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They contract to allow ejaculation.
They are responsible for penile erection.
They regulate the temperature of the testes.
They contract to push sperm along the ductus deferens.
The dartos muscle
The bulbospongiosus muscles
Sexually transmitted infections
Nondescent of the testes
A diet high in fat
The bulbourethral glands
The seminal vesicles
That human gonadotropin be synthesized in the first week of the pregnancy
That the female hormones are suppressed during pregnancy
Secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth
The suppression of inhibin
Regulate the ovarian and menstrual cycles
Receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum
Protect the ovaries
Synthesize female hormones
Because some blood contents are toxic to the spermatozoa
Because immature sperm cells lose their motility when they encounter any blood component
Because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system
Actually, the blood-testis barrier has no function.
Half the diploid number with no change in development
Twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur
Triple the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to triple and normal development would not occur
There is no relationship between gametes and somatic cells.
They have the same degree of motility
They have the same number of chromosomes
About the same number of each is produced per month
They are about the same size
Sequence of events in the rete testis
Formation of four haploid cells from a spermatogonium
Formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm
Movement of sperm in the female genital tract
Increasing mass of the skeleton
Development of testes as opposed to ovaries
Development of body hair
Lowering of the voice
Of different sexes
Absence of an acrosome
Presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm
Absence of coiled mitochondria
Presence of two X chromosomes in approximately half the sperm
They move away from the pelvic cavity.
They move close to the pelvic cavity.
Excessive warmth has no effect on the testicles because of their location in the scrotum.
Excessive warmth is actually beneficial in that it speeds up the maturation of sperm.
Deepening of the voice
Growth of the larynx
Increased oiliness of the skin
Growth of the breasts at puberty
Secretory activity of the uterine myometrium
Development of the female secondary sex characteristics
Preparation of the mammary glands for lactation
Contraction of uterine muscles
The sperm midpiece consists of mitochondria spiraled tightly around the contractile filaments of the tail.
The acrosome is produced by the Golgi apparatus and contains hydrolytic enzymes.
They are sluggish in an alkaline environment.
They contain very little cytoplasm or stored nutrients.
Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced.
Male sex hormones will not be circulated in the body.
Sperm will have no means of exit from the body.
Inadequate blood supply will retard the development of the testes.
A sympathetic reflex
A parasympathetic reflex
Parasympathetic activation of the bulbourethral glands
Dilation of the veins in the penis
Development of endometrial cells
Vesicular follicle growth
Late in this phase, cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline
Receives semen from the penis during sexual intercourse
Serves as a passageway for menstrual flow
Is the birth canal
Serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte
Expansion of the penile tissues results in dilation of the venous outflow.
Sympathetic impulses are responsible for causing penile arteriolar dilation, resulting in erection.
Ejaculation is the result of parasympathetic stimulation.
Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood.
Stimulates mammary gland development
Stimulates protein synthesis
Contributes to male sexual behavior and spermatogenesis
Stimulates the male pattern of development
The Graafian follicle forms
Estrogen reaches its highest levels
Progesterone levels are at their highest
LH reaches its highest levels
If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.
During the secretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest.
During the proliferative phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone.
The menstrual phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 8.
Anterior pituitary gland
The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.
The only time hormones target breast tissue is during pregnancy and lactation.
All lumps identified in breast tissue are malignant.
Both sexes are equally prone to breast cancer.
The corpus luteum secretes estrogen
Blood levels of FSH fall off
Blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
Blood levels of estrogen and progesterone increase
The mature ovum is n, while the sperm is 2n
In oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell
Spermatogenesis involves mitosis and meiosis, but oogenesis involves meiosis only
During spermatogenesis two more polar bodies are produced
There were originally four polar bodies and one disappeared.
One is an undeveloped primary oocyte that failed to mature.
What you really see are two polar bodies and the sperm that will fertilize the egg.
The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies.
The corpus luteum prepares to become a corpus albicans.
The endometrium enters its secretory phase.
The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is enhanced.
The corpus luteum secretes estrogen only.
There is no common duct between the reproductive system and the urinary system.
The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes.
There is no urge to urinate during sexual intercourse because of the suppression of LH by testosterone buildup in the blood.
Ejaculation is a parasympathetic reflex resulting in no response by urinary contraction muscles.
Involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
Results in the formation of diploid cells
Uses mitosis to produce gamete cells
Is the process of releasing mature sperm cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule
Involves posterior pituitary release of regulating hormones
Involves FSH and LH release
Involves a positive feedback loop control of spermatogenesis
Is the tight relationship between the cortex and the control of testicular function
The pineal gland is believed to be the gland that exerts the most influence in testosterone control.
GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.
FSH stimulates testicular production of testosterone.
Inhibin and testosterone exert positive feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary.
The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary.
The isthmus is the normal site of fertilization.
The mesometrium supports the uterine tubes along their entire length.
The ampulla is the narrow constricted region.
Rising levels of estrogen start follicle development.
The follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation.
High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.
The LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte.
Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated.
Genital herpes is caused by a virus that may cause intermittent lesions.
Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium that can bring on painful discharges in males.
Chlamydia is caused by bacteria that can often be asymptomatic or bring on a wide variety of symptoms.
The spermatogonium forms the primary spermatocyte.
The secondary spermatocytes each form two spermatids.
The primary spermatocyte forms two secondary spermatocytes.
Each spermatid forms two sperm.
Have impaired function of interstitial cells
Be impotent (unable to have an erection)
Not develop secondary sex characteristics
Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses.
Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.
Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube.
The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones.
Excessive beard growth
Decreased testosterone secretion
Shrinkage of the anterior pituitary gland
The corpus luteum is formed from the ruptured follicle after ovulation
A decrease in the levels of ovarian hormones signals menstruation
FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium
Estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle
Maximal steroid secretion by the corpus luteum and menstruation
Regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion
Maximal LH secretion and menstruation
Early follicular development and the secretory phase in the uterus
The number-one cause of death in men
Sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient
Often the result of a distortion of the urethra
Most common in Asians