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Chapter 26

45 Questions
Book Quizzes & Trivia

Once again, some questions that will be on the exam. =]

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Macronutrients include
    • A. 

      Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, but no water

    • B. 

      Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water.

    • C. 

      Sodium, potassium,calcium, chloride, and phosphorus

    • D. 

      Nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

    • E. 

      Sodium, potassium, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

  • 2. 
    Most carbohydrates in the body are found in
    • A. 

      Adipose tissue

    • B. 

      Blood

    • C. 

      Pancreas

    • D. 

      Muscular tissue

    • E. 

      Liver

  • 3. 
    Lipid functions include all of the following except
    • A. 

      Forming myelin around nerve fibers

    • B. 

      Forming of the skeletal muscle fibers

    • C. 

      Plasma membrane structure

    • D. 

      Cushioning around soft organs

    • E. 

      Chemical structure of hormones

  • 4. 
                      constitutes the so-called "bad cholesterol."
    • A. 

      Low-density lipoproteins

    • B. 

      Triglycerides

    • C. 

      High-density lipoproteins

    • D. 

      Chylomicrons

    • E. 

      Very-low-density lipoproteins

  • 5. 
    Which is the healthiest ratio?
    • A. 

      High SFA : low HDL

    • B. 

      High LDL : low HDL

    • C. 

      High HDL : low LDL

    • D. 

      High chylomicron : low LDL

    • E. 

      High LDL : low chylomicron

  • 6. 
    Carbohydrates function as structural components of other molecules including all of the following except
    • A. 

      Nucleic acids

    • B. 

      Glycolipids

    • C. 

      Glycoproteins

    • D. 

      Amino acids

    • E. 

      ATP

  • 7. 
               yield about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, whereas                yield about 9kcal/g
    • A. 

      Carbohydrates and fats; proteins

    • B. 

      Proteins and carbohydrates; fats

    • C. 

      Fats; carbohydrates and proteins

    • D. 

      Proteins; fats and carbohydrates

    • E. 

      Carbohydrates;fats and proteins

  • 8. 
    HDL comes from
    • A. 

      The pancreas

    • B. 

      The diet

    • C. 

      The liver

    • D. 

      The small intestines

    • E. 

      The gallbladder

  • 9. 
    Most protein in the body is found in
    • A. 

      The muscular system

    • B. 

      The skeletal system

    • C. 

      The lymphatic system

    • D. 

      The integumentary system

    • E. 

      The cardiovascular system

  • 10. 
    High-quality               proteins are those that provide all the essential amino acids
    • A. 

      Incomplete

    • B. 

      Net

    • C. 

      Fibrous

    • D. 

      Complete

    • E. 

      Globular

  • 11. 
    Proteins are associated with all these functions except
    • A. 

      Enzymatic reactions

    • B. 

      Serving as cofactors for enzymes

    • C. 

      Transport of blood lipids

    • D. 

      Muscle contraction

    • E. 

      Blood viscosity and osmolarity

  • 12. 
    Minerals are                 , whereas vitamins are                 .
    • A. 

      Micronutrients; macronutrients

    • B. 

      Inorganic elements; organic compounds

    • C. 

      Water-soluble elements; lipid-soluble compunds

    • D. 

      Incomplete nutrients; complete nutrients

    • E. 

      Inessential nutrients; essential nutrients

  • 13. 
    Which of the following would you expect to be in a state of negative nitrogen?
    • A. 

      Patients with muscle atrophy

    • B. 

      Growing children

    • C. 

      Weightlifters

    • D. 

      Body builders

    • E. 

      Pregnant women

  • 14. 
    Vitamin                        deficiency is the most common worldwide.
    • A. 

      D(calcitroil)

    • B. 

      C(ascorbic acid)

    • C. 

      E (a- tocopherol)

    • D. 

      A (retinol)

    • E. 

      B6 (pyridoxine)

  • 15. 
    • A. 

      Pyruvic acid

    • B. 

      Lactic acid

    • C. 

      Acetyl-CoA

    • D. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • E. 

      Glucose

  • 16. 
    Oxygen
    • A. 

      Transports electrons to the mitochondrion.

