Chapter 31 Microbiology

50 Questions  I  By Andreazza
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  • 1. 
    The condition in the host that results from pathogenic parasitic organism growing and multiplying within or on the host is called  
    • A. 

      An infection.

    • B. 

      An infectious disease.

    • C. 

      Pathogenesis

    • D. 

      All of these


  • 2. 
    The final outcome of most host-parasite relationships depends on  
    • A. 

      the number of organisms present in or on the host. 


    • B. 

      The virulence of the organism.

    • C. 

      The host's defenses.

    • D. 

      all of the choices


  • 3. 
    Which of the following has no effect on the outcome of the host-parasite relationship?  
    • A. 

      The number of parasites on or in the host

    • B. 

      The virulence of the parasite 


    • C. 

      The defenses of the host

    • D. 

      All of these have an effect on the outcome of the host-parasite relationship.


  • 4. 
    Any organism that can cause disease in the host after direct interaction is a  
    • A. 

      Focal pathogen.

    • B. 

      Opportunistic pathogen.

    • C. 

      Primary pathogen. 


    • D. 

      secondary pathogen.


  • 5. 
     An __________ pathogen can cause disease in a host with impaired resistance.  

  • 6. 
    Matching  
    • A. latent
    • A.
    • B. antitoxin
    • B.
    • C. opportunistic
    • C.
    • D. localized
    • D.

  • 7. 
    If a symbiont either harms or lives at the expense of another organism, the relationship is called  
    • A. 

      Symbiosis

    • B. 

      Parasitism

    • C. 

      Commensalisms

    • D. 

      Pathogenicity


  • 8. 
    An organism other than a human that is infected with a parasitic organism that can also infect humans is called a(n) ________ host.  
    • A. 

      Reservoir

    • B. 

      Endoparasite

    • C. 

      Transfer

    • D. 

      Intermediate


  • 9. 
    Which of the following is required of a pathogen to possess in order for it to be successful at causing infectious disease?  
    • A. 

      Initially be transported to the host

    • B. 

      Be able to exit the host

    • C. 

      Ability to adhere to, colonize, or invade the host

    • D. 

      Ability to damage the host 


    • E. 

      All of the choices


  • 10. 
    An inanimate object that may be contaminated with a pathogen is called a  
    • A. 

      Vector

    • B. 

      Fomite

    • C. 

      Zoonoses

    • D. 

      None of the choices


  • 11. 
    Which of the following is a facultative intracellular pathogen?  
    • A. 

      Viruses

    • B. 

      Brucella abortus

    • C. 

      Rickettsia

    • D. 

      All of the choices


  • 12. 
    Transfer of pathogens from host to environment and then to another host are said to be transmitted _________.  

  • 13. 
    A ________________ infection is a disease caused by a parasitic organism that is normally found in animals other than humans.  

  • 14. 
    The presence of viruses in the blood is called _______________.  

  • 15. 
    A __________ is an organism that transfers pathogens from one host to another.  

  • 16. 
    Matching  
    • A. reservoir
    • A.
    • B. fomite
    • B.
    • C. opportunistic
    • C.
    • D. nosocomial
    • D.

  • 17. 
    Vector-borne transmission can be either external or internal. In external (mechanical) transmission, the pathogen is carried  
    • A. 

      On a fomite.

    • B. 

      On the body surface of a vector.

    • C. 

      Within the vector.

    • D. 

      All of the choices


  • 18. 
    Inanimate materials involved in pathogen transmission are called reservoirs.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 19. 
    Pathogens can penetrate to deeper tissues by producing specific virulence structures or enzymes.  These products include all of the following except  
    • A. 

      Collagenase

    • B. 

      Ribosomes

    • C. 

      Hyaluronidase

    • D. 

      Leukocidins


  • 20. 
    Bacteria within biofilms exchange  
    • A. 

      Plasmids

    • B. 

      Quorum-sensing molecules

    • C. 

      Nutrients

    • D. 

      All of the choices


  • 21. 
    Many types of bacteria are only _________ when dispersing from more stable and heterogeneous communities known as biofilms.  

  • 22. 
    Virulence may be measured experimentally at the host level by the __________ __________ __________, which measures the number of pathogens that kills 50% of an experimental group of hosts within a specified amount of time.  (3 words)  

  • 23. 
    The term __________ refers to the degree or intensity of pathogenicity.  

  • 24. 
     Because LPS is bound to the surface of bacteria, it is called a(n) __________.  

