Chapter 7-12

400 Questions  I  By Quizcreationhelp on March 2, 2012

  

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1.  Although information technology projects have a poor track record in meeting project goals, they have a good track record in meeting budget goals.
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2.  Preparing cost estimates is a job for accountants.
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3.  Any new technology or business process is untested and has inherent risks.
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4.  Many projects that are started never finish because of cost management problems.
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5.  When justifying investments in new information systems and technology, the focus should only be on revenues or expenses.
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6.  Organizations have a history of spending too much money in the early phases of information technology projects.
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7.  Project managers must conduct cash flow analysis to determine net present value.
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8.  Direct costs cannot be directly attributed to a certain project.
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9.  When deciding what projects to invest in or continue, you should include sunk costs.
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10.  Learning curve theory does not apply to the amount of time it takes to complete some tasks.
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11.  If a project manager gets sick for two weeks or an important supplier goes out of business, management reserve could be set aside to cover the resulting costs.
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12.  ROM estimates can be referred to as a ballpark estimate, a guesstimate, a swag, or a broad gauge.
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13.  A definitive estimate should be the least accurate of the three types of estimates.
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14.  Estimates are usually done at various stages of a project and should become more accurate as time progresses.
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15.  The cost management plan is part of the overall project management plan.
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16.  A large percentage of total project costs are often labor costs.
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17.  Parametric models are least reliable when historical information was used to create the model.
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18.  When developing an estimate for a large software project, estimates cannot be made before clear system requirements have been produced.
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19.  The people who develop software cost estimates often have a great deal of experience with cost estimation.
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20.  Every cost estimate is unique.
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21.  The WBS is not a required input when developing a cost estimate.
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22.  Most organizations have a well-established process for preparing budgets.
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23.  Cost budgeting provides information for project funding requirements.
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24.  There does not need to be a change control system to define procedures for changing the cost baseline.
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25.  The formulas for variances and indexes start with EV, the earned value.
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26.  If cost variance is a positive number, it means that performing the work cost more than planned.
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27.  If the cost performance index is less than one or less than 100 percent, the project is under budget.
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28.  In an earned value chart, when the actual cost line is right on or above the earned value line, costs are less than or equal to planned.
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29.  Many projects, particularly information technology projects, do not have good planning information, so tracking performance against a plan might produce misleading information.
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30.  Databases are a common tool for cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control.
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31.  The Standish Group’s CHAOS studies reported an average cost overrun for unsuccessful IT projects ranged from 180 percent in 1994 to ____ percent in 2004.
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32.  Three separate surveys of software project cost overruns found that the average cost overrun for all of the projects in their survey samples (not just unsuccessful projects) were ____ percent.
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33.  ____ includes the processes required to ensure that a project team completes a project within an approved budget.
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34.  ____ involves developing an approximation or estimate of the costs of the resources needed to complete a project.
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35.  ____ involves allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items to establish a baseline for measuring performance.
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36.  ____ is the ratio of revenues to profits.
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37.  ____ helps you develop an accurate projection of a project’s financial costs and benefits.
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38.  ____, with assistance from financial experts in their organizations, should create estimates of the costs and benefits of the project for its entire life cycle.
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39.  Since organizations depend on reliable information technology, there are also huge costs associated with ____.
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40.  ____ is a method for determining the estimated annual costs and benefits for a project and the resulting annual cash flow.
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41.  ____ are those costs that an organization can easily measure in dollars.
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42.  Project managers should focus on ____, since they can control them.
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43.  ____ are costs that are not directly related to the products or services of the project, but are indirectly related to performing the project.
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44.  ____ should be forgotten.
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45.  ____ allow for future situations that may be partially planned for.
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46.  ____ allow for future situations that are unpredictable.
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47.  A ____ provides an estimate of what a project will cost.
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48.  A ____ is done very early in a project or even before a project is officially started.
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49.  A ____ is used to allocate money into an organization’s budget.
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50.  A ____ is used for making many purchasing decisions for which accurate estimates are required and for estimating final project costs.
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51.  ____ use the actual cost of a previous, similar project as the basis for estimating the cost of the current project.
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52.  ____ involve estimating individual work items or activities and summing them to get a project total.
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53.  A(n) ____ might provide an estimate of $50 per line of code for a software development project based on the programming language the project is using, the level of expertise of the programmers, the size and complexity of the data involved, and so on.
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54.  Tom DeMarco, a well-known author on software development, suggests ____ reasons for the inaccuracies of many information technology project cost estimates and some ways to overcome them.
