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Chapter 25

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Chapter 25
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    In what way was Latin America different from other regions that remained outside the direct control of Western imperialism?
    • A. 

      Latin America had no economic relationship with the West.

    • B. 

      During the century of imperialism, Latin America cast off previous colonial controls through revolution.

    • C. 

      Unlike other regions, Latin America had no previous political relationship to the West.

    • D. 

      The ideals of the Enlightenment had little or no impact on Latin America.

    • E. 

      It achieved rapid industrialization through the use of capital from the United States.

  • 2. 
    In what century did most Latin American countries achieve their independence?
    • A. 

      16th

    • B. 

      17th

    • C. 

      18th

    • D. 

      19th

    • E. 

      20th

  • 3. 
    Which of the following was NOT one of the beliefs that Latin America shared with the West during the 19th century?
    • A. 

      Belief in "progress"

    • B. 

      Belief in reform

    • C. 

      Belief in absolute monarchy

    • D. 

      Belief in private property

    • E. 

      Belief in democratic ideals

  • 4. 
    Which of the following events was rejected by Creole elites as a model of revolution because of excessive radicalism?
    • A. 

      American Revolution

    • B. 

      French Revolution

    • C. 

      Independence movement in Portugal

    • D. 

      Napoleonic Wars

    • E. 

      English Civil War

  • 5. 
    The leader of the slave independence movement on the island of St. Domingue was
    • A. 

      Bernardino Rivadavia.

    • B. 

      Father Miguel de Hidalgo.

    • C. 

      Simon Bolívar.

    • D. 

      Toussaint L'Overture.

    • E. 

      Ferdinand DeLesseps

  • 6. 
    For whom in Latin America did the independence of Haiti serve as a symbol of freedom and hope?
    • A. 

      The Creole elite

    • B. 

      The Spanish

    • C. 

      The slaves

    • D. 

      Mestizos

    • E. 

      Mexico

  • 7. 
    What was the impact of the Haitian independence movement on Latin America?
    • A. 

      It served as a model for national independence movements throughout South and Central America.

    • B. 

      It demonstrated the power of Creole elites in leading revolutionary movements.

    • C. 

      It led immediately to a general abolition of slavery throughout Latin America.

    • D. 

      Creole elites viewed it with horror as an example of general social upheaval.

    • E. 

      It led to freedom for slaves in Latin America and the United States.

  • 8. 
    What event in 19th-century Europe precipitated the movements for independence in Latin America?
    • A. 

      The forced abdication of the royal family of Spain during the Napoleonic wars

    • B. 

      The conquest of the Mughal empire by the Portuguese

    • C. 

      Spain's loss of colonial territories to the British during the War of Jenkin's Ear

    • D. 

      The Seven Years War and is aftermath

    • E. 

      Beheading of Louis XVI during the French Revolution

  • 9. 
    Who initiated the movement for independence in Mexico by calling on the mestizos and Indians to rebel in 1810?
    • A. 

      Toussaint L'Overture

    • B. 

      Father Miguel de Hidalgo

    • C. 

      Simon Bolívar

    • D. 

      Manuel de Rosas

    • E. 

      Jose Maria Morelos

  • 10. 
    Who was proclaimed the first emperor of Mexico?
    • A. 

      Toussaint L'Overture

    • B. 

      Bernardino Rivadavia

    • C. 

      Manuel de Rosas

    • D. 

      Augustín Iturbide

    • E. 

      Maximilian of Hapsburg

  • 11. 
    Simon Bolívar was responsible for the independence movement in
    • A. 

      Argentina.

    • B. 

      Mexico.

    • C. 

      Northern South America.

    • D. 

      Guatemala.

    • E. 

      Panama.

  • 12. 
    The person responsible for the independence movements in Argentina and Chile was
    • A. 

      Manuel de Rosas.

    • B. 

      Bernardino Rivadavia.

    • C. 

      Simon Bolívar.

    • D. 

      José de San Martín.

    • E. 

      Giuseppe Garbaldi

  • 13. 
    By what date had all of Spanish South America gained its independence?
    • A. 

      1808

    • B. 

      1814

    • C. 

      1816

    • D. 

      1825

    • E. 

      1865

  • 14. 
    In what way was the experience of the Napoleonic wars different for Portugal than for Spain?
    • A. 

