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Chapter 27

56 Questions
Chapter 27

Chapter 27 test

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?
    • A. 

      They contract to allow ejaculation.

    • B. 

      They are responsible for penile erection.

    • C. 

      They regulate the temperature of the testes.

    • D. 

      They contract to push sperm along the ductus deferens.

  • 2. 
    The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________.
    • A. 

      Hormonal action

    • B. 

      Enzymatic activity

    • C. 

      Peristaltic contractions

    • D. 

      Gravity

  • 3. 
    The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ________.
    • A. 

      The dartos muscle

    • B. 

      The bulbospongiosus muscles

    • C. 

      Luteinizing hormone

    • D. 

      Parasympathetic nerves

  • 4. 
    The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________.
    • A. 

      Sexually transmitted infections

    • B. 

      Smoking

    • C. 

      Nondescent of the testes

    • D. 

      A diet high in fat

  • 5. 
    Which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?
    • A. 

      The bulbourethral glands

    • B. 

      The prostate

    • C. 

      The pituitary

    • D. 

      The seminal vesicles

  • 6. 
    Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
    • A. 

      FSH

    • B. 

      GnRH

    • C. 

      Testosterone

    • D. 

      LH

  • 7. 
    Development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events?
    • A. 

      That human gonadotropin be synthesized in the first week of the pregnancy

    • B. 

      That the female hormones are suppressed during pregnancy

    • C. 

      Secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth

    • D. 

      The suppression of inhibin

  • 8. 
    The primary function of the uterus is to ________.
    • A. 

      Regulate the ovarian and menstrual cycles

    • B. 

      Receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

    • C. 

      Protect the ovaries

    • D. 

      Synthesize female hormones

  • 9. 
    Why is the blood-testis barrier important?
    • A. 

      Because some blood contents are toxic to the spermatozoa

    • B. 

      Because immature sperm cells lose their motility when they encounter any blood component

    • C. 

      Because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system

    • D. 

      Actually, the blood-testis barrier has no function.

  • 10. 
    The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the ________.
    • A. 

      Graafian follicles

    • B. 

      Fallopian tubes

    • C. 

      Fimbriae

    • D. 

      Infundibula

  • 11. 
     If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?
    • A. 

      Half the diploid number with no change in development

    • B. 

      Twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur

    • C. 

      Triple the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to triple and normal development would not occur

    • D. 

      There is no relationship between gametes and somatic cells.

  • 12. 
    Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.
    • A. 

      They have the same degree of motility

    • B. 

      They have the same number of chromosomes

    • C. 

      About the same number of each is produced per month

    • D. 

      They are about the same size

  • 13. 
    The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.
    • A. 

      DNA synthesis

    • B. 

      Meiosis

    • C. 

      Cytokinesis

    • D. 

      Mitosis

  • 14. 
    Fertilization generally occurs in the ________.
    • A. 

      Vagina

    • B. 

      Fallopian tubes

    • C. 

      Ovary

    • D. 

      Uterus

  • 15. 
    Spermiogenesis involves the ________.
    • A. 

      Sequence of events in the rete testis

    • B. 

      Formation of four haploid cells from a spermatogonium

    • C. 

      Formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm

    • D. 

      Movement of sperm in the female genital tract

  • 16. 
    All of the following can be considered male secondary sex characteristics except the ________.
    • A. 

      Increasing mass of the skeleton

    • B. 

      Development of testes as opposed to ovaries

    • C. 

      Development of body hair

    • D. 

      Lowering of the voice

  • 17. 
    In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ________.
    • A. 

      Identical

    • B. 

      Dizygotic

    • C. 

      Fraternal

    • D. 

      Of different sexes

  • 18. 
    Characteristics of the mature sperm include the ________.
    • A. 

      Absence of an acrosome

    • B. 

      Presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm

    • C. 

      Absence of coiled mitochondria

    • D. 

      Presence of two X chromosomes in approximately half the sperm

  • 19. 
    How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth?
    • A. 

      They move away from the pelvic cavity.

    • B. 

      They move close to the pelvic cavity.

    • C. 

      Excessive warmth has no effect on the testicles because of their location in the scrotum.

    • D. 

      Excessive warmth is actually beneficial in that it speeds up the maturation of sperm.

  • 20. 
    Effects of estrogen include ________.
    • A. 

      Deepening of the voice

    • B. 

      Growth of the larynx

    • C. 

      Increased oiliness of the skin

    • D. 

