Chapter 24

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Chapter 24

  
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  • 1. 
    The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.
    • A. 

      In the walls of the tract organs

    • B. 

      In the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen

    • C. 

      In the pons and medulla

    • D. 

      Only in the esophagus because this is the only part of the tract that needs to change to accommodate food passage


  • 2. 
    The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.
    • A. 

      Distribute hormones

    • B. 

      Collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

    • C. 

      Return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low

    • D. 

      Carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract


  • 3. 
    The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.
    • A. 

      Digestion

    • B. 

      Secretion

    • C. 

      Ingestion

    • D. 

      Absorption


  • 4. 
    When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
    • A. 

      Chemical digestion

    • B. 

      Absorption

    • C. 

      Mechanical digestion

    • D. 

      Secretion


  • 5. 
    The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
    • A. 

      Mucosal lining

    • B. 

      Mesenteries

    • C. 

      Serosal lining

    • D. 

      Lamina propria


  • 6. 
    From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
    • A. 

      Muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa

    • B. 

      Serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa

    • C. 

      Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

    • D. 

      Submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa


  • 7. 
    Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
    • A. 

      Replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells

    • B. 

      Thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus

    • C. 

      Tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells

    • D. 

      Rennin


  • 8. 
    What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?
    • A. 

      Crown

    • B. 

      Pulp

    • C. 

      Cementum

    • D. 

      Enamel


  • 9. 
    The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
    • A. 

      Lamina propria

    • B. 

      Muscularis mucosae

    • C. 

      Serosa

    • D. 

      Adventitia


  • 10. 
    Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
    • A. 

      Gastrin

    • B. 

      Gastric inhibitor peptide

    • C. 

      Cholecystokinin

    • D. 

      Secretin


  • 11. 
    Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
    • A. 

      Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

    • B. 

      Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion.

    • C. 

      Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs.

    • D. 

      Bile functions to emulsify fats.


  • 12. 
    The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
    • A. 

      Plicae circulares and intestinal villi

    • B. 

      The rugae

    • C. 

      Brunner's glands

    • D. 

      The vast array of digestive enzymes


  • 13. 
    Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.
    • A. 

      There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.

    • B. 

      There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent.

    • C. 

      There are 32 primary teeth, and most children lose these teeth due to decay because they are never very strong.

    • D. 

      There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months.


  • 14. 
    Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
    • A. 

      There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge.

    • B. 

      There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.

    • C. 

      The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth.

    • D. 

      The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth.


  • 15. 
    Which of the following is not true of saliva?
    • A. 

      Dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted

    • B. 

      Dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted

    • C. 

      Contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

    • D. 

      Moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus


  • 16. 
    The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
    • A. 

      Goblet cells and squamous epithelial cells

    • B. 

      Serous cells and mucous cells

    • C. 

      Cuboidal epithelium and ciliated columnar cells

    • D. 

      Parietal cells and glial cells


  • 17. 
    The solutes contained in saliva include ________.
    • A. 

      Only salts and minerals

    • B. 

      Mucin, lysozyme, electrolytes, salts, and minerals

    • C. 

      Only proteases and amylase

    • D. 

      Electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA


  • 18. 
    In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
    • A. 

      Initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

    • B. 

      Is the only place where fats are completely digested

    • C. 

      Is the first site where absorption takes place

    • D. 

      Is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place


  • 19. 
    Chyme is created in the ________.
    • A. 

      Esophagus

    • B. 

      Small intestine

    • C. 

      Mouth

    • D. 

      Stomach


  • 20. 
    Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
    • A. 

      Serous cells

    • B. 

      Parietal cells

    • C. 

      Mucous neck cells

    • D. 

      Chief cells


  • 21. 
    Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
    • A. 

      Parietal cells

    • B. 

      Zymogenic cells

    • C. 

      Mucous neck cells

    • D. 

      Enteroendocrine cells


  • 22. 
    There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
    • A. 

      Immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients

    • B. 

      At the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time

    • C. 

      When the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required

    • D. 

      Before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought


  • 23. 
    Peristaltic waves are ________.
    • A. 

      Segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract

    • B. 

      Waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

    • C. 

      Pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract

    • D. 

      Churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract


  • 24. 
    Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.
    • A. 

      Starches and complex carbohydrates

    • B. 

      Fatty acids

    • C. 

      Protein and peptide fragments

    • D. 

      Simple carbohydrates and alcohols


  • 25. 
    Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
    • A. 