  • 25. 
    A neutralizing antibody against a toxin is called a(n) __________.  

  • 26. 
    Exotoxins can be denatured by iodine to form __________ which are useful in vaccines.  

  • 27. 
     The capacity of an organism to produce a toxin is called __________.  

  • 28. 
    Cholera toxin is an AB toxin.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 29. 
     Many bacteria are pathogenic because they carry large segments of DNA called __________ _________, which were acquired by horizontal gene transfer, and which carry genes responsible for virulence.  (2 words)  

  • 30. 
    Once a pathogen has infected the host, __________________ is a measure of the pathogen's ability to spread to adjacent or other tissues.  

  • 31. 
     Gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens results from disruption of cell membranes caused by production of ____________.  (2 words, 1 word)  

  • 32. 
    While exotoxin production is most generally associated with gram-positive bacteria, some Gram-negative bacteria also produce exotoxins.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 33. 
    Macrophages are phagocytic cells.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 34. 
    Fever response can be triggered by an endogenous pyrogen called interleukin-1.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 35. 
    Colonization specifically refers to the multiplication of a pathogen on or within a host, and includes the resulting tissue invasion and damage.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 36. 
    Generally, exotoxins tend to be more heat stable than endotoxins.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 37. 
    The only organisms to produce endotoxins are gram-negative bacteria.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False


  • 38. 
     Listeria monocytogenes propels itself through mammalian host cells using:  
    • A. 

      A modified form of gliding motility.


    • B. 

      Host cell actin and other cytoskeletal proteins.


    • C. 

      Periplasmic flagella.


    • D. 

      Fimbriae based twitching motility.


  • 39. 
    The toxic component of lipopolysaccharide is called  
    • A. 

      Lipid A.

    • B. 

      Exotoxin

    • C. 

      Hemolysin

    • D. 

      O antigen polysaccharide.


  • 40. 
     In the case of the AB toxins, the function of the B subunit is to  
    • A. 

      Act as a neurotoxin.

    • B. 

      Have enzyme activity that causes toxicity.

    • C. 

      act as a superantigen that stimulates T cells to release cytokines.

    • D. 

      bind to host cell receptor.


  • 41. 
    The characteristics of a pathogen that determine its virulence include which of the following?  
    • A. 

      Pathogenicity

    • B. 

      Invasiveness

    • C. 

      Infectivity

    • D. 

      All of the choices


  • 42. 
     Pathogenicity islands are typically associated with  
    • A. 

      Genes encoding tRNA.

    • B. 

      Genes encoding rRNA.

    • C. 

      G+C content similar to the rest of the bacterial genome. 


    • D. 

      None of the choices


  • 43. 
    Which of the following is not a biological effect associated with endotoxin?  
    • A. 

      Coagulation

    • B. 

      Paralysis

    • C. 

      Fever

    • D. 

      Fibrinolysis


  • 44. 
    Endotoxin is released when  
    • A. 

      gram negative pathogens lyse or divide. 


    • B. 

      Cells are starved for iron.

    • C. 

      cells are lysogenic for the beta phage.

    • D. 

      All of the choices


  • 45. 
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of lipid A?  
    • A. 

      heat stable

    • B. 

      toxic in nanogram amounts 


    • C. 

      Weakly immunogenic

    • D. 

      Neurotoxic


  • 46. 
    Endotoxins include which of the following?  
    • A. 

      Diphtheria toxin

    • B. 

      Lipopolysaccharide

    • C. 

      Tetanus toxin

    • D. 

      Botulinum toxin


  • 47. 
    Which of the following lyse erythrocytes to make iron available to pathogens?  
    • A. 

      Hyaluronidase

    • B. 

      Collagenase

    • C. 

      Hemolysins

    • D. 

      Coagulase


  • 48. 
    Adherence factors (adhesins) that play a role in infectious diseases caused by gram negative bacteria include all of the following except  
    • A. 

      Glycocalyx

    • B. 

      Fimbriae

    • C. 

      Lipoteichoic acid.

    • D. 

      Slime layer.


  • 49. 
     An infectious disease process caused by bacterial or fungal toxins in the blood is called  
    • A. 

      Septicemia

    • B. 

      Systemic

    • C. 

      Toxemia

    • D. 

      Phytogenic


  • 50. 
    By convention, when the word parasite is used without qualification, it often refers to  
    • A. 

      A protozoan or helminthic organism.

    • B. 

      Yeast or fungi.

    • C. 

      Bacteria or Archaea.


    • D. 

      Lichens


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