      Growth of the breasts at puberty

  • 21. 
    Secretion of progesterone stimulates ________.
    • A. 

      Secretory activity of the uterine myometrium

    • B. 

      Development of the female secondary sex characteristics

    • C. 

      Preparation of the mammary glands for lactation

    • D. 

      Contraction of uterine muscles

  • 22. 
    Which of the following statements about sperm is not true?
    • A. 

      The sperm midpiece consists of mitochondria spiraled tightly around the contractile filaments of the tail.

    • B. 

      The acrosome is produced by the Golgi apparatus and contains hydrolytic enzymes.

    • C. 

      They are sluggish in an alkaline environment.

    • D. 

      They contain very little cytoplasm or stored nutrients.

  • 23. 
    The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.
    • A. 

      Spermatogonia

    • B. 

      Interstitial cells

    • C. 

      Spermatocytes

    • D. 

      Sustentacular cells

  • 24. 
    The testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the ________.
    • A. 

      Interstitial cells

    • B. 

      Sustentacular cells

    • C. 

      Spermatocytes

    • D. 

      Spermatogonia

  • 25. 
    Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?
    • A. 

      Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced.

    • B. 

      Male sex hormones will not be circulated in the body.

    • C. 

      Sperm will have no means of exit from the body.

    • D. 

      Inadequate blood supply will retard the development of the testes.

  • 26. 
    Erection of the penis results from ________.
    • A. 

      A sympathetic reflex

    • B. 

      A parasympathetic reflex

    • C. 

      Parasympathetic activation of the bulbourethral glands

    • D. 

      Dilation of the veins in the penis

  • 27. 
    Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?
    • A. 

      Corpus luteum

    • B. 

      Development of endometrial cells

    • C. 

      Vesicular follicle growth

    • D. 

      Late in this phase, cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline

  • 28. 
    Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina?
    • A. 

      Receives semen from the penis during sexual intercourse

    • B. 

      Serves as a passageway for menstrual flow

    • C. 

      Is the birth canal

    • D. 

      Serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte

  • 29. 
    Select the correct statement about male sexual response.
    • A. 

      Expansion of the penile tissues results in dilation of the venous outflow.

    • B. 

      Sympathetic impulses are responsible for causing penile arteriolar dilation, resulting in erection.

    • C. 

      Ejaculation is the result of parasympathetic stimulation.

    • D. 

      Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood.

  • 30. 
    Which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone?
    • A. 

      Stimulates mammary gland development

    • B. 

      Stimulates protein synthesis

    • C. 

      Contributes to male sexual behavior and spermatogenesis

    • D. 

      Stimulates the male pattern of development

  • 31. 
    Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH?
    • A. 

      Inhibin

    • B. 

      Testosterone

    • C. 

      ACTH

    • D. 

      ICSH

  • 32. 
    During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.
    • A. 

      The Graafian follicle forms

    • B. 

      Estrogen reaches its highest levels

    • C. 

      Progesterone levels are at their highest

    • D. 

      LH reaches its highest levels

  • 33. 
    Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.
    • A. 

      If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.

    • B. 

      During the secretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest.

    • C. 

      During the proliferative phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone.

    • D. 

      The menstrual phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 8.

  • 34. 
    Which of the choices below is not a part of the brain-testicular axis?
    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Testes

    • C. 

      Thalamus

    • D. 

      Anterior pituitary gland

  • 35. 
    Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?
    • A. 

      The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.

    • B. 

      The only time hormones target breast tissue is during pregnancy and lactation.

    • C. 

      All lumps identified in breast tissue are malignant.

    • D. 

      Both sexes are equally prone to breast cancer.

  • 36. 
    Normally menstruation occurs when ________.
    • A. 

      The corpus luteum secretes estrogen

    • B. 

      Blood levels of FSH fall off

    • C. 

      Blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

    • D. 

      Blood levels of estrogen and progesterone increase

  • 37. 
    The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________.
    • A. 

      The mature ovum is n, while the sperm is 2n

    • B. 

      In oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell

    • C. 

      Spermatogenesis involves mitosis and meiosis, but oogenesis involves meiosis only

    • D. 

      During spermatogenesis two more polar bodies are produced

  • 38. 
    Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise?
    • A. 

      There were originally four polar bodies and one disappeared.

    • B. 

      One is an undeveloped primary oocyte that failed to mature.

    • C. 

      What you really see are two polar bodies and the sperm that will fertilize the egg.

    • D. 

      The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies.