      Goblet cells of the small intestine

    • B. 

      Chief cells of the stomach

    • C. 

      Parietal cells of the duodenum

    • D. 

      Brunner's glands


  • 26. 
    You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
    • A. 

      Cholecystokinin

    • B. 

      Trypsin

    • C. 

      Amylase

    • D. 

      Gastrin


  • 27. 
    The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.
    • A. 

      Hepatopancreatic ampulla

    • B. 

      Pancreatic acini

    • C. 

      Portal vein

    • D. 

      Bile canaliculus


  • 28. 
    The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.
    • A. 

      Hydrolysis

    • B. 

      Denatured

    • C. 

      Diffusion

    • D. 

      Active transport


  • 29. 
    Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
    • A. 

      Lipase

    • B. 

      Pepsin

    • C. 

      Rennin

    • D. 

      Cholecystokinin


  • 30. 
    Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.
    • A. 

      Hydrochloric acid

    • B. 

      Mucin

    • C. 

      Pepsinogen

    • D. 

      Rennin


  • 31. 
    Hepatocytes do not ________.
    • A. 

      Produce digestive enzymes

    • B. 

      Detoxify

    • C. 

      Store fat-soluble vitamins

    • D. 

      Process nutrients


  • 32. 
    Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
    • A. 

      Gastric

    • B. 

      Intestinal

    • C. 

      Cephalic

    • D. 

      Enterogastric


  • 33. 
    Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
    • A. 

      K

    • B. 

      A

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      B12


  • 34. 
    Chief cells ________.
    • A. 

      Produce HCl

    • B. 

      Are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands

    • C. 

      Produce mucin

    • D. 

      Occur in the intestine


  • 35. 
    Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
    • A. 

      Mastication

    • B. 

      Anabolism

    • C. 

      Catabolism

    • D. 

      Fermentation


  • 36. 
    The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.
    • A. 

      Spleen

    • B. 

      Pancreas

    • C. 

      Liver

    • D. 

      Stomach


  • 37. 
    If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.
    • A. 

      Serosa

    • B. 

      Submucosa

    • C. 

      Muscularis externa

    • D. 

      Mucosa


  • 38. 
    The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.
    • A. 

      Ileum

    • B. 

      Pyloric sphincter

    • C. 

      Jejunum

    • D. 

      Duodenum


  • 39. 
    The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
    • A. 

      Canine tooth

    • B. 

      Incisor tooth

    • C. 

      Premolar tooth

    • D. 

      Molar tooth


  • 40. 
    Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
    • A. 

      Carbohydrates

    • B. 

      Starches

    • C. 

      Proteins

    • D. 

      Lipids


  • 41. 
    ________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor.
    • A. 

      Iron

    • B. 

      Calcium

    • C. 

      Sodium

    • D. 

      Phosphorus


  • 42. 
    Important peritoneal folds do not include the ________.
    • A. 

      Omenta

    • B. 

      Mesentery

    • C. 

      Round ligament

    • D. 

      Peritoneum


  • 43. 
    The lamina propria is composed of ________.
    • A. 

      Dense irregular connective tissue

    • B. 

      Reticular connective tissue

    • C. 

      Loose connective tissue

    • D. 

      Dense regular connective tissue


  • 44. 
    ________ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion.
    • A. 

      Peptides

    • B. 

      Low acidity

    • C. 

      Distension

    • D. 

      Carbohydrates


  • 45. 
    Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________.
    • A. 

      Main pancreatic duct

    • B. 

      Hepatopancreatic ampulla

    • C. 

      Accessory pancreatic duct

    • D. 

      Cystic duct


  • 46. 
    The function of the goblet cells is to ________.
    • A. 

      Secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral

    • B. 

      Provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food

    • C. 

      Absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use

    • D. 

      Produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion


  • 47. 
    Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
    • A. 

      Produce gas

    • B. 

      Absorb bilirubin

    • C. 

      Synthesize vitamins C and D

    • D. 

      Synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins


  • 48. 
    Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
    • A. 

      The vagus nerve and enteric plexus

    • B. 

      Somatic neurons in the spinal cord

    • C. 

      The rubrospinal tracts

    • D. 

      The reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts


  • 49. 
    Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?
    • A. 

      Fungiform and circumvallate

    • B. 

      Fungiform, circumvallate, and filiform

    • C. 

      Circumvallate and filiform

    • D. 

      Palatine and circumvallate


  • 50. 
    Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
    • A. 

      Zymogenic cells

    • B. 