    • B. 

      Is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration

    • C. 

      Directly transfers electrons and protons to NAD+ and FAD

    • D. 

      Directly receives electrons and protons from NAD+ and FAD

    • E. 

      Is the only substrate of aerobic respiration.

  • 17. 
    The synthese of glucose from amino acids belongs to a metabolic process called
    • A. 

      Gluconeogenesis

    • B. 

      Glycolysis

    • C. 

      Glycogen catabolism

    • D. 

      Glycogenolysis

    • E. 

      Glycogenesis

  • 18. 
                is a product of aerobic respiration.
    • A. 

      Lactic acid

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Oxygen

    • D. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • E. 

      Pyruvic acid

  • 19. 
    Most body 's fat is stored in
    • A. 

      HDL

    • B. 

      Cholesterol

    • C. 

      Triglycerides

    • D. 

      LDL

    • E. 

      Fatty acids

  • 20. 
    Which of the following compounds yields the most ATP per molecule?
    • A. 

      Glycogen

    • B. 

      Lactic acid

    • C. 

      Acetyl-CoA

    • D. 

      Pyruvic acid

    • E. 

      Glucose

  • 21. 
    Glycolysis and aerobic respiration collectively produce up to ____________ ATP per glucose, whereas anaerobic fermentation produces _______________.
    • A. 

      38; none

    • B. 

      38; 2

    • C. 

      2; about the same, varying from one tissue to another

    • D. 

      38; about the same, varying from one tissue to another

    • E. 

      38; 36

  • 22. 
    Most of the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis is produced by
    • A. 

      Anaerobic fermentation.

    • B. 

      Glycolysis.

    • C. 

      The citric acid cycle.

    • D. 

      Electron transfer from FADH2.

    • E. 

      The mitochondrial proton pumps.

  • 23. 
    Fatty acids are catabolized by a process called
    • A. 

      Ketogenesis

    • B. 

      Beta oxidation.

    • C. 

      Lipogenesis

    • D. 

      The fat-sparing effect.

    • E. 

      Lipolysis.

  • 24. 
    What metabolic process produces ammonia?
    • A. 

      Beta oxidation of α-ketoglutaric acid

    • B. 

      Lipolysis

    • C. 

      Transamination of urea

    • D. 

      Deamination of glutamic acid

    • E. 

      Amination of keto acids

  • 25. 
    Oxidation of a typical fatty acid can yield
    • A. 

      129 ATP.

    • B. 

      38 ATP

    • C. 

      2 ATP

    • D. 

      36 ATP

    • E. 

      18 ATP

  • 26. 
    Incomplete fatty acid oxidation produces ____________, which might lead to ____________.
    • A. 

      Pyruvic acid; acidosis

    • B. 

      Triglycerides; new triglycerides

    • C. 

      Ketone bodies; acidosis

    • D. 

      Acetyl-CoA; acidosis

    • E. 

      Glycerol; alkalosis

  • 27. 
    • A. 

      Synthesize

    • B. 

      Aminate

    • C. 

      Transaminate

    • D. 

      Deaminate

    • E. 

      Digest

  • 28. 
     The highest rate of tissue protein turnover happens in the
    • A. 

      Hepatic sinusoids.

    • B. 

      Gastric mucosa.

    • C. 

      Splenic sinusoids.

    • D. 

      Intestinal mucosa.

    • E. 

      Pancreatic islets.

  • 29. 
    The liver does not
    • A. 

      Convert ammonia to urea.

    • B. 

      Produce insulin and glucagon.

    • C. 

      Carry out most beta oxidation.

    • D. 

      Synthesize cholesterol.

    • E. 

      Synthesize glucose from fats and amino acids.

  • 30. 
    The liver performs all of the following functions except
    • A. 

      Secretion of digestive enzymes.

    • B. 

      Glycogenesis.

    • C. 

      Detoxification.

    • D. 

      Phagocytosis.

    • E. 

      Synthesis of plasma proteins

  • 31. 
    During the postabsorptive state
    • A. 

      Blood glucose rises

    • B. 

      Lipids are stored in adipose tissue.

    • C. 

      Glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis.

    • D. 

      Protein synthesis is active.

    • E. 

      Glucose is stored by glycogenesis.

  • 32. 
    People on weight-loss diets often lose weight quickly at first, but then more slowly. This is for all the following reasons except
    • A. 

      The initial weight loss is mostly fat.

    • B. 

      Water is lost quickly but other weight is harder to lose.

    • C. 

      Will power often weakens as the diet progresses.

    • D. 

      The body lowers its metabolic rate when it loses weight.

    • E. 

      As a diet progresses, the body produces more fat even with the same caloric intake.

  • 33. 
    During the absorptive state
    • A. 

      Lipolysis is active.

    • B. 

      Fatty acids are oxidized for fuel.

    • C. 

      Gluconeogenesis is suppressed.

    • D. 

      Lipolysis is active.

    • E. 

      Blood glucose falls.

  • 34. 
    He basal metabolic rate should be measured when a person
    • A. 

      Is engaged in normal physical activity but not strenuous exercise.

    • B. 

      Is in the absorptive state.

    • C. 

      Has just eaten a meal of no more than 2000 kcal.

    • D. 

      First rises in the morning.

    • E. 

      Is sleeping.

  • 35. 
    ___________ is secreted during the postabsorptive state.
    • A. 

      Gastrin

    • B. 

      Insulin

    • C. 

      Growth hormone

    • D. 

      Cholecystokinin (CCK)

    • E. 

      Secretin

  • 36. 
     _____________ does not raise total metabolic rate (TMR).
    • A. 

      Starvation

    • B. 

      Anxiety

    • C. 

      Fever

    • D. 

      Eating a big meal

    • E. 

      Pregnancy

  • 37. 
    Fats should account for about               percent of the daily caloric intake.
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      10

    • C. 

      30

    • D. 

      50

    • E. 

      60

  • 38. 
    Glycogenesis is stimulated by ____________, and glycogenolysis is stimulated by ____________.
    • A. 

      Insulin; glucagon and epinephrine

    • B. 

      Insulin; aldosterone

    • C. 

      Growth hormone; glucagon and epinephrine

    • D. 

      Growth hormone; cortisol

    • E. 

      Growth hormone; insulin

  • 39. 
    Only approximately _____________% of the energy in the glucose molecule winds up in ATP, the rest is lost as body heat.
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      20

    • C. 

      40

    • D. 

      80

    • E. 

      90

  • 40. 
    During periods of fasting, fat is said to have a protein-sparing effect because the body
    • A. 

      Oxidizes its spare protein before it depletes its fat reserves.

    • B. 

      Metabolizes fats and proteins through the same metabolic pathways.

    • C. 

      Must have an adequate protein intake in order to absorb and metabolize fats.

    • D. 

      Does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first.

    • E. 

      Does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first

  • 41. 
    A nude body at a room temperature of 21°C (70°F) loses most of its heat by
    • A. 

      Evaporation

    • B. 

      Conduction

    • C. 

      Convection

    • D. 

      Radiation

    • E. 

      Forced convection

  • 42. 
    The loss of body heat by conduction can be enhanced by
    • A. 

      Convection

    • B. 

      Evaporation

    • C. 

      Nonshivering thermogenesis

    • D. 

      Shivering thermogenesis

    • E. 

      Radiation

  • 43. 
     The quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate heat loss is
    • A. 

      Convection

    • B. 

      Cutaneous vasoconstriction

    • C. 

      Nonshivering thermogensis

    • D. 

      Cutaneous vasodilation

    • E. 

      Diaphoresis

  • 44. 
    Shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of
    • A. 

      Radiation.

    • B. 

      Conduction.

    • C. 

      ATP hydrolysis.

    • D. 

      Vasodilation.

    • E. 

      Glycolysis

  • 45. 
    Heat exhaustion results from
    • A. 

      Extreme electrolyte loss in the sweat.

    • B. 

      Denaturation of proteins in the brain tissue.

    • C. 

      Excessive heat loss from the body.

    • D. 

      A high rate of conduction and convection.

    • E. 

      A high humidity that retards evaporative cooling.

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