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55.  If the cost estimate will be the basis for contract awards and performance reporting, it should be a ____ and as accurate as possible.
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56.  The main goal of the ____ process is to produce a cost baseline for measuring project performance and project funding requirements.
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57.  A ____ is a time-phased budget that project managers use to measure and monitor cost performance.
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58.  The project management plan, project funding requirements, work performance data, and organizational process assets are inputs for the process of ____.
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59.  ____ is a project performance measurement technique that integrates scope, time, and cost data.
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60.  The ____ is that portion of the approved total cost estimate planned to be spent on an activity during a given period.
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61.  The ____ is the ratio of actual work completed to the percentage of work planned to have been completed at any given time during the life of the project or activity.
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62.  The ____ is an estimate of the value of the physical work actually completed.
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63.  The ____ is the total direct and indirect costs incurred in accomplishing work on an activity during a given period.
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64.  Variances are calculated by subtracting the actual cost or planned value from ____.
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65.  ____ is the earned value minus the actual cost.
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66.  ____ is the earned value minus the planned value.
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67.  The ____ is the ratio of earned value to actual cost and can be used to estimate the projected cost of completing the project.
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68.  The ____ is the ratio of earned value to planned value and can be used to estimate the projected time to complete the project.
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69.  The ____ is an estimate of what it will cost to complete the project based on performance to date.
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70.  Using simplified percentage complete amounts for a one-year project with weekly reporting and an average task or work packet size of one week, you can expect about a(n) ____ percent error rate.
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71.  Most people simply accept poor quality from many information technology products.
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72.  The majority of people in the United States use the Internet.
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73.  When an information system does not function correctly, it is generally a slight inconvenience.
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74.  Quality is a lower priority than project scope, time, and cost.
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75.  The quality planning process involves taking responsibility for quality throughout the project’s life cycle.
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76.  Quality planning implies the ability to anticipate situations and prepare actions that bring about the desired outcome.
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77.  Understanding which variables affect outcome is a very important part of quality planning.
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78.  Design of experiments cannot be applied to project management issues such as cost and schedule trade-offs.
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79.  Organizational policies related to quality, the particular project’s scope statement and product descriptions, and related standards and regulations are all important input to the quality assurance process.
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80.  It is important to clarify what functions and features the system must perform, and what functions and features are optional.
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81.  Most information technology products can reach 100 percent reliability.
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82.  Project managers are ultimately responsible for quality management on their projects.
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83.  Continuous quality improvement is not a goal of quality assurance.
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84.  Only in-house auditors can perform quality audits.
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85.  If products are accepted, they are considered to be validated deliverables.
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86.  In a Pareto chart, the variables described by the histogram are ordered chronologically.
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87.  To obtain valid statistics, it is important to study every member of a population.
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88.  Control charts are one tool used in the analyze phase of the DMAIC process.
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89.  All of the Six Sigma principles are brand new.
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90.  Using Six Sigma principles is an organization-wide commitment.
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91.  Minimizing defects does not matter if an organization is making a product that no one wants to buy.
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92.  The term sigma means median.
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93.  Testing needs to be done during almost every phase of the systems development life cycle.
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94.  Integration testing replaces the other forms of testing with a single comprehensive test.
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95.  Modern quality management requires customer satisfaction, prefers prevention to inspection, and recognizes management responsibility for quality.
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96.  In TQC, product quality is less important than production rates, and workers are not allowed to stop production whenever a quality problem occurs.
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97.  ISO 9000 provides minimum requirements needed for an organization to meet its quality certification standards.
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98.  Many quality experts believe the main cause of quality problems is the lack of leadership.
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99.  DeMarco and Lister found direct correlations between productivity and programming language, years of experience, and salary.
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100.  Expectations can vary based on an organization’s culture or geographic region.
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101.  It took only ____ years for 50 million people to use the Internet compared to 25 years for 50 million people to use telephones.
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102.  ____ means the project’s processes and products meet written specifications.
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103.  The ____ ultimately decides if quality is acceptable.
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104.  Project quality management involves ____ main processes.
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105.  ____ includes identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy those standards.
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106.  The main outputs of ____ are a quality management plan, quality metrics, quality checklists, a process improvement plan, and project document updates.
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107.  ____ involves periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.
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108.  ____ involves monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards while identifying ways to improve overall quality.
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109.  The ____ process is often associated with the technical tools and techniques of quality management, such as Pareto charts, quality control charts, and statistical sampling.
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