      Mucous neck cells

    • C. 

      Enteroendocrine cells

    • D. 

      Parietal cells


  • 51. 
    Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
    • A. 

      Amylase

    • B. 

      Trypsin

    • C. 

      Dextrinase

    • D. 

      Lipase


  • 52. 
    Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
    • A. 

      Nasal cavity

    • B. 

      Salivary glands

    • C. 

      Tongue

    • D. 

      Esophagus


  • 53. 
    A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
    • A. 

      Pancreatic juice

    • B. 

      Gastric juice

    • C. 

      Intestinal juice

    • D. 

      Bile


  • 54. 
    The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.
    • A. 

      Muscularis externa

    • B. 

      Submucosa

    • C. 

      Serosa

    • D. 

      Mucosa


  • 55. 
    Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.
    • A. 

      Exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli

    • B. 

      Is longer than the small intestine

    • C. 

      Has haustra

    • D. 

      Does not contain villi


  • 56. 
    What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
    • A. 

      HCl

    • B. 

      Gastric lipase

    • C. 

      Intrinsic factor

    • D. 

      Pepsinogen


  • 57. 
    How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
    • A. 

      Bulk flow

    • B. 

      Facilitated diffusion

    • C. 

      Simple diffusion

    • D. 

      Active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy


  • 58. 
    Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
    • A. 

      Gastric secretion is enhanced by very low pH (below a pH of 2).

    • B. 

      The presence of food in the stomach prevents hormonal control of gastric secretion.

    • C. 

      Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.

    • D. 

      Vagus stimulation of the stomach results in decreased secretion of gastric juice.


  • 59. 
    Paneth cells ________.
    • A. 

      Secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

    • B. 

      Are more common in the ileum than in the jejunum

    • C. 

      Are located next to the lacteal in a villus

    • D. 

      Are absorptive cells in the small intestine


  • 60. 
    Select the correct statement about digestive processes.
    • A. 

      Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.

    • B. 

      Pepsin is an enzyme produced by the stomach for the purpose of starch digestion.

    • C. 

      All commonly ingested substances are significantly absorbed by the mucosa of the stomach.

    • D. 

      Enterogastrone is a hormone that helps increase gastric motility.


  • 61. 
    Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.
    • A. 

      A significant amount of enzyme secretion by the intestinal mucosa

    • B. 

      Bile salts that help emulsify carbohydrates so that they can be easily digested by enzymatic action

    • C. 

      Cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

    • D. 

      Secretions from the spleen that contain all enzymes necessary for complete digestion


  • 62. 
    Select the correct statement about absorption.
    • A. 

      Amino acid transport is linked to chloride transport.

    • B. 

      Eighty percent of ingested materials have been absorbed by the end of the large intestine.

    • C. 

      If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.

    • D. 

      Carbohydrates diffuse across the villus epithelium and are then actively transported into blood capillaries.


  • 63. 
    Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.
    • A. 

      Potassium moves across the epithelium by active transport.

    • B. 

      If vitamin B is not present, calcium is not absorbed.

    • C. 

      Chlorine ion absorption is coupled to glucose and amino acid transport.

    • D. 

      Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.


  • 64. 
    You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?
    • A. 

      The parotid glands

    • B. 

      The buccal glands

    • C. 

      The pancreas

    • D. 

      The thyroid gland


  • 65. 
    The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
    • A. 

      Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.

    • B. 

      The acid secretions from the stomach would be sufficient to digest this food.

    • C. 

      Severe indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes.

    • D. 

      Severe indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes.


  • 66. 
    The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from ________.
    • A. 

      Ectoderm

    • B. 

      Mesoderm

    • C. 

      Pachyderm

    • D. 

      Endoderm


  • 67. 
    A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.
    • A. 

      Dysphagia

    • B. 

      Alkalosis

    • C. 

      Acidosis

    • D. 

      Ketosis


  • 68. 
    Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.
    • A. 

      Histamine

    • B. 

      Gastrin

    • C. 

      Secretin

    • D. 

      ACh


  • 69. 
    Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?
    • A. 

      Superior mesenteric artery

    • B. 

      Hepatic portal vein

    • C. 

      Celiac artery

    • D. 

      Inferior vena cava


  • 70. 
    Which of these is not a component of saliva?
    • A. 

      Lysozyme

    • B. 

      Nitric oxide

    • C. 

      A cyanide compound

    • D. 

      Defensins


  • 71. 
    There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.
    • A. 

      M

    • B. 

      D

    • C. 

      A

    • D. 

      E


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