  • 39. 
    Which of the following will occur after ovulation?
    • A. 

      The corpus luteum prepares to become a corpus albicans.

    • B. 

      The endometrium enters its secretory phase.

    • C. 

      The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is enhanced.

    • D. 

      The corpus luteum secretes estrogen only.

  • 40. 
    Why doesn’t semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation?
    • A. 

      There is no common duct between the reproductive system and the urinary system.

    • B. 

      The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes.

    • C. 

      There is no urge to urinate during sexual intercourse because of the suppression of LH by testosterone buildup in the blood.

    • D. 

      Ejaculation is a parasympathetic reflex resulting in no response by urinary contraction muscles.

  • 41. 
    Spermatogenesis ________.
    • A. 

      Involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes

    • B. 

      Results in the formation of diploid cells

    • C. 

      Uses mitosis to produce gamete cells

    • D. 

      Is the process of releasing mature sperm cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule

  • 42. 
    Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?
    • A. 

      Estrogen

    • B. 

      FSH

    • C. 

      LH

    • D. 

      Progesterone

  • 43. 
    The brain-testicular axis ________.
    • A. 

      Involves posterior pituitary release of regulating hormones

    • B. 

      Involves FSH and LH release

    • C. 

      Involves a positive feedback loop control of spermatogenesis

    • D. 

      Is the tight relationship between the cortex and the control of testicular function

  • 44. 
    Select the correct statement about testosterone control.
    • A. 

      The pineal gland is believed to be the gland that exerts the most influence in testosterone control.

    • B. 

      GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.

    • C. 

      FSH stimulates testicular production of testosterone.

    • D. 

      Inhibin and testosterone exert positive feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary.

  • 45. 
    Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?
    • A. 

      The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary.

    • B. 

      The isthmus is the normal site of fertilization.

    • C. 

      The mesometrium supports the uterine tubes along their entire length.

    • D. 

      The ampulla is the narrow constricted region.

  • 46. 
    Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.
    • A. 

      Rising levels of estrogen start follicle development.

    • B. 

      The follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation.

    • C. 

      High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.

    • D. 

      The LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte.

  • 47. 
    Which of these statements about sexually transmitted infections is false?
    • A. 

      Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated.

    • B. 

      Genital herpes is caused by a virus that may cause intermittent lesions.

    • C. 

      Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium that can bring on painful discharges in males.

    • D. 

      Chlamydia is caused by bacteria that can often be asymptomatic or bring on a wide variety of symptoms.

  • 48. 
    Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true?
    • A. 

      The spermatogonium forms the primary spermatocyte.

    • B. 

      The secondary spermatocytes each form two spermatids.

    • C. 

      The primary spermatocyte forms two secondary spermatocytes.

    • D. 

      Each spermatid forms two sperm.

  • 49. 
    A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________.
    • A. 

      Have impaired function of interstitial cells

    • B. 

      Be sterile

    • C. 

      Be impotent (unable to have an erection)

    • D. 

      Not develop secondary sex characteristics

  • 50. 
    Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?
    • A. 

      Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses.

    • B. 

      Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.

    • C. 

      Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube.

    • D. 

      The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones.

  • 51. 
    A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.
    • A. 

      Increased spermatogenesis

    • B. 

      Excessive beard growth

    • C. 

      Decreased testosterone secretion

    • D. 

      Shrinkage of the anterior pituitary gland

  • 52. 
    All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________.
    • A. 

      The corpus luteum is formed from the ruptured follicle after ovulation

    • B. 

      A decrease in the levels of ovarian hormones signals menstruation

    • C. 

      FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium

    • D. 

      Estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle

  • 53. 
    Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?
    • A. 

      Maximal steroid secretion by the corpus luteum and menstruation

    • B. 

      Regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion

    • C. 

      Maximal LH secretion and menstruation

    • D. 

      Early follicular development and the secretory phase in the uterus

  • 54. 
    The duct system of the male reproductive system includes the ________.
    • A. 

      Ductus deferens

    • B. 

      Corpus spongiosum

    • C. 

      Epididymis

    • D. 

      Urethra

  • 55. 
    An ovulating oocyte is actually activated by hormones about ________ days before ovulation.
    • A. 

      28

    • B. 

      14

    • C. 

      85

    • D. 

      110

  • 56. 
    Prostate cancer is _______.
    • A. 

      The number-one cause of death in men

    • B. 

      Sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient

    • C. 

      Often the result of a distortion of the urethra

    • D. 

      Most common in Asians