Latin America had no economic relationship with the West.
During the century of imperialism, Latin America cast off previous colonial controls through revolution.
Unlike other regions, Latin America had no previous political relationship to the West.
The ideals of the Enlightenment had little or no impact on Latin America.
It achieved rapid industrialization through the use of capital from the United States.
Belief in "progress"
Belief in reform
Belief in absolute monarchy
Belief in private property
Belief in democratic ideals
Independence movement in Portugal
English Civil War
Father Miguel de Hidalgo.
The Creole elite
It served as a model for national independence movements throughout South and Central America.
It demonstrated the power of Creole elites in leading revolutionary movements.
It led immediately to a general abolition of slavery throughout Latin America.
Creole elites viewed it with horror as an example of general social upheaval.
It led to freedom for slaves in Latin America and the United States.
The forced abdication of the royal family of Spain during the Napoleonic wars
The conquest of the Mughal empire by the Portuguese
Spain's loss of colonial territories to the British during the War of Jenkin's Ear
The Seven Years War and is aftermath
Beheading of Louis XVI during the French Revolution
Father Miguel de Hidalgo
Manuel de Rosas
Jose Maria Morelos
Manuel de Rosas
Maximilian of Hapsburg
Northern South America.
Manuel de Rosas.
José de San Martín.
Portugal was allied with the French emperor.
The French attempted to invade Portugal, but failed.
The entire royal family fled from the French to Brazil and established their capital there.
Following the defeat of the Portuguese, the French took over the colonial administration of Brazil.
The Portuguese were assisted by Britain unlike the Spanish.
Through a rebellion led by the Creole elite
Through a slave rebellion on the model of Haiti
Because the French freed the colony unilaterally
Pedro, the prince regent of Brazil, declared independence
By an act of the Portuguese parliament
Brazil was a monarchy rather than a republic.
It was the only government that immediately abolished slavery.
It was ruled by the popular majority of former slaves and people of mixed race.
It was the only republican form of government established in Latin America.
It abolished all forms of racial discrimination.
While most leaders sought to maintain Catholicism as the official religion of the new states, some sought to end the exclusion of other faiths.
Roman Catholicism had been the only state religion during the colonial period, and its status as the only permitted religion remained unchallenged after independence.
The onset of independence was accompanied by a general trend away from Catholicism toward Protestant religions.
The defense of the Roman Catholic church became a rallying cry for Latin American Liberals.
As Spanish power declined, so did the power of the Roman Catholic church.
Southern United States
Most of Latin America was divided up into consolidated units that mirrored the colonial vice royalties.
The excellent colonial road system enabled the creation of larger states after independence.
Permanent consolidation and union was more typical of Central America and southern South America than elsewhere.
Most attempts at consolidation and union had failed.
Traditional tribal boundaries formed the basis for new nation-states.
Fiscal and commercial policies set by regional governments
Recognition of the political rights of Indians and mestizos
Strong national governments with broad powers
Multi-party parliamentary governments
Rights of individuals
Secular society modeled on the United States
The retention of colonial governors and viceroys
Development of commerce
Literacy and education
Their distrust for Roman Catholicism
Their acceptance of federalist political theory
Their endorsement of centralist political theory
The social origins of their leadership
Their beliefs about economic systems
Articles of Confederation.
Father Miguel de Hidalgo
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Slow recovery of the mining sector after wars of independence
Lack of a transportation network and port facilities
Lack of capital for investment in industry
Absence of foreign markets for raw materials
A rural and industrial unskilled labor force
Bird dung or guano.
They represented a new generation of politicians who had matured after independence
They favored expansion of the franchise to Indians and mestizos who represented the "ancient" aspects of Latin American civilization
Their inspiration was England, France, and the United States
They were firm believers in progress, education, and free competition within a secular society
They were intellectual heirs of the European Enlightenment.
The inevitability of a democratic republic in Mexico.
The economic dominance of Britain in Latin America.
The imposition of French government in Mexico during the reign of Napoleon III.
The belief that the United States was destined to rule the North American continent from coast to coast.
The domination by Spanish colonists of the native peoples of the Americas.
The Rio Grande.
General Antonio López de Santa Ana.
Adopted the federalist program of a weak central government and local autonomy.
Overthrew the dominance of Buenos Aires province.
Undertook a program of education and economic training among the Indians.
Introduced a democratic regime that recognized political diversity without violence.
Reintroduced Spanish culture and political institutions.
Following independence, women gained little ground and there was virtually no change in the attitudes toward women's proper role in society.
Because of their participation in the independence movement, women were rewarded in post-revolutionary Latin America with voting rights and access to political office.
Because women in general failed to support the revolutionary movements, they were not included in the massive reforms that followed independence.
The status of women actually declined after independence, as they were cut off from areas such as public education that had been available to them in colonial Latin America.
Women enthusiastically demonstrated for greater political and social rights.
Development was a matter of increasing per capita production in any society.
The more industrialized and urbanized any society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned.
Change would take place through radical or revolutionary transitions rather than gradually.
As the process occurred, there would be a natural movement toward more democratic forms of government and popular participation.
Education was the key factor in any modernization program.
The collapse of worldwide demand for raw materials led to a stagnation and then a contraction of economies throughout Latin America.
Latin America experienced a spurt of economic growth fueled by the increasing demand for raw materials, foodstuffs, and tropical crops.
Although the demand in industrialized countries for raw materials fell off, the slump in exports was more than overcome by a dramatic surge in industrial production and export.
The period was marked by increasing government control of all facets of production and increasing tariffs placed on commercial exports.
Continued production of silver kept Latin America prosperous with the discovery of new deposits in Brazil.
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Maximilian von Habsburg
The centralist government became increasingly repressive and actually reduced the number of eligible voters.
The immigration of European laborers led to an increasingly radical work force and the development of a Socialist Party by the 1890s.
Unlike other regions of Latin America, Argentina experienced an economic depression that led to rapid turnover within the government and political instability.
Rio de Janeiro held over 2 million inhabitants, or about a quarter of Argentina's total population.
Economic difficulties led to a conservative coup that overthrew the government.
Under Díaz, reforms were undertaken that finally began to resolve the inequity of land distribution in Mexico.
Labor unrest and political instability decreased significantly by the beginning of the 20th century.
Díaz's strongly centralized government actively discouraged foreign investment in Mexican mining and transportation.
Under the guise of modernization, the forms of Liberal government were maintained but were subverted in order to keep Díaz in power.
All the people of Mexico benefited from the reforms of this era due to the growing economy.