several new dimensions of self evaluations
    • A. 

      Athletic skill, academic competence, and moral understanding

    • B. 

      Identity, autonomy, and initiative

    • C. 

      Close friendship, romantic appeal, and job competence

    • D. 

      Popularity, future aspirations, and spirituality


  • 89. 
    After high school, Tom entered college while his brother Jay went to work. Which of the following is true?
    • A. 

      Jay will probably settle on a self-definition before TOm

    • B. 

      Jay is unlikely to reach identity achievement


  • 90. 
    IN response to the Heinz dilemma, Mara explains, "Heinz ought to steal the drug. Obeying the law in this case goes against the reason for which the law was originally created. THe law should be reinterpreted to take account of Heinz's right to save his wife's life." Mara is in which of Kohlberg's stages?
    • A. 

      Instrumental purpose orientation

    • B. 

      Social-order-maintaining orientation

    • C. 

      Social contract orientation

    • D. 

      Universal ethical principle orientation


  • 91. 
    As a teenage, John shows higher stage thinking on Kohlberg's dilemmas. Compared with his peers, John is likely to
    • A. 

      State that people should help others, but is unlikely to do so in real life

    • B. 

      Help others and defend victims of injustice

    • C. 

      Cheat in school just as much as other teens

    • D. 

      Emphasize an ethic of care


  • 92. 
    As Juanita tries to develop a separate sense of self, she tries to rely less on her parents and more on herself. Juanita is striving for
    • A. 

      Moral self relevance

    • B. 

      An ideal self

    • C. 

      A secure identity

    • D. 

      Autonomy


  • 93. 
    The __________ child rearing style is most effective in supporting cognitive and social development in adolescence.
    • A. 

      Authoritarian

    • B. 

      Permissive

    • C. 

      Authoritative

    • D. 

      Controlling


  • 94. 
    Mr and Mrs Green are financially secure and have careers that do not introduce a lot of stress into their lives. When dealing with their teenage son, the Greens will probably
    • A. 

      Engage in permissive child rearing

    • B. 

      Provide him with too much autonomy

    • C. 

      Provide him with too much autonomy

    • D. 

      Find it easier to grand him the appropriate amount of autonomy


  • 95. 
    Teenagers in the United States spend more time together outside the classroom than teenagers in Europe or East Asia. The difference is probably due to
    • A. 

      Lower rates of maternal employment in the United States.

    • B. 

      Less demanding academic standards in the United States

    • C. 

      Fewer public gathering places for adolescents in the United States

    • D. 

      Greater flexibility in school hours in Europe and East Asia


  • 96. 
    Of the following, who is MOST likely to have other sex friends?
    • A. 

      Cassidy, an average student who is not well known

    • B. 

      Marie who reached puberty earlier than her classmates

    • C. 

      Chase who frequently plays sports with his many male friends

    • D. 

      Gwenneth who is neither popular nor unpopular


  • 97. 
    The short duration of high school romances is probably
    • A. 

      Exaggerated; first romances are usually long lasting

    • B. 

      Due to competition and jealously from friends

    • C. 

      Due to difficulties caused by one partner moving away for college or work

    • D. 

      A result of young people still forming their identities.


  • 98. 
    Lydia says "I hate my life and I just want to die Besides, everyone would be better off without me. --- better if I had never been born" You should
    • A. 

      Try to take her mind off her problems by taking her to a movie or some other activities

    • B. 

      Agree with her initially. If she thinks you are on her side by not opposing her plan, she is more likely to be convinced by you later

    • C. 

      Make her get professional help right away. Do not try to talk to her yourself, as untrained counseling can actually increase the risk of suicide

    • D. 

      Empathize as much as you can and ask if she has a plan for killing herself. If her plan involves a method and a time, the risk of suicide is very high.


  • 99. 
    Research shows that most teenagers
    • A. 

      Engage in serious antisocial acts, although they are rarely caught or prosecuted.

    • B. 

      Do not show serious depression, suicidal tendencies, or persistent antisocial behavior

    • C. 

      Experience severe bouts of depression, especially those in industrialized nations

    • D. 

      Seriously consider suicide, although few actually make an attempt


  • 100. 
    Which of the following resources are shown to facilitate resilience in adolescents?
    • A. 

      Working a full time job

    • B. 

      Early dating

    • C. 

      Affiliation with a religious organization

    • D. 

      Other sex friendships


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