      Portugal was allied with the French emperor.

    • B. 

      The French attempted to invade Portugal, but failed.

    • C. 

      The entire royal family fled from the French to Brazil and established their capital there.

    • D. 

      Following the defeat of the Portuguese, the French took over the colonial administration of Brazil.

    • E. 

      The Portuguese were assisted by Britain unlike the Spanish.

  • 15. 
    How was Brazilian independence achieved?
    • A. 

      Through a rebellion led by the Creole elite

    • B. 

      Through a slave rebellion on the model of Haiti

    • C. 

      Because the French freed the colony unilaterally

    • D. 

      Pedro, the prince regent of Brazil, declared independence

    • E. 

      By an act of the Portuguese parliament

  • 16. 
    In what way was the government of independent Brazil different from those of the other newly created Latin American nations?
    • A. 

      Brazil was a monarchy rather than a republic.

    • B. 

      It was the only government that immediately abolished slavery.

    • C. 

      It was ruled by the popular majority of former slaves and people of mixed race.

    • D. 

      It was the only republican form of government established in Latin America.

    • E. 

      It abolished all forms of racial discrimination.

  • 17. 
    Which of the following statements is most accurate?
    • A. 

      While most leaders sought to maintain Catholicism as the official religion of the new states, some sought to end the exclusion of other faiths.

    • B. 

      Roman Catholicism had been the only state religion during the colonial period, and its status as the only permitted religion remained unchallenged after independence.

    • C. 

      The onset of independence was accompanied by a general trend away from Catholicism toward Protestant religions.

    • D. 

      The defense of the Roman Catholic church became a rallying cry for Latin American Liberals.

    • E. 

      As Spanish power declined, so did the power of the Roman Catholic church.

  • 18. 
    In which of the following areas did slavery NOT exist following 1854?
    • A. 

      Cuba

    • B. 

      Puerto Rico

    • C. 

      Mexico

    • D. 

      Brazil

    • E. 

      Southern United States

  • 19. 
    Which of the following states was not part of Gran Colombia?
    • A. 

      Paraguay

    • B. 

      Ecuador

    • C. 

      Venezuela

    • D. 

      Colombia

    • E. 

      Chile

  • 20. 
    Which of the following statements concerning the political organization of Latin America to 1850 is most accurate?
    • A. 

      Most of Latin America was divided up into consolidated units that mirrored the colonial vice royalties.

    • B. 

      The excellent colonial road system enabled the creation of larger states after independence.

    • C. 

      Permanent consolidation and union was more typical of Central America and southern South America than elsewhere.

    • D. 

      Most attempts at consolidation and union had failed.

    • E. 

      Traditional tribal boundaries formed the basis for new nation-states.

  • 21. 
    Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies and who sometimes seized the national government were called
    • A. 

      Rurales.

    • B. 

      Caudillos.

    • C. 

      Guano.

    • D. 

      Fazendas.

    • E. 

      Jefes.

  • 22. 
    Which of the following characteristics is most accurately associated with the "centralist" theory of government in Latin America?
    • A. 

      Fiscal and commercial policies set by regional governments

    • B. 

      Recognition of the political rights of Indians and mestizos

    • C. 

      Democracy

    • D. 

      Strong national governments with broad powers

    • E. 

      Multi-party parliamentary governments

  • 23. 
    Which of the following political principles would NOT be associated with Latin American Liberals?
    • A. 

      Rights of individuals

    • B. 

      Secular society modeled on the United States

    • C. 

      The retention of colonial governors and viceroys

    • D. 

      Development of commerce

    • E. 

      Literacy and education

  • 24. 
    In what way were both Liberal and Conservative parties in Latin America similar?
    • A. 

      Their distrust for Roman Catholicism

    • B. 

      Their acceptance of federalist political theory

    • C. 

      Their endorsement of centralist political theory

    • D. 

      The social origins of their leadership

    • E. 

      Their beliefs about economic systems

  • 25. 
    What European nation was the first to offer recognition of the newly independent nations of Latin America?
    • A. 

      Germany

    • B. 

      Britain

    • C. 

      Spain

    • D. 

      Portugal

    • E. 

      Russia

  • 26. 
    The United States expressed its attitude toward Latin American independence in 1823 with the issuance of the
    • A. 

      Articles of Confederation.

    • B. 

      Southwest Ordinance.

    • C. 

      Canning Treaty.

    • D. 

      Monroe Doctrine.

    • E. 

      Adams-Onis Treaty.

  • 27. 
    Between 1832 and 1854, who dominated Mexican politics?
    • A. 

      Father Miguel de Hidalgo

    • B. 

      Benito Juárez

    • C. 

      Antonio López de Santa Anna

    • D. 

      Bernardino Rivadavia

    • E. 

      Jose Vasconcelos

  • 28. 
    What nation replaced Spain prior to 1850 as the dominant economic force in Latin America?
    • A. 

      France

    • B. 

      United States

    • C. 

      Britain

    • D. 

      Germany

    • E. 

      Italy

  • 29. 
    Which of the following factors did NOT account for the economic stagnation in Latin America from 1820 to 1850?
    • A. 

      Slow recovery of the mining sector after wars of independence

    • B. 

      Lack of a transportation network and port facilities

    • C. 

      Lack of capital for investment in industry

    • D. 

      Absence of foreign markets for raw materials

    • E. 

      A rural and industrial unskilled labor force

  • 30. 
    Peru's primary export to Europe between 1850 and 1880 was
    • A. 

      Bird dung or guano.

    • B. 

      Mercury.

    • C. 

      Woolen cloth.

    • D. 

      Turtle eggs.

    • E. 

      Peat.

  • 31. 
    Many Liberal politicians in Latin America adopted the philosophy of Auguste Comte, a believer in
    • A. 

      Utilitarianism.

    • B. 

      Existentialism.

    • C. 

      Positivism.

    • D. 

      Progressivism.

    • E. 

      Pragmatism.

  • 32. 
    Which of the following descriptions of the politicians who led Liberal governments in post-1860 Latin America is NOT accurate?
    • A. 

      They represented a new generation of politicians who had matured after independence

    • B. 

      They favored expansion of the franchise to Indians and mestizos who represented the "ancient" aspects of Latin American civilization

    • C. 

      Their inspiration was England, France, and the United States

    • D. 

      They were firm believers in progress, education, and free competition within a secular society

    • E. 

      They were intellectual heirs of the European Enlightenment.

  • 33. 
    Which of the following nations intervened militarily in Mexican politics between 1862 and 1865?
    • A. 

      Germany

    • B. 

      United States

    • C. 

      Britain

    • D. 

      Spain

    • E. 

      France

  • 34. 
    "Manifest Destiny" referred to
    • A. 

      The inevitability of a democratic republic in Mexico.

    • B. 

      The economic dominance of Britain in Latin America.

    • C. 

      The imposition of French government in Mexico during the reign of Napoleon III.

    • D. 

      The belief that the United States was destined to rule the North American continent from coast to coast.

    • E. 

      The domination by Spanish colonists of the native peoples of the Americas.

  • 35. 
    The agreement following the Mexican-American War in which Mexico ceded about one half of its territory to the United States was the Treaty of
    • A. 

      San Antonio.

    • B. 

      Atchison-Juárez.

    • C. 

      Guadalupe-Hidalgo.

    • D. 

      The Rio Grande.

    • E. 

      Paris.

  • 36. 
    The leader of the Liberal rebellion in Mexico called La Reforma was
    • A. 

      Benito Juárez.

    • B. 

      Bernardino Rivadavia.

    • C. 

      Simon Bolívar.

    • D. 

      General Antonio López de Santa Ana.

    • E. 

      Porfirio Diaz.

  • 37. 
    Under Juan Manuel de Rosas, the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata
    • A. 

      Adopted the federalist program of a weak central government and local autonomy.

    • B. 

      Overthrew the dominance of Buenos Aires province.

    • C. 

      Undertook a program of education and economic training among the Indians.

    • D. 

      Introduced a democratic regime that recognized political diversity without violence.

    • E. 

      Reintroduced Spanish culture and political institutions.

  • 38. 
    What was the new export crop in Brazil that made up over 40 percent of Brazil's exports by 1840?
    • A. 

      Tea

    • B. 

      Sugar

    • C. 

      Cotton

    • D. 

      Coffee

    • E. 

      Silk

  • 39. 
    Following the 1830s, the literary and artistic style preferred in Latin America was
    • A. 

      Neo-classicism.

    • B. 

      Romanticism

    • C. 

      Existentialism

    • D. 

      Dadaism

    • E. 

      Impressionism

  • 40. 
    Which of the following statements concerning the status of women in post-independence Latin America is most accurate?
    • A. 

      Following independence, women gained little ground and there was virtually no change in the attitudes toward women's proper role in society.

    • B. 

      Because of their participation in the independence movement, women were rewarded in post-revolutionary Latin America with voting rights and access to political office.

    • C. 

      Because women in general failed to support the revolutionary movements, they were not included in the massive reforms that followed independence.

    • D. 

      The status of women actually declined after independence, as they were cut off from areas such as public education that had been available to them in colonial Latin America.

    • E. 

      Women enthusiastically demonstrated for greater political and social rights.

  • 41. 
    Which of the following beliefs is NOT associated with the concept of "modernization" or "Westernization?"
    • A. 

      Development was a matter of increasing per capita production in any society.

    • B. 

      The more industrialized and urbanized any society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned.

    • C. 

      Change would take place through radical or revolutionary transitions rather than gradually.

    • D. 

      As the process occurred, there would be a natural movement toward more democratic forms of government and popular participation.

    • E. 

      Education was the key factor in any modernization program.

  • 42. 
    The "dependency theory" of economic development is associated with what political group?
    • A. 

      Liberals

    • B. 

      Marxists

    • C. 

      Conservatives

    • D. 

      Monarchists

    • E. 

      Positivists

  • 43. 
    Which of the following statements most accurately describes the economy of Latin America in the period from 1880 to 1920?
    • A. 

      The collapse of worldwide demand for raw materials led to a stagnation and then a contraction of economies throughout Latin America.

    • B. 

      Latin America experienced a spurt of economic growth fueled by the increasing demand for raw materials, foodstuffs, and tropical crops.

    • C. 

      Although the demand in industrialized countries for raw materials fell off, the slump in exports was more than overcome by a dramatic surge in industrial production and export.

    • D. 

      The period was marked by increasing government control of all facets of production and increasing tariffs placed on commercial exports.

    • E. 

      Continued production of silver kept Latin America prosperous with the discovery of new deposits in Brazil.

  • 44. 
    Following Juárez's death in 1876, who succeeded as president and political leader of Mexico?
    • A. 

      Antonio López de Santa Anna

    • B. 

      Porfirio Díaz

    • C. 

      Bernardino Rivadavia

    • D. 

      Maximilian von Habsburg

    • E. 

      Juan Almonte

  • 45. 
    Which of the following statements concerning Argentina between 1880 and 1920 is most accurate?
    • A. 

      The centralist government became increasingly repressive and actually reduced the number of eligible voters.

    • B. 

      The immigration of European laborers led to an increasingly radical work force and the development of a Socialist Party by the 1890s.

    • C. 

      Unlike other regions of Latin America, Argentina experienced an economic depression that led to rapid turnover within the government and political instability.

    • D. 

      Rio de Janeiro held over 2 million inhabitants, or about a quarter of Argentina's total population.

    • E. 

      Economic difficulties led to a conservative coup that overthrew the government.

  • 46. 
    The Spanish-American War, which broke out in 1898, centered on
    • A. 

      Mexico.

    • B. 

      Brazil

    • C. 

      Cuba

    • D. 

      Haiti

    • E. 

      Vieques

  • 47. 
    In which country did the United States end its occupation in 1902?
    • A. 

      The Philippines

    • B. 

      Puerto Rico

    • C. 

      Hawaii

    • D. 

      Cuba

    • E. 

      Virgin Islands

  • 48. 
    Which of the following statements concerning the Díaz government in Mexico is most accurate?
    • A. 

      Under Díaz, reforms were undertaken that finally began to resolve the inequity of land distribution in Mexico.

    • B. 

      Labor unrest and political instability decreased significantly by the beginning of the 20th century.

    • C. 

      Díaz's strongly centralized government actively discouraged foreign investment in Mexican mining and transportation.

    • D. 

      Under the guise of modernization, the forms of Liberal government were maintained but were subverted in order to keep Díaz in power.

    • E. 

      All the people of Mexico benefited from the reforms of this era due to the growing economy.